- London Borough of Hackney
Infobox London Borough | name = London Borough of Hackney
short_name = Hackney
London borough| area_rank = 349th
area_km2 = 19.06
ons_code = 00AM | adminhq = Mare Street, Hackney | ethnicity = 48.4% White, including:
" 22.1% White British
3.1% White Irish
9.2% White non-British"
9.6% South Asian
url = [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/ LB Hackney]
leadership = Mayor & Cabinet
Jules Pipe CBE
gla_constituency = North East London
The London Borough of Hackney (audio|En-uk-LBHackney.ogg|pronunciation) is a
London boroughin North-East London, and forms part of inner London.
Borough of contrasts
Between 1999 and 2001 serious concerns were expressed about Hackney's performance as a council by the
Audit Commission, and many aspects of council services were failing. This led to considerable negative press coverage that still colours perceptions of the area, but is at odds with the changing realities of the borough. In 2005, MORIidentified that residents were significantly more satisfied than they had been in 2002, and in 2007 the Audit Commission showed that improvements continue to be made in council performance, with the council now achieving 'three stars', and described as 'improving strongly' [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/07_02_08_London_councils.pdf "City's councils get top ratings" (BBC News)] 7 February accessed 8 Feb 2008] .
While every ward remains among the 10% most deprived in the country, with 47% of children living in low income households, the ethnic diversity of the area creates a vibrant inner city area of
London[http://www.audit-commission.gov.uk/Products/CPA-CORP-ASSESS-REPORT/4EDFC845-9AD0-49BE-9840-E8033258CC58/HackneyCAREP.pdf "Corporate Assessment Report: London Borough of Hackney" (The Audit Commission August 2006)] accessed 4 Dec 2007] . Hackney has a reputation as one of the most crime-affected London boroughs, but cooperation between local police and council has resulted in the borough experiencing a bigger drop in crime than in any other London borough in the four year period up to 2007 (28% reduction) [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/hackney-today-157-part1.pdf "Hackney Today" 157 23 April 2007] accessed 6 June 2007] .
The south western tip of the borough is adjacent to the City and close to the
Broadgatedevelopment. In this area some office development has taken place within the borough boundary. Also in the south west is Hoxtonand Shoreditchwhich are central to the London arts sceneand home to numerous clubs, bars, shops and restaurants, much of which is centred on Hoxton Square. The development of Shoreditch and Hoxton caused land value to increase in the area such that developers looked to other parts of the borough for development. Much of Hackney is inner-city in character and in places like Dalstonlarge housing estates now sit side-by-side with gated communities.
The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly surrounding and extending north from Mare Street known as
Hackney Central. Hackney Town Hall Square has been developed as a new 'creative quarter'. Surrounding the public square itself is the Ocean music venue, a new Library, Technology and Learning Centre, Hackney Museum and the refurbished Hackney Empire. A new town hall complex is being built behind the existing building. South Hackneyabuts Victoria Park (which is in neighbouring Tower Hamlets) and terraced Victorian and Edwardian housing stock has survived in the area.
To the north of the borough is
Clapton, Stamford Hilland Stoke Newington. To the east is the large open space of the Hackney Marshesand the districts of Hackney Wickand Homerton. There is some declining light industry around the River Lea(the eastern boundary) and land is planned to be re-used for the 2012 Summer Olympics, making the area one of the Host Boroughs for the games.
There are 1,300
listed buildings in Hackney, including the iconic grade II* Hackney Empire, Tudor Sutton House, and the grade I medieval St Augustine's tower. The Borough contains 25 conservation areas including Clapton Square, and many urban open-spaces including Clapton Common and Clissold Park. Conservation areas also protect large areas of Georgian and Victorian housing, and areas of industrial heritage. [ [http://www.hackneysociety.org/ Hackney Society photographic survery] accessed 23 Jan 2007]
The borough was formed in 1965 from the area of the former
metropolitan boroughs of Hackney, Shoreditch and Stoke Newington. The new council adopted elements of its constituents in the new coat of arms; Shoreditch by three bells from Shoreditch Church (recalled in the rhyme " Oranges and Lemons"), Stoke Newington by two trees bearing fruit, and Hackney by the eight pointed cross of the principal landowners of the parish in the middle-ages, the Order of St John of Jerusalem. The shield is surmounted by a representation of St Augustin's Tower, the remains of Hackney's former parish church in the historical centre of Hackney. The motto is "Justitia turris nostra", translated as "Being fair is what makes us strong" [Details extracted from a council information sheet - May 2007] . The Queen's portrait hangs in the council chamber, wearing the robes of the Venerable Order of Saint John.
