- History of the Russian Orthodox Church
Foundation by St. Andrew
The Russian Orthodox Church is traditionally said to have been founded by the
Apostle Andrew, who is thought to have visited Scythiaand Greek colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea. According to one of the legends, St. Andrew reached the future location of Kievand foretoldthe foundation of a great Christian city. [cite web|url=http://www.chrysostom.org/firstcalled/life.html|title=Life of the Apostle Andrew|publisher=chrysostom.org|author=Damick, Andrew S.|accessdate=2007-07-12] [cite web|url=http://www.orthodox.clara.net/baptism_rus.htm|title=The Baptism of Russia and Its Significance for Today|publisher=orthodox.clara.net|author=Voronov, Theodore|date= 2001-10-13|accessdate=2007-07-12] The spot where he reportedly erected a cross is now marked by St. Andrew's Cathedral
Christianization of the Rus'
Constantinople's greatest mission outreach was to areas known as
Kievan Rusthat later became the states of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. Christianity was apparently introduced into Kievan Rus by Greek missionaries from Byzantium in the 9th century. In 863- 869, Saint Cyriland Saint Methodiustranslated parts of the Bibleinto Old Church Slavoniclanguage for the first time, paving the way for the Christianization of the Slavs. There is evidence that the first Christian bishop was sent to Novgorod from Constantinople either by Patriarch Photius or Patriarch Ignatios, circa 866- 867AD. [CathEncy|wstitle=The Religion of Russia]
By the mid-10th century, there was already a Christian community among Kievan nobility, under the leadership of Greek and Byzantine priests, although
paganismremained the dominant religion. Princess Olga of Kievwas the first ruler of Kievan Rus to convert to Christianity, either in 945or 957. Undoubtedly influenced by his Christian grandmother and by a proposed marriage alliance with the Byzantine imperial family, Olga's grandson Vladimir I (c. 956-1015) prince of Kiev, from among several options, chose the Byzantine rite. Baptized in 988, he led the Kievans to Christianity. This date is often considered the official birthday of the Russian Orthodox Church. Thus, in 1988, the Church celebrated its millennial anniversary.
The Kievan church was originally a
Metropolitanateof the Patriarchateof Constantinople and the Byzantine patriarch appointed the metropolitan who governed the Church of Rus'. The Metropolitan's residence was originally located in Kiev. As Kiev was losing its political, cultural, and economical significance due to the Mongol invasion, Metropolitan Maximus moved to Vladimirin 1299; his successors, Metropolitan Peterand Theognostus, moved the residence to Moscowby 1326.
Under Mongol rule
While Russia lay under Mongol rule from the 13th (
Genghis Khan's army entered Russia in 1220s) through the 15th century, the Russian church enjoyed a favoured position, obtaining immunity from taxation in 1270. This period saw a remarkable growth of monasticism. The Monastery of the Caves (Pecherska Lavra) in Kiev, founded in the mid-11th century by the ascetics St. Anthony and St. Theodosius, was superseded as the foremost religious centre by the Monastery of the Holy Trinity, which was founded in the mid-14th century by St. Sergius of Radonezh (in what is now the city of Sergiev Posad). Sergius, as well as the metropolitans St. Peter (1308-26) and St. Alexius (1354-78), supported the rising power of the principality of Moscow.
The fifteenth century
During the 15th century the Russian Church was pivotal in the survival and life of the Russian state. Such holy figures as Sergius of Radonezh and
Metropolitan Alexishelped the country to withstand years of Tataroppression, and to expand both economically and spiritually.
Council of Florence 1439, a group of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Church leaders agreed upon terms of reunification of the two branches of Christianity. The Russian Prince Basil II of Moscow, however, rejected the concessions to the Catholic Church and forbade the proclamation of the acts of the Council in Russia in 1452, after a short-lived East-West reunion. Metropolitan Isidore was in the same year expelled from his position as an apostate.
1448, the Russian Church became independent from the Patriarchate of Constantinople when the Russian bishops elected their own patriarch, Metropolitan Jonas, without recourse to Constantinople, and the Russian church was thenceforth autocephalous.
Metropolitan Jonas was given the title of
Metropolitan of Moscowand All Rus'. He also received the fifth rank in honour after the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. Five years later, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks. From this point onward the Russian Orthodox Church saw Moscow as the Third Rome, legitimate successor to Constantinople, and the Patriarch of Moscow as head of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Changes and reforms
The reign of
Ivan IIIand his successor was plagued by numerous heresies and controversies. One party, led by Nil Sorskyand Vassian Kosoy, called for secularisation of monastic properties. They were oppugned by the influential Joseph of Volotsk, who defended ecclesiastical ownership of land and property. The sovereign's position fluctuated, but eventually he threw his support to Joseph. New sects sprang up, some of which showed a tendency to revert to Mosaic law: for instance, the archpriestAleksei converted to Judaismafter meeting a certain Zechariah the Jew.
