Three Holy Hierarchs

Three Holy Hierarchs

Infobox Saint
name=The Three Holy Hierarchs
birth_date=330 (Basil)
349 (John)
329 (Gregory)
death_date=379 (Basil)
407 (John)
389 (Gregory)
feast_day=January 30
venerated_in=Eastern Orthodoxy, Eastern Catholic Churches


caption=Icon for the feast day of the Synaxis of the Three Holy Hierarchs
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titles=Fathers Among the Saints
beatified_date=
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canonized_date=
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attributes=Vested as bishops, wearing omophoria; raising right hand in blessing; holding Gospel Books or scrolls
patronage=
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The Three Holy Hierarchs ("Greek": Οι Τρείς Ιεράρχες) of Eastern Christianity refers to Basil the Great (known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom. They were highly influential bishops of the early church who played pivotal roles in shaping Christian theology. In Eastern Christianity they are also known as the Three Great Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers, while in Roman Catholicism the three are honored as Doctors of the Church. The three are venerated as saints in Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Anglicanism and other Christian churches.

Origins of the term

Disputes raged in eleventh century Constantinople about which of the three hierarchs was the greatest. Some argued that Basil was superior to the other two because of his explanations of Christian faith and monastic example. Supporters of John Chrysostom countered that the "Golden Mouthed" ( _el. Χρυσόστομος) archbishop of Constantinople was unmatched in both eloquence and in bringing sinners to repentance. A third group insisted that Basil's close friend, Gregory the Theologian, was preferred to the others due to the majesty, purity and profundity of his homilies and his defense of the faith from the Arian heresy. All three have separate feast days in January: Basil on January 1, Gregory on January 25, and Chrysostom on January 27. The Eastern Churches teach that the three hierarchs appeared together in a vision to St. John Mauropous, bishop of Euchaita, in the year 1084, and said that they were equal before God: "There are no divisions among us, and no opposition to one another." As a result, a January 30 feast day commemorating all three in common was instituted around 1100 under the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. [Parry (1999), pp. 491–492.]

ee also

*Cappadocian Fathers
*Patristics

Notes

References

*cite book
last = Parry
first = David
authorlink =
coauthors = David Melling (editors)
title = The Blackwell Dictionary of Eastern Christianity
publisher = Blackwell
year = 1999
location = Oxford
isbn = 0631189661

External links

* [http://www.goarch.org/en/special/listen_learn_share/threehierarchs/learn/ The Three Holy Hierarchs] (Greek Orthodox Archdiocese)
* [http://ocafs.oca.org/FeastSaintsViewer.asp?SID=4&ID=1&FSID=100350 Synaxis of the Ecumenical Teachers and Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom] Orthodox synaxarion


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