- State of charge
State of charge (SOC) is the equivalent of a
fuel gaugefor the battery packin a battery electric vehicle(BEV), hybrid vehicle(HEV), or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle(PHEV). The units of SOC are percent points (0% = empty; 100% = full).
SOC cannot usually be determined directly.In general there are four methods to determine SOC indirectly:
* Current Integration
This method works only with batteries that offer access to their liquid
electrolyte, such as non-sealed Lead Acidbatteries. The Specific Gravityor pHof the electrolyte can be used to indicate the SOC of the battery.
This method converts a reading of the battery
voltageto SOC, using the known discharge curve (voltage vs. SOC) of the battery. However, the voltage is more significantly affected by the battery current (due to the battery's internal resistance) and temperature. Therefore, this method can be made more accurate by compensating the voltage reading by a correction term proportional to the battery current, and by using a look-up table of battery's Open Circuit Voltage vs. Temperature.
Current Integration method
This method (a.k.a.: "
Coulombcounting") calculates the SOC as the integral of the battery current. Like all real life integrals, this method suffers from long term drift, and lack of a reference point. Therefore, the SOC must be calibrated on a regular basis, such as by resetting the SOC to 100 % when a charger determines that the battery is fully charged (using one of the other 3 methods described here.
This method can be used with certain
NiMHbatteries, whose internal pressure increases rapidly when the battery is charged. More commonly, a pressure switch indicates if the battery is fully charged. This method may be improved by taking into account Peukert's lawwhich is a function of charge/discharge rate or ampere.
Depth Of Discharge(DOD)
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