Monastic life flourished in Russia, focusing on prayer and spiritual growth. The disciples of St. Sergius left the
Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavrato found hundreds of monasteries across Russia. Some of the most famous monasteries were located in the Russian North, in order to demonstrate how faith could flourish in the most inhospitable lands. The richest landowners of medieval Russia included Joseph Volokolamsk Monastery, Kirillo-Belozersky Monasteryand the Solovetsky Monastery. In the 18th century, the three greatest monasteries were recognized as lavras, while those subordinated directly to the Synod were labelled stauropegic.
1540s, Metropolitan Macarius convened a number of church synods, which culminated in the Hundred Chapter Synod of 1551. This assembly unified Church ceremonies and duties in the whole territory of Russia. At the demand of the Church hierarchy the government canceled the tsar's jurisdiction over ecclesiastics.
Autocephaly and reorganization
The growing might of the Russian state contributed also to the growing authority of the Autocephalous Russian Church. In
1589, Metropolitan Job of Moscow became the first Patriarch of Moscow and All Rus'; making the Russian Church autocephalous. The other Eastern patriarchs have recognized the Moscow Patriarchate as one of the five honourable Patriarchates. During the next half a century, when the tsardom was weak, the patriarchs (notably Germogen and Philaret) would run the state along with (and sometimes instead of) the tsars.
The beginning of the 17th century proved to be a hard time for Russia. The Poles and Swedes invaded Russia from the west. At this time of trouble the Russian Church fulfilled its patriotic duty before the people with honor, as it did before. Patriarch Germogen (1606-1612), an ardent patriot of Russia who was to be tortured to death by the invaders, was the spiritual leaders of the mass levy led by Minin and Pozharsky. The heroic defense of Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra from the Swedes and Poles between 1608-1610 has been inscribed for ever in the chronicle of the Russian state and the Russian Church.
chism of the Old Believers
The main and tragic event in the 17th century was the great schism, the schism of the so-called
Old Believers, who seceded from the main Church in protest against ecclesiastical reforms of Patriarch Nikon. In the period after the invaders were driven away from Russia, the Russian Church was engaged in one of the most important of its internal tasks, namely, introducing corrections into its service books and rites. A great contribution to this was made by Patriarch Nikon, a bright personality and outstanding church reformer. Some clergymen and lay people did not understand and did not accept the liturgical reforms introduced by Patriarch Nikon and refused to obey the church authority. This was how the Old Believers' schism emerged.
Nikon, pursuing the ideal of a theocratic state, attempted to establish the primacy of the Orthodox church over the state in Russia, and he also undertook a thorough revision of Russian Orthodox texts and rituals to bring them into accord with the rest of Eastern Orthodoxy.
1652Nikon resolved to centralize power that had been distributed locally, while conforming Russian Orthodox rites and rituals to those of the Greek Orthodox Church. For instance he insisted that Russian Christians cross themselves with three fingers, rather than the then-traditional two. This aroused antipathy among a substantial section of the believers who saw the changed rites as heresy, although they had only a minor ritual significance. This group became known as the Old Ritual Believers or Old Believers, who rejected the teachings of the new patriarch. Tsar Aleksey (who was simultaneously centralizing political power) upheld Nikon's changes. During the so-called Raskol, the Old Ritual Believers were separated from the Orthodox Church. AvvakumPetrov, Boyarynya Morozovaand many other dissidents were burned at the stake, either forcibly or voluntarily.
Millions seceded from the official church and were strongly persecuted by the state. In order to escape persecution, they migrated to more remote areas of the realm and even abroad. Many went to
Siberiaand other inhospitable lands, where they would live in semi-seclusion until the modern times. The schism peaked in 1666 when Nikon was deposed but the Russian church retained his reforms and anathematized those who continued to oppose them. The Old Believers and formed a vigorous body of dissenters within the Russian Orthodox church for the next two centuries.
In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the Russian Orthodox Church experienced phenomenal geographic expansion. In 1684,
Moscow Patriarchaterequested Constantinople that the Metropolia of Kiev be made subordinate to Moscow but the request was declined. Fact|date=March 2007. Eventually, in 1686 after patriarch Parthenius IVwas succeeded by Dionysius IVit was agreed to subordinate the Metropolia of Kiev to Moscow. But just a year later in 1687 such subordination was denouncedFact|date=March 2007 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinopleand those in charge were defrocked because of the bribe.
In any case this brought millions of faithful and a half dozen dioceses under the pastoral and administrative care of the Russian Orthodox Patriarch. In the following two centuries, missionary efforts stretched out across Siberia into Alaska, then into the United States at California. Eminent people on that missionary effort included St. Innocent of
Irkutsk, St. Herman of Alaska, St. Innocent of Siberia and Alaska. They learned local languages and translated the gospels and the hymns. Sometimes those translations required the invention of new systems of transcription.
Reform and the Holy Synod
1700, following the death of Patriarch Adrian, Peter the Great prevented a successor from being named. In 1721, following the advice of Feofan Prokopovich, the patriarchate of Moscow was replaced with the Holy and Supreme Synod to govern the church instead of a single primate.
