- Tatsuji Suga
nihongo|Tatsuji Suga|菅辰次|Suga Tatsuji (
22 September 1885– 16 September 1945) of the Imperial Japanese Armywas the commander of all prisoner-of-war(POW) prisoner of war camps and civilian internment camps in Borneo, during World War II. He rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Suga committed suicide, five days after being taken prisoner by Australian forces in September 1945.
Suga was born in
Hiroshima, the second son in his family. Although the family held Buddhist- Shintobeliefs, his older brother converted to Christianityand became a Protestant missionary: he had a church and founded the YMCAin Hiroshima. As a teenager, Suga played the music in his brother's church, and was profoundly influenced by him. (Hudson Southwell, an Australian missionary interned in Borneo, later wrote: "During our time in the internment camp, Colonel Suga had often come into the church services in the women's section and sat near the back. Once he told Winsome [Southwell's wife] directly, 'I'm a Christian.' This was a startling admission for a Japanese officer to make to a prisoner during wartime." [Southwell 165] )
Suga graduated from the
Imperial Japanese Army Academyin Tokyo, as a Second Lieutenant. At around this time he married a woman with the given name Tern; they were to have two sons and four daughters. Suga was an affectionate father and ensured that all of his children went to university, at a time when only five per cent of Japanese went beyond the fifth or sixth grade. He was an expert horseman and a keen practioner of kendo.
Towards the end of
World War I(during which Japan was an Allied power), Suga served in Siberia, Korea, Manchuriaand China. In 1924, he took early retirement as a Major, and decided to pursue a career teaching English. He sailed to the United States, leaving his his family in Japan, supported by his pension.
Suga studied to become a certified teacher of English as a second language, at the
University of Washingtonin Seattle. He supported himself by taking a series of jobs, such as dishwashing and by fishing. He was interviewed in Seattle in 1924, by William Carlson Smith as part of Smith's research on race relations, later used for his book "Americans in the Making", which was published in 1939. [cite web|url=http://nwda-db.wsulibs.wsu.edu/findaid/ark:/80444/xv19159 |title="Guide to the William C. Smith Papers 1924-1927"|accessmonthday=10 December|accessyear=2007]
Suga taught English in Japan, Korea, China and Manchuria, before he was called back to active service in 1937, to serve in the
Second Sino-Japanese War. He became ill with diabetesand retired again in October 1941. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Suga volunteered for service as a prison camp commander, believing that his language skills would prove useful. He was appointed commander of all POW and internment camps in Borneo. [Southwell 145-7]
On Borneo there were Japanese-run internment camps at Batu Lintang, Kuching, Sarawak,
Jesselton(later Kota Kinabalu), Sandakanand briefly on Labuanisland. [Wigmore 595 note 9] Suga was based at Batu Lintang but was often absent on business at the other camps.
Suga is described in "
Three Came Home", an account by Agnes Newton Keith, a female civilian internee at Batu Lintang:
:A little Japanese man, onetime graduate of the
University of Washington, patron of the arts, recipient of World War IAllied decorations; a military man with shaven head; a sick man with diabetes who eats no sugar; a soldier who likes children; a little man with a big sword; a religious dilettante, born Shintoist and turning Catholic; a hero and a figure of ridicule; a Japanese patriot, Commander of All Prisoners of War and Internees in Borneo. [Keith 205]
Rosemary Beatty, an Australian who was a small child when she was interned at Batu Lintang, recalled Suga's acts of kindness to her and other children:
:I suppose the thing that really sticks in my mind really is Colonel Suga coming through the gates in his car and we would sneak into it and hide, and then he would drive off and find we were there. He'd take us up to his residence and serve us coffee [,] fruit and show us magazines... He'd even give us lollies [sweets/candy] to bring back to camp." [Firkins, Peter (1995) "Borneo Surgeon: A Reluctant Hero", Carlisle, Western Australia: Hesperian Press. ISBN 0-85905-211-7. Rosemary Beatty's surname is mis-spelled as Beattie]
Brutality by the guards at Batu Lintang increased when Suga was away; internees wondered whether he left instructions for this to happen or whether the juniors left in charge took advantage of his absence to further abuse the prisoners. [Mackie 261]
The atomic bombings in Japan at
Hiroshimaon 6 August 1945, followed by that of Nagasaki on 9 August, precipitated the abrupt end of the war. On 15 August, 1945, Japan announced its official unconditional surrender to the Allied Powers. On 24 August, Suga officially announced to the prisoners at Batu Lintang that Japan had surrendered. [Bell 113; Ooi 1998, 618; Keith 182. Although sources vary, the most likely date appears to be 24 August] Suga was a broken man: he believed that his entire family had been killed in the bombing of Hiroshima. [Bell 113; Keith 206, Southwell 159] In fact, his wife and four of his children survived the bombing. [Southwell 368]
Suga attended the official surrender of the Japanese forces in the Kuching area by their commander, Major-General
Hiyoe Yamamura, on board HMAS "Kapunda" on 11 September 1945. [Long 563; AWM photographs 041062-041071, 116168-116175] Later that day Suga officially surrendered to Brigadier Thomas Eastick, commander of Kuching Force — a detachment from the Australian 9th Division — at Batu Lintang camp.
