"Anti-globalization" is a term that encompasses a number of related ideas. [ No Logo: No Space, No Choice, No Jobs by Canadian journalist Naomi Klein.] What is shared is that participants stand in opposition to the unregulated political power of large,
multi-national corporations, and the powers exercised through trade agreements. Recent developments, which are unprecedented changes in the global economy, have been characterised as 'turbo-capitalism' ( Edward Luttwak), ' market fundamentalism' ( George Soros), 'casino-capitalism' ( Richard Longworth), 'cancer-stage capitalism' ( John McMurtry), 'McWorld' ( Benjamin Barber).
Anti-globalization activists generally call for forms of global integration that better provide
democratic representation, respect of human rights, and more egalitarianstates. [Morris, Douglas "Globalization and Media Democracy: The Case of Indymedia" (pre-publication version) [http://www3.fis.utoronto.ca/research/iprp/c3n/CI/DMorris.htm] [http://convention.allacademic.com/asa2003/view_paper_info.html?pub_id=179&part_id1=13161] Podobnik, Bruce, "Resistance to Globalization: Cycles and Evolutions in the Globalization Protest Movement", p. 2.Podobnik states that "the vast majority of groups that participate in these protests draw on international networks of support, and they generally call for forms of globalization that enhance democraticrepresentation, human rights, and egalitarianism."
Stiglitz, Joseph & Andrew Charlton. 2005. "Fair Trade for All: How Trade Can Promote Development". p. 54 n. 23 (writing that "The anti-globalization movement developed in opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. The term 'anti-globalization' is in many ways a misnomer, since the group represents a wide range of interests and issues and many of the people involved in the anti-globalization movement do support closer ties between the various peoples and cultures of the world through, for example, aid, assistance for refugees, and global environmental issues.")]
Some similar terms include the
Global Justice Movement, the Anti-Corporate-Globalization Movement, the Movement of Movements (a popular term in Italy), the Alter-globalizationmovement (popular in France), the Counter-Globalization movement, and a number of other terms.
Ideology and causes within the movement
Supporters believe that by the late 20th century those they characterized as "ruling elites" sought to harness the expansion of world markets for their own interests; this combination of the Bretton Woods institutions, states, and multinational corporations has been called "
globalization" or "globalization from above." In reaction, various social movements emerged to challenge their influence; these movements have been called "anti-globalization" or "globalization from below." [Korzeniewicz, Roberto Patricio & Smith, William C., 2001, "Protest and Collaboration: Transnational Civil Society Networks and the Politics of Summitry and Free Trade in the Americas", pp. 4-6.]
Opposition to international financial institutions and transnational corporations
Generally speaking, protesters believe that the global financial institutions and agreements undermine local decision-making methods. Corporations exercise privileges that human citizens cannot: moving freely across borders, extracting desired
natural resources, and utilizing a diversity of human resources. They are able to move on after doing permanent damage to the natural capitaland biodiversityof a nation, in a manner impossible for that nation's citizens. Activists goals are for an end to the legal status of "corporate personhood" and the dissolution of free market fundamentalismor the radical economic privatization measures of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization.
The activists are especially opposed to "globalization abuse" and the international institutions that are promote
neoliberalismwithout regard to ethical standards. Common targets include World Bank (WB), International Monetary Fund(IMF), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) and the World Trade Organization(WTO) and " free trade" treaties like the North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA), Free Trade Area of the Americas(FTAA), the Multilateral Agreement on Investment(MAI) and the General Agreement on Trade in Services(GATS). In light of the economic gap between rich and poor countries, movement adherents claim “free trade” without measures in place to protect the environment and the health and well being of workers will contribute only to the strengthening the power of industrialized nations (often termed the "North" in opposition to the developing world's "South").