The Holy Governing Synod was modeled after the state-controlled synods of the Lutheran church in Sweden and Prussia and was tightly intertwined with the state. The chief procurator of the synod, a lay official who obtained ministerial rank in the first half of the 19th century, henceforth exercised effective control over the church's administration until 1917. This control, which was facilitated by the political subservience of most of the higher clergy, was especially marked during the procuratorship (1880-1905) of the archconservative K.P. Pobedonostsev.
The Synod remained the supreme church body in the Russian Church for almost two centuries. In the Synodal period of its history from 1721 to 1917, the Russian Church paid a special attention to the development of religious education and mission in provinces. Old churches were restored and new churches were built. The beginning of the 19th century was marked by the work of brilliant theologians. Russian theologians also did much to develop such sciences as history, linguistics and Oriental studies.
The 19th century saw the rise of "starchestvo" under
Paisiy Velichkovskyand his disciples at the Optina Monastery. This marked a beginning of a significant spiritual revival in the Russian Church after a lengthy period of westernization.
The fin-de-siècle religious renaissance
During the final decades of the imperial order in Russia many educated Russians sought to return to the Church and revitalize their faith. No less evident were non-conformist paths of spiritual searching known as
God-Seeking. Writers, artists, and intellectuals in large numbers were drawn to private prayer, mysticism, spiritualism, theosophy, and Eastern religions. A fascination with elemental feeling, with the unconscious and the mythic, proliferated along with visions of coming catastrophe and redemption. The visible forms of God-Seeking were extensive. A series of 'Religious-Philosophical Meetings' were held in St. Petersburgin 1901-1903, bringing together prominent intellectuals and clergy to explore together ways to reconcile the Church with the growing if undogmatic desire among the educated for spiritual meaning in life. Especially after 1905, various religious societies arose, though much of this religious upheaval was informal: circles and salons, séances, private prayer. Some clergy also sought to revitalize Orthodox faith, most famously the charismatic Father John of Kronstadt, who, until his death in 1908 (though his followers remained active long after), emphasized Christian living and sought to restore fervency and the presence of the miraculous in liturgical celebration. In 1909, a sensation-creating volume of essays appeared under the title " Vekhi" (Landmarks or Signposts), authored by a group of leading left-wing intellectuals, mostly former Marxists, who bluntly repudiated the materialism and atheism that had dominated the thought of the intelligentsia for generations as leading inevitably to failure and moral disaster. One sees a similarly renewed vigor and variety in religious life and spirituality among the lower classes, especially after the upheavals of 1905. Among the peasantry we see widespread interest in spiritual-ethical literature and non-conformist moral-spiritual movements; an upsurge in pilgrimage and other devotions to sacred spaces and objects (especially icons); persistent beliefs in the presence and power of the supernatural (apparitions, possession, walking-dead, demons, spirits, miracles, and magic); the renewed vitality of local "ecclesial communities" actively shaping their own ritual and spiritual lives, sometimes in the absence of clergy, and defining their own sacred places and forms of piety; and the proliferation of what the Orthodox establishment branded as 'sectarianism', including both non-Orthodox Christian denominations, notably Baptists, and various forms of deviant popular Orthodoxy and mysticism. [A. S. Pankratov, Ishchushchie boga (Moscow, 1911); Vera Shevzov, "Russian Orthodoxy on the Eve of Revolution" (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004); Gregory Freeze, 'Subversive Piety: Religion and the Political Crisis in Late Imperial Russia', "Journal of Modern History", vol. 68 (June 1996): 308-50; Mark Steinberg and Heather Coleman, eds. "Sacred Stories: Religion and Spirituality in Modern Russia" (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007)]
1914in Russia, there were 55,173 Russian Orthodox churchesand 29,593 chapels, 112,629 priestsand deacons, 550 monasteriesand 475 convents with a total of 95,259 monks and nuns.
1917was a major turning point for the history of Russia, and also the Russian Orthodox Church. The Russian empirewas dissolved and the Tsarist government - which had granted the Church numerous privileges - was overthrown. After a few months of political turmoil, the Bolsheviks took power in October 1917and declared a separation of church and state. Thus the Russian Orthodox Church found itself without official state backing for the first time in its history. One of the first decrees of the new Communist government (issued in January 1918) declared freedom of "religious and anti-religious propaganda". This led to a marked decline in the power and influence of the Church. The Church was also caught in the crossfire of the Russian Civil Warthat began later the same year, and many leaders of the Church supported what would ultimately turn out to be the losing side (the White movement).
The Russian Orthodox Church supported the
White Armyin the Russian Civil War(see White movement) after the October Revolution. This may have further strengthened the Bolshevik animus against the church. According to Lenin, a communist regime cannot remain neutral on the question of religion but must show itself to be merciless towards it. There was no place for the church in Lenin's classless society.
Even before the end of the civil war and the establishment of the
Soviet Union, the Russian Orthodox Church came under persecution of the secular Communistgovernment. The Soviet government stood on a platform of militant atheism, viewing the church as a "counter-revolutionary" organization and an independent voice with a great influence in society. While the Soviet Unionofficially claimed religious toleration, in practice the government discouraged organized religion and did everything possible to remove religious influence from Soviet society.
