CD135 is a cytokine receptor expressed on the surface of hematopoietic progenitor cells.


fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (Flt3), fetal liver kinase-2 (Flk2)

Cell Surface Marker

Cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules are markers on the cell surface, as recognized by specific sets of antibodies, used to identify the cell type, stage of differentiation and activity of a cell. CD135 is an important cell surface marker used to identify certain types of hematopoietic (blood) progenitors in the bone marrow. Specifically, multipotent progenitors (MPP) and common lymphoid progenitors (CLP) expresse high surface levels of CD135. This marker is therefore used to differentiate hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are CD135 negative, from MPPs, which are CD135 positive.


CD135 is the receptor for the cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3L).


CD135 is a receptor tyrosine kinase type III. When this receptor binds to Flt3L it forms a dimer with itself (homodimer) which activates signaling through second messengers. Signaling through CD135 plays a role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. CD135 is important for lymphocyte (B cell and T cell) development, but not for the development of other blood cells (myeloid development).

Role in cancer

CD135 is a proto-oncogene, meaning that mutations of this protein can lead to cancer [ [ FLT3 (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3) ] ] . Mutations of the Flt3 receptor can lead to the development of leukemia, a cancer of bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors. Internal tandem duplications of Flt3 (Flt3-ITD) are the most common mutations associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and are a poor prognostic indicator.

ee also

* Cluster of differentiation
* cytokine receptor
* receptor tyrosine kinase
* tyrosine kinase
* oncogene
* hematopoiesis


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Reilly JT |title=FLT3 and its role in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukaemia. |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=44 |issue= 1 |pages= 1–7 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12691136 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kottaridis PD, Gale RE, Linch DC |title=Prognostic implications of the presence of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=44 |issue= 6 |pages= 905–13 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12854887 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Gilliland DG |title=FLT3-activating mutations in acute promyelocytic leukaemia: a rationale for risk-adapted therapy with FLT3 inhibitors. |journal=Best practice & research. Clinical haematology |volume=16 |issue= 3 |pages= 409–17 |year= 2004 |pmid= 12935959 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Drexler HG, Quentmeier H |title=FLT3: receptor and ligand. |journal=Growth Factors |volume=22 |issue= 2 |pages= 71–3 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15253381 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Naoe T, Kiyoi H |title=Normal and oncogenic FLT3. |journal=Cell. Mol. Life Sci. |volume=61 |issue= 23 |pages= 2932–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15583855 |doi= 10.1007/s00018-004-4274-x
*cite journal | author=Sternberg DW, Licht JD |title=Therapeutic intervention in leukemias that express the activated fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3): opportunities and challenges. |journal=Curr. Opin. Hematol. |volume=12 |issue= 1 |pages= 7–13 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15604885 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Marcucci G, Mrózek K, Bloomfield CD |title=Molecular heterogeneity and prognostic biomarkers in adults with acute myeloid leukemia and normal cytogenetics. |journal=Curr. Opin. Hematol. |volume=12 |issue= 1 |pages= 68–75 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15604894 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Markovic A, MacKenzie KL, Lock RB |title=FLT-3: a new focus in the understanding of acute leukemia. |journal=Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. |volume=37 |issue= 6 |pages= 1168–72 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15778081 |doi= 10.1016/j.biocel.2004.12.005
*cite journal | author=Zheng R, Small D |title=Mutant FLT3 signaling contributes to a block in myeloid differentiation. |journal=Leuk. Lymphoma |volume=46 |issue= 12 |pages= 1679–87 |year= 2006 |pmid= 16263569 |doi= 10.1080/10428190500261740
*cite journal | author=Parcells BW, Ikeda AK, Simms-Waldrip T, "et al." |title=FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 in normal hematopoiesis and acute myeloid leukemia. |journal=Stem Cells |volume=24 |issue= 5 |pages= 1174–84 |year= 2007 |pmid= 16410383 |doi= 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0519
*cite journal | author=Stubbs MC, Armstrong SA |title=FLT3 as a therapeutic target in childhood acute leukemia. |journal=Current drug targets |volume=8 |issue= 6 |pages= 703–14 |year= 2007 |pmid= 17584026 |doi=

External links


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