- Recording medium comparison
__NOTOC__This article details a comparison of audio recording media.
The typical duration of a vinyl album was about 15 to 25 minutes per side, except classical music and spoken word recordings which could extend to over 30 minutes on a side. If a side exceeds the average time, the maximum groove amplitude is reduced to make room for the additional program material. This can cause hiss in the sound from lower quality amplifiers when the volume is turned up to compensate for the lower recorded level. An extreme example,
Todd Rundgren's "Initiation" LP, with 36 minutes of music on one side, has a "technical note" at the bottom of the inner sleeve: "if the sound does not seem loud enough on your system, try re-recording the music onto tape." The total of around 40–45 minutes often influenced the arrangement of tracks, with the preferred positions being the opening and closing tracks of each side.
Although the term EP was commonly used to describe a 7" single with more than two tracks, technically they were not different from a normal 7" single. The EP used reduced dynamic range and a smaller run-off groove area to extend the playing time. However, there are examples of singles, such as
The Beatles' " Hey Jude" or Queen's " Bohemian Rhapsody", which were six minutes long or more. (in 1989, RCA released 'Dreamtime' by the band Love and Rockets, which clocked at 8:40). These longer recordings would require the same technical approach as an EP. The term EP has also been used for 10" 45 rpm records, typically containing a reduced number of tracks.
Vinyl albums had a large 12"
album cover, which also allowed cover designers scope for imaginative designs, often including fold-outs and leaflets.
Unusual types of gramophone records
Voyager Golden Record
Vinyl Emulation Software
Children's gramophone records
*cite journal | author=Fadeyev, V., and C. Haber | title= [http://www-cdf.lbl.gov/~av/JAES-paper-LBNL.pdf Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound by image processing] | journal=Journal of the
Audio Engineering Society| volume=51 | issue=December | year=2003 | pages=1172
*Lawrence, Harold; "Mercury Living Presence." Compact disc liner notes. Bartók, Antal Dorati, Mercury 432 017-2. 1991.
*International standard IEC 60098: Analogue audio disk records and reproducing equipment. Third edition,
International Electrotechnical Commission, 1987.
*College Physics, Sears, Zemansky, Young, 1974, LOC #73-21135, chapter: Acoustic Phenomena
*"From Tin Foil to Stereo — Evolution of the Phonograph" by Oliver Read and Walter L. Welch.
*"Where have all the good times gone? — the rise and fall of the record industry" Louis Barfe.
*"Pressing the LP record" by Ellingham, Niel, published at 1 Bruach Lane, PH16 5DG, Scotland.
* [http://eil.com/explore/guide/vinyl_making.asp Creating a vinyl record]
* [http://www.vinylhunt.com VinylHunt.com] — A free directory of Record Stores in the US that offer new or used vinyl.
* [http://www.popsike.com Popsike.com] — Price Guide / Database of auction prices of rare vinyl records.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hjKlFFp4-IE YouTube — Record Making With Duke Ellington (1937)] A look at how early 78 rpm records were made.
* [http://vinylfanatics.com Vinylfanatics.com] — A website devoted to vinyl records. News, reviews, forum.
* [http://www.kiddierecords.com/ Kiddie Records Weekly] — Recordings and case images from children's records of the 1940s and 1950s.
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