Under Communist rule
October Revolutionof November 7, 1917(October 25 Old Calendar) the officially proclaimed objective of the Soviet Unionwas to unite all of the people of the world in a communist state free of "capitalist exploitation" (see Communist International). In such a worldview any ethnic heritage closely tied to traditional religion and it's clergy was targeted by the Soviet authorities. [President of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag a Biography of Aleksandras Stulginskisby Afonsas Eidintas Genocide and Research Center of Lithuania ISBN 998675741X / 9789986757412 / 9986-757-41-X pg 23 "As early as August 1920 Leninwrote to E. M. Skliansky, President of the Revolutionary War Soviet: "We are surrounded by the greens (we pack it to them), we will move only about 10-20 versty and we will choke by hand the bourgeoisie, the clergy and the landowners. There will be an award of 100,000 rubles for each one hanged." He was speaking about the future actions in the countries neighboring Russia.] [Christ Is Calling You : A Course in Catacomb Pastorship by Father George CalciuPublished by Saint Hermans Press April 1997 ISBN-13: 978-1887904520 ]
The Soviets' official religious stance was one of "religious freedom or tolerance", though the state established atheism as the only scientific truth (see also the Soviet or committee of the All-Union Society for the Dissemination of Scientific and Political Knowledge or Znanie which was until 1947 called the The League of the Militant Godless). [History of the Orthodox Church in the History of Russian Dimitry Pospielovsky 1998 St Vladimir's Press ISBN 0-88141-179-5 pg 291] [A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Antireligious Policies, Dimitry Pospielovsky Palgrave Macmillan (December, 1987) ISBN 0-312-38132-8] [Daniel Peris Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless Cornell University Press 1998 ISBN 9780801434853 ] Criticism of atheism was strictly forbidden and sometimes lead to imprisonment. [Sermons to young people by Father George Calciu-Dumitreasa. Given at the Chapel of the Romanian Orthodox Church Seminary, The Word online. Bucharest http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/resources/sermons/calciu_christ_calling.htm]
The Soviet Union was the first state to have as an ideological objective the elimination of religion. Toward that end, the Communist regime confiscated church property, ridiculed religion, harassed believers, and propagated atheism in the schools. Actions toward particular religions, however, were determined by State interests, and most organized religions were never outlawed. The establishment of the
gulagswas an integral part of carrying out this objective as many Orthodox clergy and laymen were sent to camps like Svirlagand Solovki. It is estimated the some 20 million Christians (17 million Orthodox 3 million Roman catholic) died or where interned in gulags. [ [http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstatv.htm#Martyrs Twentieth Century Atlas - Historical Body Count p.2 ] ]
Some actions against Orthodox priests and believers along with
executionincluded torturebeing sent to these prison camps and orlabour camps or also mental hospitals. [ Father Arseny 1893-1973 Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father. Introduction pg. vi - 1. St Vladimir's Seminary Press ISBN 0-88141-180-9] [The Washingotn Post Anti-Communist Priest Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa By Patricia Sullivan Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, November 26, 2006; Page C09 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/25/AR2006112500783.html] Many Orthodox (along with peoples of other faiths) were also subjected to psychological punishmentor torture and mind controlexperimentation, in order to force them give up their religious convictions (see Piteşti prison). [http://litek.ws/k0nsl/detox/anti-humans.htm Dumitru Bacu, "The Anti-Humans. Student Re-Education in Romanian Prisons] ", Soldiers of the Cross, Englewood, Colorado, 1971. Originally written in Romanian as "Piteşti, Centru de Reeducare Studenţească", Madrid, 1963] [ Adrian Cioroianu, "Pe umerii lui Marx. O introducere în istoria comunismului românesc" ("On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism"), Editura Curtea Veche, Bucharest, 2005]
Thousands of churches and monasteries were taken over by the government and either destroyed or used as warehouses, recreation centers, "museums of atheism", or even
Gulags. It was impossible to build new churches.
Practising Orthodox Christians were restricted from prominent careers and membership in communist organizations (the party, the
Komsomol). Dmitri Egorovas an example, was removed from his prominent position and sent to the gulag, over his outspoken criticisms of the governments anti-Orthodox campaigns. Egorov later died in prison from complications caused by a protracted hungerstike. Anti-religious propaganda was openly sponsored (funded) and encouraged by the government, which the Church was not given an opportunity to publicly respond to. The government youth organization, the Komsomol, encouraged its members to vandalize Orthodox Churches and harass worshippers. Seminaries were closed down, and the church was restricted from using the press.
