Limehouse


Limehouse

infobox UK place
country = England
map_type = Greater London
region= London
population=
official_name= Limehouse
latitude= 51.5158
longitude= -0.0318
os_grid_reference= TQ365815
post_town= LONDON
postcode_area=E
postcode_district=E14
london_borough= Tower Hamlets
dial_code= 020
constituency_westminster= Poplar and Canning Town

Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is on the northern bank of the River Thames opposite Rotherhithe and between Ratcliff to the west and Millwall to the east.

Geographically, Limehouse is commonly thought by newcomers to be centred on Narrow Street and the Limehouse Basin, whereas it is actually centred co-incidently on Limehouse Town Hall in Commercial Road. It stretches from Limehouse Basin in the West to the edge of the former Chinatown in Pennyfields in the East; and from the River in the South to the Victory Bridge at the junction of Benjonson Road and Rhodeswell Road in the North.

The area gives its name to Limehouse Reach, a lengthy section of the Thames which actually runs all the way from Shadwell, through Ratcliff and then Limehouse and on to Millwall.

History

Etymology

The name relates to the local lime kilns located by the river and operated by the large potteries that served shipping in the London docks [The name 'Limehouse' is sometimes mistakenly thought to be derived from the nickname for the seamen that disembarked there, who had earned the name "Lime-juicers" or "limeys" after the obligatory ration of lime juice the Royal Navy gave their sailors to ward off scurvy.] . The earliest reference to "Les Lymhostes" occurs in 1356 ["Folios cxci - cc: Dec 1416 - ', Calendar of letter-books of the city of London: I: 1400-1422 (1909), pp. 175-86" A later reference from 1417 is reproduced verbatim:

"Inquisicio capta sup' litus Thomisie apud Lymhosteys pro morte Thome Frank". "17 Aug, 5 Henry V. [A.D. 1417] , inquest held before "les Lymehostes" within the liberty and franchise of the City, before Henry Bartone, the Mayor, and the King's Escheator, as to the cause of the death of Thomas Franke, of Herewich, late steersman (conductor) or "lodysman" of a ship called "la Mary Knyght" of Danzsk in Prussia A jury sworn, viz., John Baille, Matthew Holme, Robert Marle, Henry Mark, Alexander Bryan, John Goby, Richard Hervy, Walter Steel, Peter West, Richard Stowell, John Dyse, and Walter Broun. They find that the said Thomas Franke was killed by falling on the sharp end of an anchor"
]

Maritime links

From its foundation, Limehouse, like neighbouring Wapping, has enjoyed better links with the river than the land, the land route being across a marsh. Limehouse became a significant port in late medieval times, with extensive docks and wharves. Although most cargoes were discharged in the Pool of London before the establishment of the docks, industries such as ship building, ship chandlering and rope making were established in Limehouse.

Limehouse Basin opened in 1820 as the "Regent's Canal Dock". This was an important connection between the Thames and the canal system, where cargoes could be transferred from larger ships to the shallow-draught canal boats. This mix of vessels can still be seen in the basin, canal narrow boats rubbing shoulders with sea-going yachts [ [http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConFactFile.80/Regents-Canal-Dock.html Regent's Canal Dock (1812–1970s)] accessed 10 May 2007] .

The dock basin with its marina remains a working facility. The same is not true of those wharf buildings that have survived, most of which are now highly desirable residential properties.

From the Tudor era, until the 20th century, ships crew were employed on a casual basis. New and replacement crew would be found wherever they were available, local sailors being particularly prized for their knowledge of currents and hazards in foreign ports. Crews would be paid off at the end of their voyage. Inevitably, permanent communities became established, including colonies of Lascars and Africans from the Guinea Coast. Large Chinatowns at both in Limehouse and Shadwell developed, associated with the crews of merchantmen in the opium and tea trades, particularly for Han Chinese. The area achieved notoriety for opium dens in the late 19th century, often featured in pulp fiction works by Sax Rohmer and others. Like much of the East End it remained a focus for immigration, but after the devastation of the Second World War many of the Chinese community relocated to Soho [ [http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConNarrative.127/chapterId/2614/Chinese-in-the-Port-of-London.html Port Cities: London's First Chinatown] accessed 29 May 2007] [ [http://www.portcities.org.uk/london/server/show/ConNarrative.96/chapterId/2682/The-port-in-literature.html 'Chinatown' literature] accessed 10 May 2007] . On 12 February 1832, the first case of cholera was reported in London at Limehouse. First described in India in 1817, it had spread here via Hamburg. Although 800 people died during this epidemic, fewer than had died of tuberculosis in the same year, cholera visited again in 1848 and 1858 [ [http://www.mernick.co.uk/thhol/1832chol.html "The 1832 cholera epidemic in East London" East London Record, 2 (1979)] accessed 5 Jul 2007] .

