- Castle Clinton
Infobox Protected area
name = Castle Clinton National Monument
caption = Castle Clinton in Battery Park,
Historic American Buildings Survey
locator_x = 254
locator_y = 60
New York, New York, USA
New York City
lat_degrees = 40
lat_minutes = 42
lat_seconds = 13
lat_direction = N
long_degrees = 74
long_minutes = 1
long_seconds = 1
long_direction = W
area = 1 acre (4,000 m²)
August 12, 1946
visitation_num = 2,949,231
visitation_year = 2004
National Park Service
Castle Clinton or Fort Clinton was once a circular sandstone
fortnow located in Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan, New York City, in the United States. It subsequently became a beer garden, a theater, the first immigration station (predating Ellis Island), a very popular public aquarium, and finally a national monument.
Construction began in 1808 and was completed in 1811. The fort, known as West Battery (sometimes South-west Battery), was designed by
architects John McComb Jr.and Jonathan Williams. It was built on a small artificial islandjust off shore.
West Battery was intended to complement the three-tiered
Castle Williams(still extant) on Governors Island, which was "East Battery", to defend New York City from British forces in the tensions that marked the run-up to the War of 1812, but never saw action in that or any war. Subsequent landfillexpanded Battery Park, and incorporated the fort into the mainland of Manhattan Island.
As with all historic areas administered by the
National Park Service, Castle Clinton National Monument was listed on the National Register of Historic Placeson October 15, 1966.
Changing names and uses
*Castle Clinton today is approximately two blocks west of where
Fort Amsterdamstood almost 400 years ago, when New York City was still known by the Dutch name New Amsterdam.
*West Battery was renamed Castle Clinton in 1815, its current official name, in honor of New York City
mayor Dewitt Clinton.
*The US Army stopped using the fort in 1821 and it was leased to New York City as a place of public entertainment and it opened as Castle Garden on
July 3, 1824, a name by which it was popularly known for most of its existence, even to the present time. It served in turn as a promenade, beer garden/ restaurant, exhibition hall, opera house, and theater. Designed as an open-air structure it was eventually roofed over to accommodate these uses.
*In 1850, the castle was the site of two extraordinarily successful concerts given for charity by the Swedish
soprano Jenny Lindto initiate her American tour, managed by P. T. Barnum.
*In 1853 and 1854, the famous and very eccentric French conductor and composer of light music
Louis-Antoine Jullien(1812-1860) gave dozens of very successful concerts mixing classical and light music.
*In 1855, it became the Emigrant Landing Depot as the
New YorkState immigrant processing facility (the nation's first such entity) until 1890, when the Federal Government took over control of immigration processing, and opened the larger and more isolated Ellis Islandfacility for that purpose in 1892. Most of the immigration records burned in a pier fire during the transition to Ellis Island, but it is generally accepted that over 8 million immigrants (and as many as 12 million) were processed through Castle Garden. Prominent persons that were associated with the administration of the immigrant station included Gulian C. Verplanck, Friedrich Kapp, and John Alexander Kennedy.
*In 1896, Castle Garden became the site of the
New York City Aquariumuntil 1941. For many years it was the city's most popular attraction, attracting hundreds of thousands of visitors a year. The structure was extensively altered and roofed over to a height of several stories, though the original masonryfort remained.
*In 1941 the politically powerful Park Commissioner
Robert Moseswanted to tear the structure down completely, claiming that this was necessary to build a crossing from the Battery to Brooklyn. The public outcry at the loss of a popular recreation site and landmark stymied his effort at demolition, but the aquarium was closed and not replaced until Moses opened a new facility on Coney Islandin 1957. "See Brooklyn-Battery bridge". [Author: Caro, Robert A. The power broker: Robert Moses and the fall of New York. New York, Knopf, 1974. ISBN 0-394-72024-5 ]
Castle Clinton National Monument
Although Castle Garden was designated a national monument on
August 12, 1946, the law did not take effect until July 18, 1950, when the legislature and the governor of New York ( Thomas Dewey) formally ceded ownership of the property to the Federal Government. A major rehabilitation took place in the 1970s. Today it is administered by the National Park Serviceand is a departure point for visitors to the Statue of Libertyand Ellis Island. It appears much as it did in its earliest days, contains a museum, and is again called Castle Clinton.
Noted Castle Garden immigrants
"This list is an incomplete sampling"
Martin Beck, owner of the Orpheum vaudeville circuit
James J. Davis
William Fox (producer)
L. Wolfe Gilbert
Oscar Hammerstein I
Carl Laemmle, founder of the Universal Studios
M. P. Moller
William Morris, founder of the William Morris Agency
Michael I. Pupin
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Castle Garden bibliography
* "Castle Garden as an Immigrant Depot, 1855-1890," by George J Svejda (1968)
* "Castle Garden and Battery Park" by Barry Moreno (2007)
* "Guide to the New York Aquarium" by Charles H. Townsend (1919)
* "The Public Aquarium" by Charles H. Townsend (1928)
Castle Garden/Castle Clinton in fiction
* "Castle Garden" by Bill Albert (novel)
* "The Penguin Pool Murder" by
Stuart Palmer(1931 novel)
* "The Penguin Pool Murder" (1932 motion picture)
* "The Alienist" by
* Castle Clinton appears in the video game
Deus Exas a terrorist stronghold the player must infiltrate.
An American Tail(animated film)
Castle Garden/Castle Clinton in Music
* The Irish music group
Wolfe Tones' 1993 album Across the Broad Atlanticcontains a tune called "Goodbye Mick" with the farcical line "For the ship will play with pitch and toss--for half a dozen farthings, I'll roll me bundle on me back, and walk to Castle Gardens."
* [http://www.nps.gov/cacl/ Castle Clinton National Monument] Official site
* [http://gorp.away.com/gorp/resource/US_nm/ny_castl.htm Castle Clinton from GORP]
* [http://www.thebattery.org/ The Battery Conservancy]
* [http://www.castlegarden.org/ Castle Garden Immigration Database]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Castle Clinton — National Monument Castle Clinton im Battery Park … Deutsch Wikipedia
Castle Clinton — National Monument Castle Clinton … Wikipédia en Français
Castle Clinton National Monument — Castle Clinton im Battery Park … Deutsch Wikipedia
Castle Clinton National Monument — Castle Clinton en 2007 Géographie Pays … Wikipédia en Français
Castle Clinton National Monument — geographical name historic site Manhattan Island, SE New York containing a fort … New Collegiate Dictionary
Castle Garden — Castle Clinton National Monument Castle Clinton im Battery Park … Deutsch Wikipedia
Clinton (disambiguation) — Clinton is a family name. Clinton may also refer to: Contents 1 Surname 2 Places 2.1 Other places 3 CTA stations … Wikipedia
Clinton House (Poughkeepsie, New York) — Clinton House U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia
Castle Williams — auf Governors Island … Deutsch Wikipedia
Castle Williams — Infobox Military Structure name=Castle Williams partof=Governors Island location=New York, New York coordinates= caption=Seen from the harbor caption2= type=Castle, Martello tower code= built=1807 builder=Jonathan Williams (engineer)… … Wikipedia