The history of Orthodoxy (and other religions) under Communism was not limited to this story of repression and secularization. Bolshevik policies toward religious belief and practice tended to vacillate over time between, on the one hand, a utopian determination to substitute secular rationalism for what they considered to be an unmodern, "superstitious" worldview and, on the other, pragmatic acceptance of the tenaciousness of religious faith and institutions. In any case, religious beliefs and practices did persist, in the domestic and private spheres but also in the scattered public spaces allowed by a state that recognized its failure to eradicate religion and the political dangers of an unrelenting culture war. [John Shelton Curtis, "The Russian Church and the Soviet State" (Boston: Little Brown, 1953); Jane Ellis, "The Russian Orthodox Church: A Contemporary History" (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986); Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, "The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime 1917-1982" (St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press, 1984); idem., "A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies" (New York; St. Martin’s Press, 1987); Glennys Young, P"ower and the Sacred in Revolutionary Russia: Religious Activists in the Village" (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997); Daniel Peris, "Storming the Heavens: The Soviet League of the Militant Godless" (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998); William B. Husband, "“Godless Communists”: Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia" (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2000; Edward Roslof, "Red Priests: Renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and Revolution, 1905-1946" (Bloomington, Indiana, 2002)]
In November 1917, following the collapse of the tsarist government, a council of the Russian Orthodox church reestablished the patriarchate and elected the metropolitan Tikhon as patriarch. But the new Soviet government soon declared the separation of church and state and nationalized all church-held lands. These administrative measures were followed by brutal state-sanctioned persecutions that included the wholesale destruction of churches and the arrest and execution of many clerics. The Russian Orthodox church was further weakened in 1922, when the Renovated Church, a reform movement supported by the Soviet government, seceded from Patriarch Tikhon's church, restored a Holy Synod to power, and brought division among clergy and faithful.
The result of this militant atheism was to transform the Church into a persecuted and martyred Church. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed. [Ostling, Richard. "Cross meets Kremlin" TIME Magazine. June 24, 2001. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,150718,00.html] This included people like the
Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovnawho was at this point a monastic. Along with her murder was Grand Duke Sergei MikhailovichRomanov; the Princes Ioann Konstantinovich, Konstantin Konstantinovich, Igor Konstantinovich and Vladimir Pavlovich Paley; Grand Duke Sergei's secretary, Fyodor Remez; and Varvara Yakovleva, a sister from the Grand Duchess Elizabeth's convent. They were herded into the forest, pushed into an abandoned mineshaft and grenades were then hurled into the mineshaft. Her remains were buried in Jerusalem, in the Church of Maria Magdalene.
Anti-religious campaign and persecution in the
The main target of the anti-religious campaign in the 1920s and 1930s was the Russian Orthodox Church, which had the largest number of faithful. Nearly all of its clergy, and many of its believers, were shot or sent to labor camps. Theological schools were closed, and church publications were prohibited.
The sixth sector of the
OGPU, led by Eugene Tuchkov, began aggressively arresting and executing bishops, priests, and devout worshippers, such as Metropolitan Veniamin in Petrograd in 1922for refusing to accede to the demand to hand in church valuables (including sacred relics).
1928a mass closure of churches continued until 1939, by which time there was only a few hundred left. According to the official data of the government Commission on Rehabilitation [ [http://www.goldentime.ru/nbk_22.htm Дамаскин (Орловский). "Гонения на Русскую Православную Церковь в советский период"] ] .: in 1937136,900 Orthodox clerics were arrested, 85,300 of them were shot dead; in 193828,300 arrested, 21,500 of them shot dead; in 19391,500 arrested, 900 of them shot dead; in 19405,100 arrested, 1,100 of them shot dead.
The Solovki Special Purpose Camp was established in the monastery on the Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea. [ [http://www.solovki.ca/english/camp.php Solovetsky Camp. Solovki Camp. Solovetsky Island ] ] Eight metropolitans, twenty archbishops, and forty-seven bishops of the Orthodox Church died there, along with tens of thousands of the laity. Of these, 95,000 were put to death, executed by firing squad.Fact|date=April 2007 Father
Pavel Florenskywas one of the New-martyrs of this particular period as well as Metropolitan Joseph (Ivan Petrovykh).
Many thousands of victims of persecution were subsequently recognized in a special canon of saints known as the "
new-martyrs and confessors of Russia".
Patriarch Tikhonanathematized the communist government, which further antagonized relations.
The Soviet authorities sponsored "I Renovationist" (officially called "II All-Russian Council") in
Moscowin April 29- May 8, 1923, which apart from confirming the decisions concerning changes in the canonical rules of ordinations and clerical marriage, put Patriarch Tikhon (then under house arrest, awaiting civil trial) on ecclesiastic trial "in absentia", dethroned him, stripped him of his episcopacy, priesthoodand monasticstatus. The Council then resolved to abolish the Patriarchatealtogether and to return to the "collegial" form of church government. Tikhon refused to recognize the authority of the Council and the validity of the "court" decision. The Council's decisions had no effect on the life of the Patriarchal or "Tikhonite" Church, which continued to exist, albeit on an illegal footing.
When Tikhon died in
1925, the Soviet authorities forbade patriarchal elections to be held.
Patriarchal "Locum Tenens" (acting Patriarch) Metropolitan Sergius (Stragorodsky, 1887-1944), going against the opinion of a major part of the Church's parishes, in
1927issued an Appeal to the faithful, widely known as The Declaration of Metropolitan Sergius, which proclaimed loyalty towards the Soviet state and condemned political dissent within the Church. The Appeal made it clear that its purpose was "legalisation" of the Patriarchal Church's structures, namely The Temporary Patriarchal Synod. The legalisation had been granted by the authorities shortly thitherto. Moreover, he demanded pledges of loyalty to the Soviet state from all Russian Orthodox clergu abroad.