A report by Jean Ziegler, UN Special Rapporteur on the right to food, notes that "millions of farmers are losing their livelihoods in the developing countries, but small farmers in the northern countries are also suffering" and concludes that "the current inequities of the global trading system are being perpetuated rather than resolved under the WTO, given the unequal balance of power between member countries."  .Fact|date=April 2008 Activists point to the unequal footing and power between developed and developing nations within the WTO and with respect to global trade, most specifically in relation to the protectionist policies towards agriculture enacted in many developed countries. These activists also point out that heavy subsidization of developed nations' agriculture and the aggressive use of export subsidies by some developed nations to make their agricultural products more attractive on the international market are major causes of declines in the agricultural sectors of many developing nations.
Activists often also oppose some business alliances like the
World Economic Forum(WEF), the Trans Atlantic Business Dialogue(TABD) and the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation(APEC), as well as the governments which promote such agreements or institutions. Others argue that, if borders are opened to capital, borders should be similarly opened to allow free and legal circulation and choice of residence for migrants and refugees. These activists tend to target organizations such as the International Organization for Migrationand the Schengen Information System.
It is sometimes also argued that the U.S. has a special advantage in the global economy because of
dollar hegemony. These claims state that dollar dominance is not just a consequence of U.S. economic superiority. Globalization historians claim that dollar dominance has been achieved also by political agreements such as Bretton Woods Systemand OPEC dollar-only oil trade after the U.S. broke with the gold standardfor the dollar.
Anti-globalization as anti-neoliberalism
SomeFact|date=October 2007 see the movement as a critical response to the development of
neoliberalism, which is widelyFact|date=April 2008 seen to have commenced with Margaret Thatcher's and Ronald Reagan's policies toward creating laissez-faire capitalismon a global scale by promoting the liberalization of countries’ economies and the weakening of trade and business regulations. Neoliberal proponents argue the increase of free tradeand the reduction of the public sector will bring benefits to poor countries and to disadvantaged people in rich countries. Most anti-globalization advocates strongly disagree, adding that neoliberal policies may bring a loss of sovereignty to democratic institutions. Noam Chomskystates that [Noam Chomsky Znet May 07, 2002 / The Croatian Feral Tribune April 27, 2002 [http://www.zmag.org/content/TerrorWar/chomskygab.cfm] ] [Interview by Sniježana Matejčić, June 2005 [http://www.galerija-rigo.hr/05/chomsky en 2.htm] ] cquote|The term "globalization" has been appropriated by the powerful to refer to a specific form of international economic integration, one based on investor rights, with the interests of people incidental. That is why the business press, in its more honest moments, refers to the "free trade agreements" as "free investment agreements" (Wall St. Journal). Accordingly, advocates of other forms of globalization are described as "anti-globalization"; and some, unfortunately, even accept this term, though it is a term of propagandathat should be dismissed with ridicule. No sane person is opposed to globalization, that is, international integration. Surely not the left and the workers movements, which were founded on the principle of international solidarity - that is, globalization in a form that attends to the rights of people, not private power systems.
By 2002, many parts of the movement showed wide opposition to the impending war in Iraq. Many participants were among those 11 million or more protesters that on the weekend of February 15, 2003, participated in global protests against the imminent Iraq war and were dubbed the "world's
second superpower" by an editorial in the " New York Times". [ [http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60811FD355E0C748DDDAB0894DB404482 Threats and Responses: News Analysis; A New Power In the Streets] (requires purchase to access), The New York Times, Patrick Tyler, February 17, 2003] Other anti-war appointmentsClarifyme|date=March 2008 were organized by the antiglobalization movement as such: see for example the big demonstration against the impending war in Iraq that closed the first European Social Forumon November 2002 in Florence, Italy.Fact|date=May 2008
Anti-globalization militants worried for the proper functioning of democratic institutions as the leaders of many democratic countries (
Spain, Italy, Polandand The United Kingdom) were acting against the wishes of the majorities of their populations in supporting the war.Fact|date=April 2008 Noam Chomskyasserted that these leaders "showed their contempt for democracy". Critics of this type of argument have tended to point out that this is just a standard criticism of representative democracy— a democratically elected government will not always act in the direction of greatest current public support — and that, therefore, there is no inconsistency in the leaders' positions given that these countries are parliamentary democracies.
