Hyperon


Hyperon

In particle physics, a hyperon is any baryon containing a strange quark, but no charm quarks or bottom quarks.

Properties and behavior of hyperons

Being baryons, all hyperons are fermions. That is, they have half-integer spin and obey Fermi-Dirac statistics. They all interact via the strong nuclear force, making them types of hadron. They are composed of three light quarks, at least one of which is a strange quark, which makes them strange baryons. Hyperons decay weakly with non-conserved parity.

Types of hyperons

There are three Sigma hyperons, SubatomicParticle|Sigma+, SubatomicParticle|Sigma0 and SubatomicParticle|Sigma-. They have rest energies of ~val|1190|u=MeV and lifetimes of ~val|1|e=-10|u=s with the exception of SubatomicParticle|Sigma0 whose lifetime is shorter than val|10|e=-14|u=s.

There is one Lambda hyperon, SubatomicParticle|Lambda0. It has a rest energy of val|1115|u=MeV with a lifetime of val|2.6|e=-10|u=s.

There are two Xi hyperons, SubatomicParticle|Xi0 and SubatomicParticle|Xi-. They have rest energies of val|1315|u=MeV and val|1320|u=MeV and lifetimes of val|2.9|e=-10|u=s and val|1.6|e=-10|u=s.

There is one Omega hyperon, the last discovered, SubatomicParticle|Omega-, with a mass of val|1670|u=MeV and a lifetime of val|8.2|e=-11|u=s.

Hyperon decay

Since strangeness is conserved by the strong interactions, the ground-state hyperons cannot decay strongly. However, they do participate in strong interactions.

Λ decay

SubatomicParticle|Lambda0 may also decay on rare occurrences via these processes

Σ decay

Ξ decay

SubatomicParticle|Xi particles are also known as "cascade" hyperons, since they go through a two-step cascading decay into a nucleon by first decaying to a SubatomicParticle|Lambda0 and emitting a SubatomicParticle|Pion+-.

Ω decay

The SubatomicParticle|Omega- has a baryon number of +1 and hypercharge of -2 giving it strangeness of −3.It takes multiple flavor-changing weak decays for it to decay into a proton or neutron. Murray Gell-Mann's SU(3) model (sometimes called the Eightfold Way) predicted this hyperon's existence, mass and that it will only undergo weak decay processes.

Experimental evidence for its existence was discovered in 1964 at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Further examples of its formation and observation using particle accelerators confirmed the SU(3) model.

Hyperon research

The first research into hyperons happened in the 1950s, and spurred physicists on to the creation of an organized classification of particles. Today, research in this area is carried out on data taken at many facilities around the world, including CERN, Fermilab, SLAC, JLAB, Brookhaven National Laboratory, KEK, and others. Physics topics include searches for CP violation, measurements of spin, studies of excited states (commonly referred to as "spectroscopy"), and hunts for exotic states such as pentaquarks and dibaryons.

List of hyperons

ee also

* Delta baryon
* Hypernucleus
* Lambda baryon
* List of mesons
* List of particles
* Nucleon
* Omega baryon
* Physics portal
* Sigma baryon
* Timeline of particle discoveries
* Xi baryon

References

*


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • hypéron — [ iperɔ̃ ] n. m. • 1953; de hyper et (électr)on ♦ Phys. nucl. Baryon de masse supérieure à celle du nucléon, à durée de vie très courte. ● hypéron nom masculin (de électron) Nom parfois donné aux baryons d étrangeté non nulle. hypéron n. m. PHYS… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • hyperon — n. (Physics) Any baryon that is not a nucleon; it is an unstable particle with a mass greater than that of a neutron. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hyperon — Hypéron Les hypérons sont des particules de type baryon composés d au moins un quark s, qui ressemblent aux nucléons lourds. Les hypérons sont tous des fermions et ont une masse plus ou moins importante et donc ils sont instables et ils se… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • hyperon — [hī′pər än΄] n. [ HYPER + (BARY)ON] Particle Physics an unstable baryon that is more massive than a neutron …   English World dictionary

  • Hyperon — Als Hyperon wird ein Baryon bezeichnet, das mindestens ein Strange Quark (s Quark), aber kein schweres Quark (also Charm Quark oder Bottom Quark) als Valenzquark enthält. Hyperonen wurden erstmals in den 1950er Jahren nachgewiesen. Das SU(3)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hyperon — hiperonas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. hyperon vok. Hyperon, n rus. гиперон, m pranc. hypéron, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • hyperon — hiperonas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. hyperon vok. Hyperon, n rus. гиперон, m pranc. hypéron, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • hypéron — hiperonas statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. hyperon vok. Hyperon, n rus. гиперон, m pranc. hypéron, m …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • Hyperon — Hy|pe|ron [↑ hyper u. ↑ on (3)], das; s, …ro|nen: sehr kurzlebige Elementarteilchen (↑ Baryonen) mit Strangeness, deren Masse die der Nukleonen übersteigt. Man unterscheidet Lambda , Sigma , Xi u. Omega Hyperonen (Λ, Σ, Ξ, Ω). * * * Hy|pe|ron,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hypéron — Les hypérons sont des particules de type baryon composés d au moins un quark s, qui ressemblent aux nucléons lourds. Les hypérons sont tous des fermions et ont une masse plus ou moins importante et donc ils sont instables et ils se désintègrent… …   Wikipédia en Français


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