This, as well as the fact that his actions were seen by many as usurpation of the power that he was not entitled to, being a deputy of imprisoned Metropolitan Peter (according to the XXXIV
Apostolic canon), solidified the already existing split with the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russiaabroad and provoked another split with the Russian True Orthodox Church(Russian Catacomb Church) within the Soviet Union. The latter claimed to remain faithful to the Canons of the Apostles, declaring the part of the Church led by Metropolitan Sergius schism, sometimes coined as "sergianism". Due to this canonical disagreement it is disputed which church has been the legitimate successor to the Russian Orthodox Church that had existed before 1925.cite web |url=http://www.ipc.od.ua/14spravka.html |title=ИСТОРИКО-КАНОНИЧЕСКАЯ СПРАВКА о причинах, побуждающих верующих покидать Московскую патриархию |author=Alekseev, Valery |language=Russian |accessdate=2007-07-12 (Created for the government of Moldova).] [cite web |url=http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/ecumenism/cat_tal.aspx |title=The Moscow Patriarchate and Sergianism |author=Talantov, Boris |year=1968 |accessdate=2007-07-12 |publisher=Orthodox Christian Information Center (orthodoxinfo.com) (English translation).] [cite web |url=http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/01newstucture/pagesen/news04/meylavrinsa.html |title=The Visit of His Eminence Metropolitan Laurus to the Parishes of Argentina and Venezuela |author=Belikow, Yaroslav |date=December 11, 2004 |accessdate=2007-07-12 |publisher=Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia (russianorthodoxchurch.ws)] [cite web |url=http://catacomb.org.ua/modules.php?name=Pages&go=page&pid=1099 |title=Patriarch Tikhon's Catacomb Church. History of the Russian True Orthodox Church |accessdate=2007-07-12 |publisher=Церковные Ведомости Русской Истинно-Православной Церкви (catacomb.org.ua)]
World War II rapprochement
After Nazi Germany's attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Joseph Stalin revived the Russian Orthodox Church to intensify patriotic support for the war effort. On
September 4 1943, Metropolitans Sergius (Stragorodsky), Alexius (Simansky) and Nikolay (Yarushevich) were officially received by Soviet leader Joseph Stalinwho proposed to create the Moscow Patriarchate. They received a permission to convene a council on September 8 1943, that elected Sergius Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. This is considered by some violation of the XXX Apostolic canon, as no church hierarch could be consecrated by secular authorities. A new patriarch was elected, theological schools were opened, and thousands of churches began to function. The Moscow Theological Academy Seminary, which had been closed since 1918, was re-opened.
Between 1945 and 1959 the official organization of the church was greatly expanded, although individual members of the clergy were occasionally arrested and exiled. The number of open churches reached 25,000. By 1957 about 22,000 Russian Orthodox churches had become active. But in 1959 Nikita Khrushchev initiated his own campaign against the Russian Orthodox Church and forced the closure of about 12,000 churches. By 1985 fewer than 7,000 churches remained active. It is estimated that 50,000 clergy were executed by the end of the Kruschev era. [Ostling, Richard. "Cross meets Kremlin" TIME Magazine. June 24, 2001. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,150718,00.html] Members of the church hierarchy were jailed or forced out, their places taken by docile clergy, many of whom had ties with the KGB.
Persecution under Khrushchev and Brezhnev
A new and widespread persecution of the church was subsequently instituted under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev. A second round of repression, harassment and church closures took place between
1959and 1964during the rule of Nikita Khrushchev. By 1987the number of functioning churches in the Soviet Unionhad fallen to 6893 and the number of functioning monasteries to just 18. [The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia pg.313]
In the Soviet Union, in addition to the methodical closing and destruction of churches, the charitable and social work formerly done by ecclesiastical authorities was taken over by the state. As with all private property, Church owned property was confiscated into public use. The few places of worship left to the Church were legally viewed as state property which the government permitted the church to use. After the advent of state funded universal education, the Church was not permitted to carry on educational, instructional activity of any kind. Outside of sermons during the celebration of the divine liturgy it could not instruct or evangelise to the faithful or its youth. Catechism classes, religious schools, study groups, Sunday schools and religious publications were all illegal and or banned. This persecution continued, even after the death of Stalin until the Fall of Communism in 1991. This caused many religious tracts to be circulated as illegal literature or
samizdat. [ Father Arseny 1893-1973 Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father. Introduction pg. vi - 1. St Vladimir's Seminary Press ISBN 0-88141-180-9]
The Church and the government remained on unfriendly terms until
1988. In practice, the most important aspect of this conflict was that openly religious people could not join the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which meant that they could not hold any political office. However, among the general population, large numbers remained religious. In 1987in the Russian SFSR, between 40% and 50% of newborn babies (depending on the region) were baptized and over 60% of all deceased received Christian funeral services.