Appropriateness of the term
Some participants consider the term "anti-globalization" to be a
misnomer, and one which has been used to make inaccurate criticisms of the movement. They say the term implies protectionismor even nationalism, although the movement is self-consciously internationalist, organising globally and advocating for the cause of oppressed people around the world. One element that makes up the movement is the No Border network, which argues for unrestricted migration and the abolition of all national border controls.
Some activists, notably
David Graeber, see the movement as opposed instead to neoliberalism or "corporate globalization". He argues that the term "anti-globalization" is a term coined by the media, and that radical activists are actually more in favor of globalization, in the sense of "effacement of borders and the free movement of people, possessions and ideas" than are the IMF or WTO. He also notes that activists use the terms "globalization movement" and "anti-globalization movement" interchangeably, indicating the confusion of the terminology.cite news | title=The New Anarchists | publisher =New Left Review |date=January-February 2002 | url=http://www.newleftreview.net/NLR24704.shtml] The term "alter-globalization" has been used to make this distinction clear.
While the term "anti-globalization" arose from the movement's opposition to
free-tradeagreements (which have often been considered part of something called " globalization"), various participants contend they are opposed to only certain aspects of globalization and instead describe themselves, at least in French-speaking organisations, as "anti-capitalist," "anti- plutocracy," or "anti-corporate." " Le Monde Diplomatique" 's editor, Ignacio Ramonet's, expression of "the one-way thought" ("la pensée unique") became slang against neoliberalpolicies and the Washington consensus.cite news | title=La pensée unique | publisher=Le Monde Diplomatique |date=January 1995 | url=http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/1995/01/RAMONET/1144]
Two main approaches to finding a common term for the movement can be distinguished: one that might be described as "anti-globalist" or "regionalist", and another that embraces "some" aspects of globalization (like cross-cultural exchange of information or the diminishing role of the
nation state) while rejecting others (like neo-liberal economics). While proponents of both approaches often cooperate and are a reaction to the same phenomena, their differences might be actually greater than the common ground. The former approach can be described as outright anti-globalist (usually including what is perceived as "Americanization" of culture), while the latter would be more appropriately called "globalization critics". In practice, however, there is no set boundary between these approaches, and the term "anti-globalization" is often indiscriminately applied.
Another concern some activists have about the term "anti-globalization" is that it does not distinguish their position from a strictly nationalist opposition to globalization. Many
nationalistmovements, such as the French National Front, are also opposed to globalization, but argue that the alternative to globalization is a protection of the nation-state, sometimes, according to critics, in explicitly racistor fascistterms. Some fascist groups influenced by the Third Positionhave attempted to tailor their message to appeal to the anti-globalization movement. However, the far-right is overwhelmingly rejected by the anti-globalization movement, with groups such as Peoples Global Actionexplicitly rejecting racism, and many within the movement also active in anti-fascist groups such as ANTIFA.
Influences on the anti-globalization movement
Several influential critical works have inspired the anti-globalization movement. "
No Logo", the book by the Canadian journalist Naomi Kleinwho criticized the production practices of multinational corporations and the omnipresence of brand-driven marketing in popular culture, has become a "manifesto"Fact|date=October 2007 of the movement, presenting in a simple way themes more accurately developed in other works. In India some intellectual references of the movement can be found in the works of Vandana Shiva, an ecologist and feminist, who in her book " Biopiracy" documents the way that the natural capitalof indigenous peoplesand ecoregionsis converted into forms of intellectual capital, which are then recognized as exclusive commercial property without sharing the private utility thus derived. The writer Arundhati Royis famous for her anti-nuclear position and her activism against India's massive hydroelectric dam project, sponsored by the World Bank. In France the well-known monthly paper Le Monde Diplomatiquehas advocated the antiglobalization cause and an editorial of its director Ignacio Ramonetbrought about the foundation of the association ATTAC. The works of Jean Ziegler, Christopher Chase-Dunn, and Immanuel Wallersteinhave detailed underdevelopment and dependence in a world ruled by capitalist system. Pacifist and anti-imperialist traditions have strongly influenced the movement. Critics of American foreign policy such as Noam Chomsky, Susan Sontag, and anti-globalist pranksters The Yes Menare widely accepted inside the movement.