The following day Suga, together with several of his officers were flown to the Australian base on Labuan, to await their trials as
war criminals. Suga committed suicide there on 16 September. Other officers were later tried, found guilty and executed. [Ooi 1998, 667] Southwell wrote:
:Now, with the end of the war, he awaited a military tribunal. His country had been destroyed; his army defeated; his family lost. And, apart from the despair in his heart, the
bushidotradition, the code of the Japanese warrior, had deep roots. The fateful day came on September 16th, one week before his 60th birthday, traditionally a time when a family would gather round in celebration. Colonel Tatsuji Suga believed he had no-one to gather around; and he had no desire to see that day alone." [Southwell 165]
As Commander of all POW and civilian internee camps, Suga was responsible for the many atrocities that took place in these camps, including the
Sandakan Death Marches. It is probable that had he not committed suicide, Suga would also have been found guilty of war crimes and executed.
Although Keith admired some of his personal qualities and felt that he had saved the life of her husband, who was also interned in the camp, she also recorded: "Against this, I place the fact that all prisoners in Borneo were inexorably moving towards starvation. Prisoners of war and civilians were beaten, abused and tortured. Daily living conditions of prison camps were almost unbearable." Keith added:
:"At Sandakan and Ranau and Brunei, North Borneo, batches of prisoners in fifties and sixties were marched out to dig their own graves, then shot or bayoneted and pushed into the graves, many before they were dead. All over Borneo hundreds and thousands of sick, weak, weary prisoners were marched on roads and paths until they fell from exhaustion, when their heads were beaten in with rifle butts and shovels, and split open with swords, and they were left to rot unburied. On one march 2,790 POWs started, and three survived ... For these black chapters in captivity Colonel Suga, commander in Borneo, must be held responsible. [Keith 205-6]
Another internee at Batu Lintang, Australian
civil servantIvan Quartermaine, said that by the time the 9th Division liberated the camp, the health of the prisoners was so poor they believed they had only "three months to live, the whole camp. We were in pretty bad shape." [ Robert Taylor, "Survivor tells of Borneo hell" ("The West Australian", April 14, 2007, p.14)] After liberation, he and other prisoners sought weapons from Australian soldiers, to take revenge on Japanese personnel, but were refused. On reflection, Quartermaine said, he believed that Suga was powerless in regard to the actions of the Japanese secret police, the " Kempeitai".
In the 1950 film adaptation of Keith's book, Suga was played by
* Bell, Frank (1991) "Undercover University" (revised edition) Cambridge: Elisabeth Bell. ISBN 0-9516984-0-0 (Originally published in 1990, same ISBN)
* Keith, Agnes Newton (1955) "
Three Came Home" London: Michael Joseph (Mermaid Books). Originally published in 1947 by Little Brown and Company, Boston, Mass.
* Long, Gavin (1963) "The Final Campaigns" Australia in the War 1939-1945 Series 1 (Army), Volume 7. Canberra: Australian War Memorial (Online in PDF form at [http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=23] )
* Mackie, John (2007) "Captain Jack, Surveyor and Engineer: The autobiography of John Mackie" Wellington: New Zealand Institute of Surveyors ISBN 0 9582 486 6 4
* Ooi, Keat Gin (1998) "Japanese Empire in the Tropics: Selected Documents and Reports of the Japanese Period in Sarawak, Northwest Borneo, 1941-1945" Ohio University Center for International Studies, Monographs in International Studies, SE Asia Series 101 (2 vols) ISBN 0-89680-199-3
* Southwell, C. Hudson (1999) "Uncharted Waters" Calgary, Canada: Astana Publishing ISBN 0-9685440-0-2
* Wigmore, Lionel (1957) "The Japanese Thrust" Australia in the War 1939-1945 Series 1 (Army), Volume 4. Canberra: Australian War Memorial (Online in PDF form at [http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=20] )
* [http://ajrp.awm.gov.au/AJRP/AJRP2.nsf/aa9b3f3247a3c8ae4a25676300078dee/d2e5732b8749d2e04a2567a8007b490c?OpenDocument "The Japanese army and its prisoners: relevant documents and bureaucratic institutions", Professor Aiko Utsumi]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Suga — can refer to several different people and things:* Tatsuji Suga * Takamasa Suga * Yoshihide Suga * Hiroe Suga * Suga (album) … Wikipedia
Batu Lintang camp — Infobox Military Structure name=Batu Lintang camp partof= location=Kuching, Sarawak coordinates= caption=Aerial view of part of Batu Lintang camp, prior to its liberation, 29 August 1945. In the foreground is the Roman Catholic priests compound.… … Wikipedia
Sandakan Death Marches — The Sandakan Death Marches were a series of forced marches from Sandakan to Ranau which resulted in the deaths of more than 3,600 Indonesian civilian slave labourers and 2,400 Allied prisoners of war held captive by the Empire of Japan during the … Wikipedia
List of World War II topics (T) — # T 26 # T 27 # T 28 Super Heavy Tank # T 28 # T 34 variants # T 34 # T 35 # T 37 tank # T 38 tank # T 40 # T 43 tank # T 44 # T 50 tank # T 6 Texan variants # T 6 Texan # T 60 tank # T 70 # T G Building, Brisbane # T. E. Burridge # T. H. Jordan… … Wikipedia
Eugen-und-Ilse-Seibold-Preis — Der Eugen und Ilse Seibold Preis zur Förderung der Wissenschaft und zur Verständigung zwischen Deutschland und Japan wurde 1997 von dem Meeresgeologen Prof. Eugen Seibold und seiner Frau Dr. Ilse Seibold gestiftet. Der Preis wird alle zwei Jahre… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Emperador Shōwa — 昭和天皇 Emperador de Japón El Emperador Shōwa vestido en su coronación en 1926. Reinado 25 de diciembre de 1926 7 de enero … Wikipedia Español
Miss Machiko — Maicching Machiko Sensei (まいっちんぐマチコ先生) Genre Comedy Manga Written by Takeshi Ebihara … Wikipedia