Stollen


Stollen

A Stollen is a loaf-shaped cake containing dried fruit, and covered with sugar, powdered sugar or icing sugar. The cake is usually made with chopped candied fruit and/or dried fruit, nuts and spices. Stollen is a traditional German cake, usually eaten during the Christmas season, when called Weihnachtsstollen or Christstollen. A similar cake, found in Dutch cuisine, is called a Kerststol in Dutch, while in Italian cuisine the panettone also shows a likeness.

Contents

Recipe

A Christmas Stollen

Stollen is a bread-like fruitcake made with yeast, water and flour, and usually with zest added to the dough. Candied orange peel and candied citrus peel (Zitronat),[1] raisins and almonds, and different spices such as cardamom and cinnamon are added. Other ingredients, such as milk, sugar, butter, salt, rum, eggs,[2] vanilla,[3] other dried fruits and nuts and marzipan may also be added to the Stollen dough. Except for the fruit added, the dough is quite low in sugar. The finished cake is sprinkled with icing sugar. The traditional weight of a Stollen is around 4.4 pounds (2 kg), but smaller sizes are now available.

The Dresden Stollen (originally Striezel), a moist, heavy bread filled with fruit, was first mentioned in an official document in 1474,[4] and the most famous Stollen is still the Dresdner Stollen,[5] sold, among other places, at the local Christmas market, Striezelmarkt. Dresden Stollen is produced in the city of Dresden and distinguished by a special seal depicting King Augustus II the Strong. This "official" Stollen is produced by only 150 Dresden bakers.

History

The early Stollen was a different pastry, the ingredients were very different - flour, oats and water.[6]

As a Christmas pastry, Stollen was baked for the first time at the Saxon Royal Court in 1427,[7] and was made with flour, yeast, oil and water.

The Advent season was a time of fasting, and bakers were not allowed to use butter, only oil, and the cake was tasteless and hard.[4]

In the 15th century, in medieval Saxony (in central Germany, north of Bavaria and south of Brandenburg), the Prince Elector Ernst (1441 - 1486) and his brother Duke Albrecht (1443–1500) decided to remedy this by writing to the Pope in Rome. The Saxon bakers needed to use butter, as oil in Saxony was expensive, hard to come by, and had to be made from turnips, which was unhealthy.

Pope Nicholas V (1397–1455), in 1450 denied the first appeal. Five popes died until finally, Pope Innocent VIII, (1432–1492)[7] in 1490 sent a letter to the Prince, known as the "Butter-Letter" which granted the use of butter (without having to pay a fine) - but only for the Prince-Elector and his family and household.

Others were also permitted to use butter, but with the condition of having to pay annually 1/20th of a gold Gulden to support the building of the Freiburg Minster. The ban on butter was removed when Saxony became Protestant.

Over the centuries, the cake changed from being a simple, fairly tasteless "bread" to a sweeter cake with richer ingredients, such as marzipan, although the traditional Stollen is not as sweet, light and airy as the copies made around the world.

Dresden Stollen festival

Augustus II the Strong, by Louis de Silvestre

Every year a Stollenfest takes place in Dresden. This historical tradition ended only in 1918 with the fall of the monarchy,[7] and started again in 1994, but the idea comes from Dresden’s history.

Dresden’s Christmas market was mentioned in the chronicles for the first time in 1474.[7]

The tradition of baking Christmas Stollen in Dresden is very old. Christmas Stollen in Dresden was already baked in the 15th century.

In 1560, the bakers of Dresden offered the rulers of Saxony Christmas Stollen weighing 36 pounds each as gift, and the custom continued.[7]

Augustus II the Strong (1670–1733) was the Elector of Saxony, King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania. The King loved pomp, luxury, splendour and feasts. In 1730, he impressed his subjects, ordering the Bakers’ Guild of Dresden to make a giant 1.7-tonne Stollen, big enough for everyone to have a portion to eat. There were around 24,000 guests who were taking part in the festivities on the occasion of the legendary amusement festivity known as Zeithainer Lustlager.[7] For this special occasion, the court architect Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann (1662-1737), built a particularly oversized Stollen oven.[7] An oversized Stollen knife also had been designed solely for this occasion.[8]

