Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus


Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus

Archibald Douglas, 5th Earl of Angus (1449 – November 19, 1513), was known as the "Great" Earl of Angus and, perhaps more famously, "Bell the Cat".

Life

Angus was born about 1449 at Tantallon Castle and succeeded his father, George the 4th earl, in 1462 or 1463.

In 1481, Angus was made warden of the east marches, but the next year he joined the league against James III and his favourite Robert Cochrane at Lauder. Here he earned his nickname by offering to "bell the cat" – that is, to deal with the latter – beginning the attack upon him by pulling his gold chain off his neck, and causing him and others of the king's favourites to be hanged. The phrase "to bell the cat" comes from one of Aesop's fables, The Mice in Council, and means a dangerous task that is undertaken for the benefit of all.

Subsequently he joined Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV of England on the 11 February 1483, signing the convention at Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship of the English king. However, in March they returned, outwardly at least, to their allegiance, and received pardons for their treason.

Later, Angus was one of the leaders in the rebellion against James in 1487 and 1488 which ended in the latter's death.

He was made one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but soon lost influence, being superseded by the Homes and Hepburns, and the wardenship of the marches was given to Alexander Home. Though outwardly on good terms with James, he treacherously made a treaty with Henry VII around 1489 or 1491, by which he undertook to govern his relations with James according to instructions from England. He also agreed to hand over Hermitage Castle, commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, on the condition of receiving English estates in compensation.

In October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, but was obliged to submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate and Hermitage Castle for the lordship of Bothwell.

In 1493 he was again in favour, receiving various grants of lands, and was made chancellor, which office he retained till 1498. In 1501 he was once more in disgrace and confined to Dumbarton Castle. After the disaster at Flodden Field in 1513, at which he was not present, but at which he lost his two eldest sons, Angus was appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died at the close of this year, or in 1514.

Marriages and children

He was married four times, firstly to Catherine Seton, a natural daughter of Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly, secondly on 4 March 1467 to Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Boyd, 1st Lord Boyd. Thirdly, about 1498 he married Janet, daughter of the second Lord Kennedy. And fourthly in 1500, he married Katherine Stirling.

Children by second marriage

Children by third marriage

References

*1911


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