ignificant events in politics

On 30 July, 1909 the Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George made a polemical speech in Limehouse attacking the House of Lords for its opposition to his "People's Budget". This speech was the origin of the phrase "To Limehouse", or "Limehousing", which meant an incendiary political speech. [ [http://www.takeourword.com/Issue070.html "Take our word for it" 24 Jan 2000] accessed 10 May 2007]

On January 25, 1981 MPs Shirley Williams, Roy Jenkins, William Rodgers and David Owen made the Limehouse Declaration from Owen's house in Limehouse, which announced the formation of the Council for Social Democracy in opposition to the granting of block votes to the trade unions in the Labour Party to which they had previously belonged. They soon became leading politicians in the Social Democratic Party.

Cultural references

The area inspired Douglas Furber (lyricist) and Phillip Braham (composer) in 1921 to write the popular jazz standard "Limehouse Blues" [ [http://www.kendormusic.com/2005/3263.htm "Limehouse Blues" sheet music and sample files] accessed 10 May 2007] , which was introduced by Jack Buchanan and Gertrude Lawrence in the musical revue "A to Z". Much later, it was reprised in the ballet "Limehouse Blues" featuring Fred Astaire and Lucille Bremer in the musical film "Ziegfeld Follies" (1946). In both instances the actors were heavily disguised as Chinese. "Limehouse Blues" was also the name of a 1934 film, starring George Raft [imdb title|id=0025399|title=Limehouse Blues] .Thomas Burke wrote Limehouse Nights (1916), a collection of stories centered around life in the poverty-stricken Limehouse district of London. Many of Burke's books feature the Chinese character Quong Lee as narrator. The area also features in the "Fu Manchu" books of Sax Rohmer, where a Limehouse opium den serves as the hideout of the Chinese supervillain. The notion of East End opium dens seems to have originated with a description by Charles Dickens of a visit he made to an opium den in nearby Bluegate Fields inspired certain scenes in his last, unfinished, novel "The Mystery of Edwin Drood" (1870). [Peter Ackroyd (1990) "Dickens": 1046] [ [http://www.mernick.co.uk/thhol/curiousburial.html "A Curious Burial"] 11 January 1890 "East London Observer" – an account of the burial of Ah Sing, said to be the inspiration for the character of the opium seller. Accessed 22 July 2008]

Other notable performances on film include those by Hoagy Carmichael in "To Have and Have Not" (1946) and by Borrah Minevich and His Harmonica Rascals in "One in a Million" (1936). The area also appeared in Anna Mae Wong's 1929 film "Piccadilly", where as the toughly alluring Shosho, Ms. Wong was said to embody the Limehouse Chinatown mystique.

Notable residents

Sir Humphrey Gilbert lived here, [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Sir_Humphrey_Gilbert 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica "Sir Humphrey Gilbert"] accessed 10 May 2007] and was an advocate of opening up the Northwest Passage. This inspired Martin Frobisher to sail to Baffin Island,and he returned with a mysterious black rock. [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Sir_Martin_Frobisher 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica "Sir Martin Frobisher'] accessed 10 May 2007] Gilbert set up the Society of the New Art with Lord Burghley and the Earl of Leicester who had their alchemical laboratory in Limehouse. ["Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Elizabeth I, Vol. VI, 1572-1575" Joel Hurstfield "The English Historical Review, Vol. 91, No. 358 (Jan., 1976), pp. 127-129"] However their attempts to transmute the black rock into gold proved fruitless. (Humphrey's brother Adrian Gilbert was reputed a great alchemist and worked closely with John Dee.) Fact|date=March 2007

Captain Christopher Newport lived in Limehouse for several years up until 1595 [K.R. Andrews, "Christopher Newport of Limehouse, Mariner," William and Mary Quarterly 3d ser., 11, no. 1(January 1954):28.] . He rose through the sailing ranks from a poor cabin boy to a wealthy English privateer and eventually one of the Masters of the Royal Navy. He became rich pirating Spanish treasure vessels in the West Indies. In 1607 he sailed the Susan Constant, followed by the Godspeed and Discovery, as Admiral of the Fleet to Jamestown. He helped secure England's foothold in North America through five voyages to Jamestown. He sailed his entire life, dying on a trading voyage to Bantam, on the island of Java in present day Indonesia. His sailing experience in Limehouse made him known as Captain Christopher Newport, of Limehouse, Mariner.