Individual parts of the borough have a rich history. The Roman road,
Ermine Streetforms the western edge of the borough. Much of the rest of the land was covered with open oak and hazel woodlands, with marshland around the rivers and streams that crossed the area. Hackney lay in the Catevallauni tribal territory [ [http://www.brickfields.org.uk/text/roman-landscape.html Roman Landscape (Brickfields Building Exploratory)] accessed 10 May 2007] . The eastern boundary of the borough is formed by the River Lee. This was an ancient boundary between pre-Roman tribes, and in the Roman era, was tidal as far as Hackney Wickand continued as the boundary between the historic counties of Middlesexand Essex. In the Tudor period the lands of the religious order were seized and Hackney became a retreat for nobility around Hackney Centraland Homerton, including Henry VIII's palace by the Lee Bridge roundabout, where Brooke House School stands today [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=22694 'Hackney: Settlement and Building to c.1800', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 10: Hackney (1995), pp. 10-4] Date accessed: 02 Oct 2006] . Sutton House, on Homerton High Street, is the oldest surviving dwelling in Hackney, originally built as "Bryck Place" for Tudor diplomat Sir Ralph Sadleir in 1535. The village of Hackney flourished from the Tudor to late Georgian periods as a rural retreat – brought to an end by the construction of the railway in the 1850s. Notable residents have included Thomas Sutton, Samuel Courtauld, Joseph Priestly, a governor of the Bank of Englandand the founding director of the Honourable East India Company.London's first Tudor theatres were built in Shoreditchand the Gunpowder Plotwas first exposed at nearby Hoxton[ [http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/g08.pdf Houses of Parliament factsheet on event] accessed 6 Mar 2007] . Many grand houses stood in Stoke Newingtonand Stamford Hill, with the latter providing a haven for Hackney's many orthodox Jewish residents from the 1930s. Alfred Hitchcockmade many of his first films in Hoxton at the Gainsborough Studiosin Poole street [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/servapps/visit/data/vi_vill4.htm Visiting Hackney] accessed 10 May 2007] .
After industrialisation, extensive post-war development and immigration the area is now gentrifying its large stock of Georgian and Victorian terraces and new apartments, warehouse conversions and period restorations are being built [ [http://www.channel4.com/4homes/ontv/best&worst/2007/Hackney-Best-Worst-One-Year-Later-2.html "Location, Location: Best and Worse Hackney One Year On" (Channek 4 TV)] accessed 7 Nov 2007] . Despite development it is inner London's 'greenest borough' and London Transport's 'best bike borough 2006' [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/print/xc-news-april06-bestbike.htm "Hackney wins best bike borough" (LBH Press release, 6 April 2006)] accessed 7 Nov 2007] , with 62 parks and open spaces, covering convert|815|acre|km2|1 [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/cp-community-parks.htm "Parks department" (LB Hackney)] accessed 7 Nov 2007] . Seven Hackney parks have now achieved Green Flag status. ["Hackney Today" 188
21 July 2008] Hackney Marshesplay host to the largest collection of football pitches in Europe; and will be the site of part of the 2012 Summer Olympics.
Unlike most other English local authorities, the Borough is now governed by a directly-elected Mayor who is also the political leader of the council. The Mayor – currently
Jules Pipe CBE– is supported by a Cabinet, Councillors and a Speaker, currently Councillor Ian Rathbone, who fulfils the civic and ceremonial duties previously undertaken by the (non-political) mayor [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/index.htm/l-mayor-cabinet-councillors/l-speaker.htm The Speaker of Hackney Council] accessed 21 May 2007] .
At the Hackney Council election on
4 May, 2006the Labour Party were returned with 44 councillors, winning one seat and losing one. The Conservative Party forms the largest opposition party on the council with nine councillors, the Liberal Democratshave three, and for only the second time a candidate from the Green Party was elected [ [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/index.htm/l-elections-publishing-results/elections-results/ Mayor and Council Elections 2006] accessed 10 May 2007] .
Demographics of Hackney
The 2001 census gives Hackney a population of 202,824. [Statistics for ethnicity [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8919] , country of birth [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8279] , and religion [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/STATBASE/ssdataset.asp?vlnk=8288] are from the
The population is ethnically diverse. Of the resident population, 89,490 (44%) people describe themselves as White British. 30,978 (15%) are in other White
ethnic groups, 50,009 (25%) are Black or Black British, 17,414 (9%) are Asian or Asian British, 8,501 (4%) describe themselves as 'Mixed', and 6,432 (3%) as Chinese or Other.
There is also a large Turkish population in Hackney, mainly whom are
Turkish Cypriot. Turkish-speaking communities are located in all parts of the Borough, though there is a greater concentration in North and Central parts of the Borough. Stoke Newington, Newington Greenand Dalstonhave the greatest concentration of population and in particular Green Lanes, running from Manor Housedown to Newington Green Roundabout, has a high concentration of businesses and shops.
132,931 (66%) of the resident population were born in the UK. A further 10,095 (5%) were born in other parts of Europe, and the remaining 59,798 (29%) born elsewhere in the world.
The 2001 census also shows Christianity is the biggest religion in Hackney, with (44%) Christian; (18%) Muslim; (4%) Jewish; and (3%) belong to other religions. A further (19%) stated no religion, and (12%) did not state a religion.
32% of householders are owner–occupiers.