Although they may not recognize themselves as antiglobalists and are pro-capitalism, some economists who don't share the neoliberal approach of international economic institutions have strongly influenced the movement.Fact|date=April 2008
Amartya Sen's "Development as Freedom" (Nobel Prize in Economics, 1999), argues that third world development must be understood as the expansion of human capability, not simply the increase in national income per capita, and thus requires policies attuned to health and education, not simply GDP. James Tobin's (winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics) proposal for a tax on financial transactions (called, after him, the Tobin Tax) has become part of the agenda of the movement. George Soros, Joseph E. Stiglitz(another Economic Sciences Nobel prize winner, formerly of the World Bank, author of Globalization and Its Discontents) and David Kortenhave made arguments for drastically improving transparency, for debt relief, land reform, and restructuring corporate accountabilitysystems. Korten and Stiglitz's contribution to the movement include involvement in direct actions and street protest.
High profile events such as the "
McLibel" case have highlighted concern over the effects of multinational corporations on society, labour relations and the environment (in that case the McDonaldsfast food chain).
In some Roman Catholic countries such as
Italythere have been religious influences, especially from missionaries who have spent a long time in the Third World(the most famous being Alex Zanotelli). The confluence between this tradition and post-communist tradition is often perceived as odd, but not completely at odds.
Internet sources and free-information websites, such as
Indymedia, are a means of diffusion of the movement's ideas.The vast array of material on spiritual movements, anarchism, libertarian socialismand the Green Movementthat is now available on the Internet has been perhaps more influential than any printed book. The previously obscure works of Arundhati Roy, Starhawk, and John Zerzan, in particular, inspired a critique favoring feminism, consensus processand political secession.
With the current 2008 financial crisis, which many anarchists believe is the result of
peak oil, some of the anarchists active in the anti-globalization movement are starting to think about what kind of society they will want to establish if the anti-globalization movement "does" succeed in taking over the world.
Although over the past years more emphasis has been given to the construction of grassroots alternatives to (capitalist) globalization, the movement's largest and most visible mode of organizing remains mass decentralized campaigns of direct action and civil disobedience. This mode of organizing, sometimes under the banner of the
Peoples' Global Actionnetwork, tries to tie the many disparate causes together into one global struggle.
In many ways the process of organizing matters overall can be more important to activists than the avowed goals or achievements of any component of the movement.
At corporate summits, the stated goal of most demonstrations is to stop the proceedings. Although the demonstrations rarely succeed in more than delaying or inconveniencing the actual summits, this motivates the mobilizations and gives them a visible, short-term purpose. Critics claimFact|date=October 2007 that this form of publicity is expensive in police time and the public purse. Although not supported by manyFact|date=October 2007 in the movement, rioting has occurred in Genoa, Seattle and London and extensive damage can be done to the area, especially corporate targets, including
McDonald'srestaurants and Starbucks.
Despite (or perhaps because of) the lack of formal coordinating bodies, the movement manages to successfully organize large protests on a global basis, using
information technologyto spread information and organize. Protesters organize themselves into " affinity groups," typically non-hierarchical groups of people who live close together and share a common political goal. Affinity groups will then send representatives to planning meetings. However, because these groups can be infiltrated by law enforcement intelligence, important plans of the protests are often not made until the last minute. One common tactic of the protests is to split up based on willingness to break the law. This is designed, with varying success, to protect the risk-averse from the physical and legal dangers posed by confrontations with law enforcement. For example, in Pragueduring the anti-IMF and World Bank protests in September 2000 demonstrators split into three distinct groups, approaching the conference center from three directions: one engaging in various forms of civil disobedience (the Yellow march), one (the Pink/Silver march) advancing through " tactical frivolity" (costume, dance, theatre, music, and artwork), and one (the Blue march) engaging in violent conflicts with the baton-armed police, with the protesters throwing cobblestones lifted from the street. (See [http://www.guardian.co.uk/imf/story/0,7369,373703,00.html Guardian report] )
These demonstrations come to resemble small societies in themselves. Many protesters take training in first aid and act as medics to other injured protesters. In the USA, some organizations like the
National Lawyer's Guildand, to a lesser extent, the ACLU, provide legal witnesses in case of law enforcement confrontation. Protesters often claim that major media outlets do not properly report on them; therefore, some of them created the Independent Media Center, a collective of protesters reporting on the actions as they happen.