Then, beginning in the late 1980s, under Mikhail Gorbachev, the new political and social freedoms resulted in many church buildings being returned to the church, to be restored by local parishioners. A pivotal point in the history of the Russian Orthodox Church came in
1988- the millennial anniversary of the Baptism of Kievan Rus'. Throughout the summer of that year, major government-supported celebrations took place in Moscow and other cities; many older churches and some monasteries were reopened. An implicit ban on religious propaganda on state TV was finally lifted. For the first time in the history of Soviet Union, people could see live transmissions of church services on television.
The Russian Orthodox Church is the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world and has seen a resurgence in activity and vitality since the end of Soviet rule. Up to 90% of ethnic
Russiansand Belarusiansidentify themselves as Russian Orthodox (although to a large degree this is a cultural identification, rather than a religious one). In keeping with other Orthodox churches, which do not place a high importance on weekly church attendance, the number of people regularly attending services is relatively low, however it has grown significantly since the collapse of the Soviet Union. In December 2006the Church had over 27,000 parishes, 169 bishops, 713 monasteries, two universities, five theological academies and 75 theological schools in the territory of the former Soviet Union and has a well-established presence in many other countries all over the world. In recent years many church buildings have been officially returned to the Church, most of these being in a deteriorated condition.
There have been difficulties in the relationship between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Vatican, especially since
2002, when Pope John Paul IIcreated a Catholicdiocesan structure for Russian territory. The leadership of the Russian Church saw this action as a throwback to prior attempts by the Vatican to proselytize the Russian Orthodox faithful to become Roman Catholic. This point of view is based upon the stance of the Russian Orthodox Church (and the Eastern Orthodox Church) that the Church of Rome is but one of many equal Christian organizations, and that as such it is straying into territory that was already Christianized by the Orthodox Church. The Catholic Church, on the other hand, while acknowledging the primacy of the Russian Orthodox Church in Russia, believes that the small Catholic minority in Russia, in continuous existence since at least the 18th century, should be served by a fully developed church hierarchy with a presence and status in Russia, just as the Russian Orthodox Church is present in other countries (including constructing a cathedral in Rome, near the Vatican).
The issue of encroachment by other Christian denominations into Russia is a particularly sensitive one to many members of the Russian Orthodox Church. They argue that the Orthodox Church now finds itself in a weakened position as a result of decades of secular Communist rule, and is therefore unable to compete on an equal footing with Western Churches. Thus, proselytizing by mostly foreign-based
Catholics, Protestantdenominations, and by many non-traditional sects can be seen as taking unfair advantage of the still-recovering condition of the Russian Church. On the other hand, many of these groups have argued that the position of Russian Orthodoxy is today no weaker than that of most Western European Churches.Fact|date=February 2008 Smaller religious movements, particularly Baptistsand members of other Protestantdenominations, that have become active in Russia in the past decade claim that the state provides unfair support to the Orthodox Church and suppresses others, referring to the 1997 Russian law, under which those religious organizations that could not provide official proof of their existence for the preceding 15 years were seriously restricted in their rights and ability to worship. The law was formally presented as a way to combat destructive cults, but was condemned by representatives of other religions and human rights organizations as being written in a manner that explicitly favored the Russian Orthodox Church, as the Soviet Union had prohibited the establishment of other religions. Consequently, this law gave full rights only to a small number of "first-rank" religions, such as Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. The situation is expected to normalise as the 15-year window starts to slide over the post-Communist period.
Due to its deep cultural roots, many members of the Russian government are keen to display their respect for the Church. It is common for the President of Russia to publicly meet with the
Patriarchon Church holidays such as Easter("Paskha" or "Пасха" in Russian). Meetings with representatives of Islam and Buddhism occur less frequently.
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia(also known as the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad), based in New York, is a jurisdiction of the church which was separated from Moscow for several decades. The Russian Orthodox Church Abroad was formed in the 1920s by Russian communities outside Communist Russia who refused to recognize the authority of the Russian Orthodox Church, as they believed it had fallen under the influence of the Bolsheviks. Relations between the two churches began improving in the 1990s, and there was a formal reconciliation in 2007 through the Act of Canonical Communion with the Moscow PatriarchateThis agreement made the Church Abroad a mostly self-governing branch of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Russian Orthodox Mission in America
Russian traders settled in Alaska during the 1700s. In 1740, a
Divine Liturgywas celebrated on board a Russian ship off the Alaskan coast. In 1794, the Russian Orthodox Churchsent missionaries -- among them Saint Herman of Alaska-- to establish a formal mission in Alaska. Their missionary endeavors contributed to the conversion of many Alaskan natives to the Orthodox faith. A diocese was established, whose first bishop was Saint Innocent of Alaska. The headquarters of this North American Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church was moved from Alaska to California around the mid-19th century.