In 2002, the borough entered into a ten year contract with the "Learning Trust", an independent collaborative body that organises education for Hackney's 27,000 pupils in over 70 schools, nurseries and play centres. The trust was set up in response to an
OFSTEDreport that identified failings in the then existing system [ [http://www.learningtrust.co.uk/about_us/history.aspx Learning Trust history] accessed 5 May 2007] . Two of London's most successful City Academies are in Hackney with another two in development and plans to rebuild or renovate every other Hackney school by 2016.
Hackney is currently poorly served by
London Undergroundservices. Only one station, Manor House is located in the Borough, on its extreme north-westen fringe on the boundary with Haringey. Old Street sits only a few yards south-west of the Borough in Islington. Transport for Londonis extending the East London Linenorthwards through the borough, reusing some of the abandoned line between Dalston Junction and Broad Street, with stations planned at Shoreditch High Street, Hoxton, Haggerston and Dalston Junction. When complete, in June 2010, the line will be handed over to London Overground, who will run services from Hackney to South London. Crossrail 2would provide a direct Underground line to serve Hackney, Dalston and Homerton although it is now undecided whether this would be operated by the London Underground or as a main line.
North London Lineis operated by TfL, as a part of the London Overground. The Lea Valley Linesalso passes through Hackney:
Lea Valley Lines
:"Hackney stations (north to south)"
Stamford Hill railway station
Stoke Newington railway station
Rectory Road railway station
Clapton railway station
Hackney Downs railway station
London Fields railway station
Districts and postcodes
Notable associated people
Cultural attractions and institutions
Arcola Theatre(Theatre performance)
* [http://www.cell.org.uk/ Cell Project Space] (Studio rental and gallery)
* Chat's Palace Arts Centre (Community based arts and performance)
* [http://www.thecentreofattention.org/ The Centre of Attention]
The Circus Space(International circus school and performance space)
* [http://www.clowns-international.co.uk/Our.Gallery.htm Clowns' Gallery, Museum and Archive]
DalstonCulture House (which includes the Vortex Jazz Club)
* [http://www.flowerseast.com/ Flowers East] (Commercial gallery)
Geffrye Museum(Domestic rooms through the ages, presented in an 18th century Alms House)
* [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/cm-museum The Hackney Museum] (Local history museum)
* [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/index.htm/ca-archives.htm Hackney Archives] (Local archives - booking essential)
* [http://www.hackneysociety.org.uk/Intro.htm The Hackney Society]
* [http://www.hoxtonhall.co.uk/ Hoxton Hall] (Community centre & performance space in Victorian
INIVA(The Institute for New International Visual Arts)
* [http://www.lux.org.uk/index.html The Lux Cinema] (Cinema closed, collection moved to Shacklewell Lane)
* [http://www.riocinema.ndirect.co.uk/ The Rio Cinema]
* [http://www.spacestudios.org.uk/ Space Studios] (studio space for artists, and exhibitions)
Sutton House(Heritage house and museum owned by the National Trust)
* [http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/terns2/index.htm The Reservoirs Nature Society (TeRNS)]
Transition Gallery(Commercial gallery)
* [http://www.victoria-miro.com/Victoria Miro] (Commercial gallery)
White Cube(Commercial gallery)
Hackney is twinned with:–
:flagicon|BAR The city of
Bridgetown, Barbados; :flagicon|FRA The commune of Suresnes, France;:flagicon|GER Göttingen, Germany; :flagicon|ISR The city of Haifa, Israel; :flagicon|RUS Krasnopresnenskaya, Russia; :flagicon|ZAF An informal twinning with the township of Alexandra, South Africa. [Hackney Council [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/servapps/CommunityDirectories/Details.aspx?OrgID=5810 | Twinning] Accessed 2008-09-19]
* [http://www.hackney.gov.uk/ Official site of Hackney council]
* [http://www.hackneyconservatives.com Hackney Conservative Party] Links to Conservative Councillors, London Assembly Members and MEPs
* [http://www.hackney-labour.org.uk/ Hackney Labour Party] Links to Labour Councillors, London Assembly Members and MEPs
* [http://www.hackneylibdems.org.uk/ Hackney Liberal Democrats] Links to Liberal Democrat Councillors, London Assembly Members and MEP
* [http://hackney.greenparty.org.uk/ Hackney Green Party] Links to Green Councillor, London Assembly Members and MEP
* [http://hackneyindependent.org Hackney Independent] Link to Hackney Independent Party
* [http://cityultima.com/Hackney Local Search for Hackney]
* [http://www.hackneyrfc.co.uk Hackney Rugby Football Club]
* [http://www.hackneysociety.org/ The Hackney Society (Heritage Conservation)]
* [http://hoop.ground-level.org/about Hackney Walks]
* [http://mysite.wanadoo-members.co.uk/terns2/index.htm The Reservoirs Nature Society (TeRNS)]
* [http://www.learningcurve.gov.uk/tudorhackney/localhistory/loch.asp Tudor Life in Hackney (National Archives)]
* [http://www.regiments.org/regiments/uk/volmil-london/vinf/L10hackn.htm The London Regt (Hackney)] (History of the Hackney Battalion of the
* [http://publish.indymedia.org.uk/en/2006/08/347757.html Peace Bicyclists on Hackney High Street]
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