Demonstrations and appointments
The Annual Meetings of the
International Monetary Fund(IMF) and the World Bank, that took place in Berlin (the part of the city that was then part of the Federal Republic of Germany), saw strong protests that can be categorized as a precursor of the anti-globalization movement. One of the main and failed objectives (as it was to be so many times in the future) was to derail the Meetings.
The 50th anniversary of the IMF and the
World Bank, which was celebrated in Madridin October 1994, was the scene of a protest by an ad-hoc coalition of what would later be called anti-globalization movements. They tried to drown the bankers' parties in noise from outside and held other public forms of protest under the motto "50 Years is Enough". While Spanish King Juan Carloswas addressing the participants in a huge exhibition hall, two Greenpeaceactivists climbed to the top and showered the bankers with fake dollar bills carrying the slogan "No $s for Ozone LayerDestruction". A number of the demonstrators were sent to the notorious Carabanchel prison.
One of the first international anti-globalization protests was organized in dozens of cities around the world on June 18, 1999, with those in
Londonand Eugene, Oregonmost often noted. The drive was called the Carnival Against Capitalism, or J18 for short. The protest in Eugene turned into a riot where local anarchists drove police out of a small park. One anarchist, Robert Thaxton, was arrested and convicted of throwing a rock at a police officer.
"Main article:" WTO meeting of 1999
The second major mobilization of the movement, known as N30, occurred on November 30, 1999, when protesters blocked delegates' entrance to WTO meetings in
Seattle, Washington, USA. The protests forced the cancellation of the opening ceremonies and lasted the length of the meeting until December 3. There was a large, permitted march by members of the AFL-CIO, and other unauthorized marches by assorted affinity groups who converged around the Convention Center. [de Armond, Paul, "Storming Seattle" & "Netwar in the Emerald City: WTO Protest Strategy and Tactics".] [Gillham, Patrick F. & Marx, Gary T., 2000, "Complexity and Irony in Policing and Protest: The World Trade Organization in Seattle".] The protesters and Seattle riot police clashed in the streets after police fired tear gasat demonstrators who blocked the streets and refused to disperse. Over 600 protesters were arrested and thousands were injured. ["Orpheus," "Battle of Seattle", part 3.] Three policemen were injured by friendly fire, and one by a thrown rock. Some protesters destroyed the windows of storefronts of businesses owned or franchised by targeted corporations such as a large Nike shop and many Starbuckswindows but also many small independent stores were vandalized as well. The mayor put the city under the municipal equivalent of martial lawand declared a curfew. As of 2002, the city of Seattle had paid over $200,000 in settlements of lawsuits filed against the Seattle Police Departmentfor assault and wrongful arrest, with a class action lawsuit still pending.
Law enforcement reaction
Although local police were surprised by the size of N30, law enforcement agencies have since reacted worldwide to prevent the disruption of future events by a variety of tactics, including sheer weight of numbers, infiltrating the groups to determine their plans, and preparations for the use of force to remove protesters.
At the site of some of the protests, police have used tear gas, pepper spray, concussion grenades, rubber and wooden bullets, night sticks, water cannons, dogs, horses, and occasionally live ammunition to repel the protestersFact|date=August 2008. After the November 2000
G8protest in Montreal, at which many protesters were beaten, trampled, and arrested in what was intended to be a festive protest, the tactic of dividing protests into "green" (permitted), "yellow" (not officially permitted but with little confrontation and low risk of arrest), and "red" (involving direct confrontation) zones was introducedFact|date=August 2008.