It was moved again in the last part of the same century, this time to New York. This transfer coincided with a great movement of Uniates to the Orthodox Church in the eastern United States. This movement, which increased the numbers of Orthodox Christians in America, resulted from a conflict between John Ireland, the politically powerful Roman Catholic
Archbishopof Saint Paul, Minnesota; and Alexis Toth, an influential Ruthenian Catholic priest. Archbishop Ireland's refusal to accept Fr. Toth's credentials as a priest induced Fr. Toth to return to the Orthodox Church of his ancestors, and further resulted in the return of tens of thousands of other Uniate Catholics in North America to the Orthodox Church, under his guidance and inspiration. For this reason, Ireland is sometimes ironically remembered as the "Father of the Orthodox Church in America." These Uniates were received into Orthodoxy into the existing North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church. At the same time large numbers of Greeks and other Orthodox Christians were also immigrating to America. At this time all Orthodox Christians in North America were united under the " omophorion" (Church authority and protection) of the Patriarch of Moscow, through the Russian Church's North American diocese. The unity was not merely theoretical, but was a reality, since there was then no other diocese on the continent. Under the aegis of this diocese, which at the turn of the century was ruled by Bishop (and future Patriarch) Tikhon, Orthodox Christians of various ethnic backgrounds were ministered to, both non-Russian and Russian; a Syro-Arab mission was established in the episcopal leadership of Saint Raphael of Brooklyn, who was the first Orthodox bishop to be consecrated in America.
Orthodox churches in America
The Russian Orthodox Church was devastated by the
Bolshevik Revolution. One of its effects was a flood of refugees from Russia to the United States, Canada, and Europe. The Revolution of 1917 severed large sections of the Russian church--dioceses in America, Japan, and Manchuria, as well as refugees in Europe--from regular contacts with the mother church.
1920Patriarch Tikhon issued an " ukase" (decree) that "dioceses" of the Church of Russia that were cut off from the governance of the highest Church authority (i.e. the Patriarch) should continue independently until such time as normal relations with the highest Church authority could be resumed; and on this basis, the North American diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church (known as the "Metropolia") continued to exist in a "de facto" autonomous mode of self-governance. The financial hardship that beset the North American diocese as the result of the Russian Revolution resulted in a degree of administrative chaos, with the result that other national Orthodox communities in North America turned to the Churches in their respective homelands for pastoral care and governance.
A group of bishops outside the boundaries of Russia gathered in Sremski-Karlovci, Yugoslavia, and adopted a clearly political monarchist stand. The group claimed to speak as a synod for the entire "free" Russian church. This group, which to this day includes a sizable portion of the Russian emigration, was formally dissolved in 1922 by Patriarch Tikhon, who then appointed metropolitans Platon and Evlogy as ruling bishops in America and Europe, respectively. Both of these metropolitans continued to entertain relations intermittently with the synod in Karlovci, but neither of them accepted it as a canonical authority. Between the World Wars, the Metropolia coexisted and at times cooperated with this independent
synod, later known as Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia(ROCOR), sometimes also called the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. The two groups eventually went their separate ways. ROCOR, which moved its headquarters to North America after the Second World War, sought unsuccessfully to establish jurisdiction over all parishes of Russian origin in North America. The Metropolia, as a former diocese of the Russian Church, looked to the latter as its highest church authority, albeit one from which it was temporarily cut off under the conditions of the communist regime in Russia.
After World War II, the Patriarchate of Moscow made unsuccessful attempts to regain control over these groups. After resuming communication with Moscow in the early 1960s, and being granted
autocephalyin 1970, the Metropolia became known as the Orthodox Church in America. [cite web |url=http://www.oca.org/MVhistoryintroOCA.asp?SID=1 |title=A History and Introduction of the Orthodox Church in America |author=Matusiak, John |publisher=Orthodox Church in America |accessdate=2007-07-12] [cite web |url=http://www.orthodoxwiki.org/ROCOR_and_OCA |title=ROCOR and OCA |publisher=OrthodoxWiki |accessdate=2007-07-12] However, recognition of this autocephalous status is not universal, as the Ecumenical Patriarch(under whom is the [http://www.goarch.org Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America] ) and some other jurisdictions have not officially accepted it. The reasons for this are complex; nevertheless the Ecumenical Patriarch and the other jurisdictions remain in communion with the OCA. The Patriarchate of Moscow, through its agreement with the OCA, renounced its former canonical claims in the United States and Canada; it also acknowledged an autonomous church established in Japan that same year, the Orthodox Church of Japan.
17 May 2007, the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia signed the Act of Canonical Communionwith the Moscow Patriarchate. According to the provisions of the Act, the Moscow Patriarchate guarantees that ROCOR will maintain its independent hierarchy, continuing to be "an indissoluble, self-governing part of the Local Russian Orthodox Church," the only change being that when she elects a new First Hierarch, his election must be confirmed by the Patriarch of Moscow. In turn, ROCOR recognizes the Patriarch of Moscow as the head of the entire Russian Orthodox Church.
History of Eastern Christianity
History of the Eastern Orthodox Church
History of Christianity in Ukraine
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia
Orthodox Church in America
* [http://books.google.com/books?id=2cP0wc_E6yEC&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=unia+and+orthodox&source=web&ots=v4DV6M65pw&sig=dT2IG3shA3rePTXlY1ls1hSEklI#PPP7,M1 "The Orthodox Church in the History of Russia"] , by
Dimitry Pospielovsky(1998) St Vladimir's Press ISBN 0-88141-179-5
* [http://www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/synod/engdocuments/enmat_akt.html Act of Canonical Communion] en icon
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