Oral and maxillofacial surgery


Oral and maxillofacial surgery
Oral and maxillofacial surgeon
US Navy 060522-N-9389D-149 Hospital Corpsman 3rd Class Roland Alferos grabs a suture from a dental tray while assisting with oral surgery aboard USS Kitty Hawk (CV 63).jpg
Occupation
Names Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon
Activity sectors

Dentistry Medicine

Surgery
Description
Education required

Dental degree

Medical degree (depending on country)

Oral and maxillofacial surgery is surgery to correct a wide spectrum of diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral and maxillofacial region. It is an internationally recognized surgical specialty. In the US (and many other countries) it is one of the nine specialties of dentistry, however, it is also recognized as a medical specialty in certain parts of the world, such as the UK.

Contents

Regulations

In the US, the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Brazil, oral and maxillofacial surgery is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons and the Brazilian Federal Council of Odontology (CFO).

In other parts of the world oral and maxillofacial surgery as a specialty exists but under different forms as the work is sometimes performed by a single or dual qualified specialist depending on each country's regulations and training opportunities available.

Summary

An oral and maxillofacial surgeon is a regional specialist surgeon treating the entire craniomaxillofacial complex: anatomical area of the mouth, jaws, face, skull, as well as associated structures.

Maxillofacial surgeons are usually initially qualified in dentistry and have undergone further surgical training. Some OMS residencies integrate a medical education as well and an appropriate degree in medicine (MBBS or MD or equivalent) is earned, although in the United States there is legally no difference in what a dual degree OMS can do compared to someone who earned a four year certificate. Generally, dual-degree programs have become more commonplace as the profession of OMS has recognized the value of holding a medical degree in terms of obtaining hospital and OR privileges. Oral & maxillofacial surgery is universally recognized as a one of the nine specialties of dentistry. However also in the UK and many other countries OMFS is a medical specialty requiring both medical and dental degrees, culminating in the FRCS (Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons). Regardless, all oral & maxillofacial surgeons must obtain a degree in dentistry (BDS, BDent, DDS, or DMD or equivalent) before being allowed to begin residency training in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

They also may choose to undergo further training in a 1 or 2 year subspecialty Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Fellowship Training in the following areas:

  • Head and neck cancermicrovascular reconstruction
  • Cosmetic facial surgery
  • Craniofacial surgery/Pediatric Maxillofacial surgery/Cleft Surgery
  • Cranio-maxillofacial trauma
  • Head and neck reconstruction (plastic surgery of the head and neck region)
  • Maxillofacial regeneration (reformation of the facial region by advanced stem cell technique)

The popularity of oral and maxillofacial surgery as a career for persons whose first degree was medicine, not dentistry, seems to be increasing in few EU countries. However, the public fund spend for 14 years of training is a big concern of the state. Integrated programs are becoming more available to medical graduates allowing them to complete the dental degree requirement in about 3 years in order for them to advance to subsequently complete Oral and Maxillofacial surgical training.[1] [1][dead link]

Surgical procedures

Treatments may be performed on the craniomaxillofacial complex: mouth, jaws, neck, face, skull, and include:

In Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery is one of the 9 dental specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, the Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery requires 4–6 years of further formal University training after dental school (DDS, BDent, DMD or BDS). Four-year residency programs grant a certificate of specialty training in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Six-year residency programs grant the specialty certificate in addition to a medical degree (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB etc.). Specialists in this field are designated registrable U.S. “Board Eligible” and warrant exclusive titles. Approximately 50% of the training programs in the U.S., 100% of the programs in Australia and New Zealand, and 20% of Canadian training programs, are "dual-degree". The trainees obtain a degree in Medicine (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB etc) as well as a specialty certificate in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery.

The typical training program for an Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon is:

  • 2 – 4 Years Undergraduate Study (BS, BA, or equivalent degrees)
  • 4 Years Dental Study (DMD, BDent, DDS or BDS)
  • 4 – 6 Years Residency Training (6 years includes 2 additional years for acquiring medical degree)
  • After completion of surgical training most undertake final specialty examinations: (U.S. "Board Certified (ABOMS)"), (Australia/NZ: "FRACDS(OMS)"), or (Canada: "FRCD(C)(OMS)")
  • Many dually qualified oral and maxillofacial surgeons are now also obtaining Fellowships with the American College of Surgeons (FACS)
  • Average total length after Secondary School: 12 – 14 Years

In addition, graduates of oral and maxillofacial surgery training programs can pursue fellowships, typically 1 – 2 years in length, in the following areas:

Notable oral and maxillofacial surgeons

  • Luc Chikhani reconstructed Trevor Rees-Jones's face, which was flattened by the impact of the car crash that killed Diana, Princess of Wales.
  • Bernard Devauchelle a French oral and maxillofacial surgeon at Amiens University Hospital who in November 2005 successfully completed the first face transplant on Isabelle Dinoire.[2][3]
  • Tomaso Vercellotti developed a new technology to reduce damage caused by traditional burs and saws called Piezosurgery which uses ultra sonic vibrations to cut bone tissue leaving soft tissue unharmed.
  • Varaztad Kazanjian Father & Pioneer of facial aesthetic and reconstructive surgery.

Organizations

See also

References

External links


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