Quebec City, municipal officials built a 3 metre (10 ft) high wall around the portion of the city where the Summit of the Americas was being held, which only residents, delegates to the summit, and certain accredited journalists were allowed to pass throughFact|date=August 2008.
Genoa Group of Eight Summit protestfrom July 18 to July 22, 2001 was one of the bloodiest protests in Western Europe's recent history, as evidenced by the wounding of hundreds of policemen and civilians forced to lock themselves inside of their homes and the death of a young Genoese anarchistnamed Carlo Giuliani-who got shot in the face while trying to throw a fire extinguisher on a police car- during two days of violence and rioting by fringe groups supported by the nonchalance of more consistent and peaceful masses of protesters, and the hospitalisation of several of those peaceful demonstrators just mentioned. Police have subsequently been accused of brutality, torture and interference with the non-violent protests as a collateral damage provoked by the clash between the law enforcement ranks themselves and the more violent and brutal fringes of protesters, who repeatedly hid themselves amongst peaceful protesters of all ages and backgrounds. Several hundred peaceful demonstrators, rioters, and police were injured and hundreds were arrested during the days surrounding the G8 meeting; most of those arrested have been charged with some form of "criminal association" under Italy's anti- mafiaand anti-terrorist laws. No consistent investigation has been put forth against the violent protesters, mainly due to the difficulties enountered in identification of the many masked protesters and the fierce opposition at Congress held by most of the left-wing parties, such as the Communist Party and current PM Romano Prodi's Union coalition.Six years have passed, and the city of Genoa is still trying to recover from the many damages provoked by the rioters, mainly devoted to crash cars, setting stores on fire, robbing banks and using any heavy or pointed object as a means to provoke damage to people and objects.As part of the continuing investigations, police raids of social centers, media centers, union buildings, and law offices have continued across Italy since the G8 summit in Genoa. Many police officers or responsible authorities present in Genoa during the G8 summit, are currently under investigation by the Italian judges, and some of them resigned.
International Social Forums
"See main articles:"
European Social Forum, the Asian Social Forum, World Social Forum(WSF).
The first WSF in 2001 was an initiative of the administration of
Porto Alegrein Brazil. The slogan of the World Social Forum was "Another World Is Possible". It was here that the WSF's Charter of Principles was adopted to provide a framework for the forums.
The WSF became a periodic meeting: in 2002 and 2003 it was held again in Porto Alegre and became a rallying point for worldwide protest against the American invasion of Iraq. In 2004 it was moved to
Mumbai(formerly known as Bombay, in India), to make it more accessible to the populations of Asia and Africa. This last appointment saw the participation of 75,000 delegates.
In the meantime, regional forums took place following the example of the WSF, adopting its Charter of Principles. The first
European Social Forum(ESF) was held in November 2002 in Florence. The slogan was "Against the war, against racism and against neo-liberalism". It saw the participation of 60,000 delegates and ended with a huge demonstration against the war (1,000,000 people according to the organizers). The other two ESFs took place in Paris and London, in 2003 and 2004 respectively.
Recently there has been some discussion behind the movement about the role of the social forums. Some see them as a "popular university", an occasion to make many people aware of the problems of globalization. Others would prefer that delegates concentrate their efforts on the coordination and organization of the movement and on the planning of new campaigns. However it has often been argued that in the dominated countries (most of the world) the WSF is little more than an 'NGO fair' driven by Northern NGOs and donors most of which are hostile to popular movements of the poor. [ [http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/features/39464 Pambazuka News ] ]
The anti-globalization movement has been criticized on many fronts by politicians, members of conservative
think tanks, mainstream economists(most of whom are left-of-centercite web|url=http://www2.sofi.su.se/wp/WP06-6.pdf|title=Is there a free market economist in the house.] Klein, D. B. & Stern, C. (July, 2006). The Ideological Profile of the Faculty in the Humanities and Social Sciences: A reply to Zipp and Fenwick. Retrieved May 1, 2008 from the Swedish Institute for Social Research at Stockholm University: http://www.sofi.su.se/wp/WP06-7.pdf] ), other supporters of market-based economic integration and also by anti-systemic currents of the Left. It has also been strongly criticized by third world intellectuals and movements for being very dominated by Europeans and North Americans and their concerns. In some instances it has been alleged that the relationship to movements and intellectuals in the global South is often highly paternalistic.