Charles Dickensgodfather ran his sail making business from Church Row (Newell Street); [ [http://www.eastlondonhistory.com/dickens.htm East London history] accessed 28 Mar 2007] and James McNeill Whistler [ [http://www.davidrumsey.com/amico/amico1093308-4593.html Whistler "Limehouse" 1878] accessed 28 Mar 2007] and Charles Napier Hemy ["The Barge Builders" in "The Burlington Magazine", Vol. 126, No. 981 (Dec., 1984), p. 786+804] sketched and painted at locations on Narrow Street's river waterfront. Contemporary residents include the actor Sir Ian McKellen [ [http://www.mckellen.com/life/per.htm Ian McKellen Personal Website] ] , Matthew Parris, and comedy actress Cleo Rocos, [ [http://icthewharf.icnetwork.co.uk/thewharf/headlines/tm_headline=new-forum-fighting-for-a-limehouse-focus&method=full&objectid=18492430&siteid=71670-name_page.html The Wharf] ] actor Steven Berkoff [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/people/profiles/article2124821.ece "Steven Berkoff: The real East Enders" The Independent 04 Jan 2007] accessed 10 May 2007] , comedian Lee Hurst Fact|date=March 2007, as well as politician Lord David Owen. [ [http://sca.lib.liv.ac.uk/collections/Owen/biog.htm David Owen biography] accessed 28 Mar 2007] Limehouse was also the home of the late film director Sir David Lean. [ [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19971025/ai_n14142206 The Independent] ]

Buildings

St Anne's Limehouse was built by Nicholas Hawksmoor. A pyramid originally planned to be put atop the tower now stands in the graveyard. The church is next door to Limehouse Town Hall and close to Limehouse Library, both Grade II listed buildings, the former now used as a community centre. Across the road is the Sailors' Mission, where Situationist International held its conference in 1960. The building subsequently became a run-down hostel for the homeless which became notorious for its squalor, although it has since been converted into a luxury apartment block.

Further to the southwest, Narrow Street, Limehouse's historic spine, which runs along the back of the Thames wharves, boasts one of the few surviving early Georgian terraces in London. Next to the terrace is the historic Grapes pub, rebuilt in 1720 and well-known to Charles Dickens, featuring as the "Six Jolly Fellowships" in "Our Mutual Friend". Almost every building on the other side of Narrow Street was destroyed by bombing in the Second World War, including hundreds of houses, the Barley Mow Brewery and a school. One notable exception is a former public House, known locally as 'The House They Left Behind', because it was the only Victorian Terrace to survive. It still stands today, with the aid of three large supporting pillars.

Further along the street is 'The Narrow', a gastropub run by Gordon Ramsay. It is housed in the Grade II listed, former dockmaster's house and office, for Limehouse Dock.

ee Also

* Stepney Historical Trust

Education

:"For details of education in Limehouse see the List of schools in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets"

Transport

Nearest places

* Poplar
* Isle of Dogs
* Wapping
* Shadwell
* Stepney
* Rotherhithe
* Bethnal Green
* Ratcliff

Nearest stations

River boat service piers

* Canary Wharf Pier"Narrow Street forms a part of the north bank of the Thames Path, the walk is between tall former warehouses and modern flats. Many were built with planning covenants granting river access, but these are now often barred to the public. Vehicular access is limited, as the area is cut off by the entrance to the Limehouse tunnel and parking is strictly controlled, however this makes the area reasonably quiet for cyclists. Public access to the foreshore is prohibited, apparently part of the security arrangements for former Foreign Secretary, David Owen."

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Limehouse — Sede del gobierno de Limehouse …   Wikipedia Español

  • Limehouse — (spr. Leimhaus), Kirchspiel in der englischen Grafschaft Middlesex, dicht bei London; Schiffswerfte; 13,000 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Limehouse — (spr. laim haus), Stadtteil im Osten Londons, zum Verwaltungsbezirk Stepney gehörig, am linken Themseufer, oberhalb der West India Docks, mit (1901) 55,981 Einw …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Limehouse — (spr. leimhaus), Stadtteil Londons, am l. Ufer der Themse, (1901) 32.358 E …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Limehouse — [līm′hous΄] district in the E London borough of Tower Hamlets, on the Thames: former Chinese quarter …   English World dictionary

  • Limehouse — /luym hows /, n. a dock district in the East End of London, England, once notorious for its squalor: formerly a Chinese quarter. * * * ▪ neighbourhood, Tower Hamlets, London, United Kingdom       neighbourhood in the borough of Tower Hamlets in… …   Universalium

  • Limehouse — London Borough of Tower Hamlets Lage in Greater London Status London Borough Region …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Limehouse — geographical name district E London, England, in Tower Hamlets on N bank of Thames River …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Limehouse — 1. noun A district of north London, now part of 2. verb To make a fiery, political speech …   Wiktionary

  • Limehouse — Lime•house [[t]ˈlaɪmˌhaʊs[/t]] n. geg a dock district in the East End of London, England, once notorious for its squalor: formerly a Chinese quarter …   From formal English to slang