Today, the festival takes place on the Saturday before the second Sunday in Advent, and the cake weighs between three and four tonnes. A carriage takes the cake in a parade through the streets of Dresden to the Christmas market, where it is ceremoniously cut into pieces and distributed among the crowd, for a small sum which goes to charity. A special knife, the Grand Dresden Stollen Knife, a silver-plated knife, 1.60 meters long weighing 12 kg, which is a copy of the lost baroque original knife from 1730, is used to festively cut the oversize Stollen at the Dresden Christmas fair.[8]

The largest Stollen was baked in 2010 by Lidl; it was 70 meters long and was certified by the Guinness Book of World Records, at the trainstation of Haarlem.[9]

A stollen is like regular sweetened fruit bread. However, because it is slathered with melted unsalted butter and rolled in sugar as soon as it comes out of the oven, the result is a much better keeping and moister product. The marzipan rope in the middle is optional. The dried fruits are macerated in rum or brandy for a superior tasting bread.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Duden: Zi|tro|nat, das
  2. ^ [Recipe for Dresdner Weihnachtsstollen Mimi Sheraton, The German Cookbook, from Random House]
  3. ^ Dresden Christmas Bread
  4. ^ a b www.dresden.de
  5. ^ Meyers Lexikon: "Besonders bekannt ist der Dresdner Stollen" ("the Dresden Stollen is especially well-known")
  6. ^ Von Gänsen, Karpfen, Lebkuchen und Stollen Dtsch Med. Wochenschrift 2003;128: 2691-2694 (p. 4)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Stollen history
  8. ^ a b Stollen knife
  9. ^ "[1]," Biggest stollen Haarlem.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stollen — (ahd. stollo „Pfosten“) steht für: Christstollen, ein Weihnachtsgebäck Stollen (Bergbau), einen bergmännischen horizontalen Grubenbau mit Tagesöffnung Stollen (Schuh), zylindrische Teile unterhalb der Sohle von Sportschuhen Stollen (Hufeisen),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Stollen — Stollen, verb. regul. act. ein nur noch in einigen Fällen übliches Wort. 1. Die Weißgärber stollen die gar gemachten Felle, wenn sie selbige auf dem Stollpfahle oder Stolleisen ausstrecken, in die Breite dehnen und dadurch ihre Geschmeidigkeit… …   Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart

  • Stollen — Stollen: Das nur dt. Wort (mhd. stolle, ahd. stollo) bedeutet eigentlich »Pfosten, Stütze« und gehört wohl zu den Nominalbildungen des unter ↑ stellen dargestellten Verbs. Außergerm. ist z. B. griech. stē̓lē »Säule« verwandt. Heute bezeichnet… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • Stollen [2] — Stollen, 1) so v.w. Ausstollen, s.u. Gerberei B) a); 2) an die Hufeisen Stollen schmieden; 3) etwas mit kurzen Stützen od. Absätzen versehen …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Stollen — Sm std. (9. Jh.), mhd. stolle, ahd. stollo Stütze, Pfosten Stammwort. Vermutlich zu stellen (Stall). Stollen als Gebäck ist nach der Form so benannt; die Bedeutung Gang im Bergwerk nach den dort befindlichen Stützkonstruktionen. ✎ Lühr (1988),… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • stollen — ☆ stollen [stō′lən;shtō̂′lən ] n. pl. stollen or stollens [Ger, lit., post (in reference to shape) < OHG stollo < IE base * stel , to place > STILL1] a sweet, yeast raised, German bread containing fruit and nuts …   English World dictionary

  • Stollen [1] — Stollen, 1) ein beinahe horizontaler, in ein Gebirge getriebener bergmännischer Bau, welchen man von einem Thale od. einem tiefern Punkte des Gebirgs aus für verschiedene bergmännische Zwecke, hauptsächlich zur Abführung der Grubenwasser, durch… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Stollen — Stollen, 1) ein annähernd horizontaler, vom Tage ausgehender unterirdischer Grubenbau; s. Bergbau, S. 664: Aufschließung. – 2) S. im Hufeisen sind eiserne Bolzen, die aus den Enden des Hufeisens bodenwärts hervorragen, um den hintern Teil des… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Stollen — Stollen, s. Stolln …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Stollen — (Stolln), horizontaler (im Gegensatz zum Schacht) von Tag ausgehender, oft unterirdisch verzweigter Grubenbau, hauptsächlich zur Wetterzufuhr und zur Abführung der Wasser. – Im Festungskrieg ist S. oder Galerie ein wagerecht geführter Minengang …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Stollen [2] — Stollen, bei den Meistersängern die beiden ersten gleichgebauten Glieder einer Strophe (s. Aufgesang) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


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