Lack of evidence for claims
Critics assert that the empirical evidence does not support the views of the anti-globalization movement. These critics point to statistical trends which are interpreted to be results of globalization, capitalism, and the economic growth they are purported to encourage. Specifically, the following are common claims made by critics to support their view:
* The decrease in the percentage of people in developing countries living below $1 per day (adjusted for inflation and purchasing power), which has halved in only twenty years. [ [http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/jsp/index.jsp Welcome to PovcalNet ] ]
* The world income per head has increased by more over period 2002–2007 than during any other period on the record. ["Economics focus: Grossly distorted picture".
The Economist. March 15 2008. p. 92]
* The doubling of life expectancy in the developing world since WWII.
* The increase in universal suffrage, from no nations in 1900 to 62.5% of all nations in 2000. [ [http://www.freedomhouse.org/template.cfm?page=70&release=74 End of Century Survey Finds Dramatic Gains for Democracy] ]
* There are similar trends for electric power, cars, radios, and telephones per capita as well as the percentage of the population with access to clean water. [ [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6VC6-4F02KWN-8&_user=10&_coverDate=01%2F01%2F2005&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_orig=browse&_cdi=5946&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_artOutline=Y&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=273c9d354f2f52b3b14606a5a3b2d69f#bfn25] ]
Johan Norberg, author of " In Defense of Global Capitalism" concurs, arguing that the data supplied by the anti-globalization side is severely lacking in evidence. Other studies by Patrick F. Gillham, and Gary T. in their book, "Complexity and Irony in Policing and Protest: The World Trade Organization in Seattle" published by the Cato Institutehave shown similar results. [ [http://www.cato.org/research/articles/vas-0109.html] [http://www.ratioinstitutet.nu/pdf/wp/nb_efi.pdf] ] .
Members of the anti-globalization movement respond that the pro-globalization slogan, "growth is good for the poor", is a purposefully misleading. They argue that neoliberal policies consistent with globalization and capitalism may not actually be causing growth that has beneficial effects for the poor, or progressing with the urgency the situation requires. They also take issue with the time period which is often normally associated with proponents' arguments such as those cited for life expectancy, child mortality, and literacy above, because they typically include data from periods such as 1950–1975, which were prior to the advent of the neoliberal reforms associated with globalization, and serve to make statistics for globalization seem better than they really are.Fact|date=March 2008
Similarly, they note that including positive data from countries which largely ignored neoliberal prescriptions, notably China, discredits the evidence that pro-globalists present. For example, concerning the parameter of per capita income growth, development economist
Ha-Joon Changwrites that considering the record of the last two decades the argument for continuing neo-liberal policy prescriptions are "simply untenable." Noting that "It depends on the data we use, but roughly speaking, per capita income in developing countries grew at 3% per year between 1960 and 1980, but has grown only at about 1.5% between 1980 and 2000. And even this 1.5% will be reduced to 1%, if we take out India and China, which have not pursued liberal trade and industrial policies recommended by the developed countries." [http://www.fpif.org/pdf/papers/SRtrade2003.pdf] Jagdish Bhagwatiargues that reforms that opened up the economies of China and India contributed to their higher growth in 1980s and 1990s. From 1980 to 2000 their GDP grew at average rate of 10 and 6 percent respectively. This was accompanied by reduction of poverty from 28 percent in 1978 to 9 percent in 1998 in China, and from 51 percent in 1978 to 26 percent in 2000 in India. [Jagdish N. Bhagwati. "In Defense of Globalization." (2004). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195170253 p.65] According to Heritage Foundation, development in China was anticipated by Milton Friedman, who predicted that even a small progress towards economic liberalization would produce dramatic and positive effects. China's economy had grown together with its economic freedom. [ [http://www.heritage.org/Research/TradeandForeignAid/upload/wm_1375.pdf wm_1375.fm ] ] Critics of corporate-led globalization have expressed concern about the methodology used in arriving at the World Bank's statistics and argue that more detailed variables measuring poverty should be studied. [http://www.columbia.edu/~sr793/truth.pdf] [http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/trade_2004_11.pdf] According to the Center for Economic and Policy Research(CEPR), the period from 1980–2005 has seen diminished progress in terms of economic growth, life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and to a lesser extent education. [ [http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/development_2005_09.pdf trade_2004_01_08-1 ] ]
One of the most common criticisms of the movement, which does not necessarily come from its opponents, is simply that the anti-globalization movement lacks coherent goals, and that the views of different protesters are often in opposition to each other. [ Takis Fotopoulos, "The Multidimensional Crisis and Inclusive Democracy", ch. 4 " [http://www.inclusivedemocracy.org/fotopoulos/english/brbooks/multi_crisis_id/ch4.htm ‘Globalisation’ and the Left] "] Many members of the movement are also aware of this, and argue that, as long as they have a common opponent, they should march together - even if they don't share exactly the same political vision.
Addressing problems incorrectly
One argument often made by the opponents of the anti-globalization movement (especially by "
The Economist"), is that one of the major causes of poverty amongst third-world farmers are the trade barriers put up by rich nations and poor nations alike. The WTOis an organisation set up to work towards removing those trade barriers. Therefore, it is argued, people really concerned about the plight of the third world should actually be encouraging free trade, rather than attempting to fight it. People in the third world, they argue, will not take any job unless it is better than the next best option they have. Thus if you deprive a person of their best option, you have made their life worse. While it follows from definition that, other things being equal, a rational person is better off with strictly more options anti-globalization advocates would likely either reject the assumption of rationality or more likely argue that globalization creates negative externalities (pollution) or alters the marketplace in such a fashion as to eliminate better options (e.g., investment encourages assembly line production of products out competing traditional methods). On the other hand globalization advocates would suggest that positive externalities and increased efficiencies create better options for the poor.
Many supporters of capitalism do think that different policies than today should be pursued, although not necessarily those advocated by the anti-globalization movement. For example, some see the World Bank and the IMF as corrupt bureaucracies which have given repeated loans to dictators who never do any reforms. Some, like Hernando De Soto, argue that much of the poverty in the Third World countries is caused by the lack of Western systems of laws and well-defined and universally recognized
property rights. De Soto argues that because of the legal barriers poor people in those countries can not utilize their assets to produce more wealth. [Hernando De Soto. "The Mystery of Capital". Basic Books. (2003). ISBN 0465016154 p.210-211]
Lack of "Third World" support
Critics have asserted that people from poor countries (the
Third World) have been relatively accepting and supportive of globalization while the strongest opposition to globalization has come from wealthy " First World" activists, unions and NGOs. Alan Shipman, author of "The Globalization Myth" accuses the anti-globalization movement of "defusing the Western class war by shifting alienation and exploitation to developing-country sweatshops." He later goes on to add that the anti-globalization movement has failed to attract widespread support from poor and working people from the Third World, and that its "strongest and most uncomprehending critics had always been the workers whose liberation from employment they were trying to secure." [ Shipman, Alan "The Globalization Myth" Icon Books, 2002, p. 12-14]
These critics assert that people from the Third World see the anti-globalization movement as a threat to their jobs, wages, consuming options and livelihoods, and that a cessation or reversal of globalization would result in many people in poor countries being left in greater poverty.
Jesús F. Reyes Herolesthe former Mexican Ambassador to the US, stated that "In a poor country like ours, the alternative to low-paid jobs isn't well-paid ones, it's no jobs at all." [Johan Norberg. "In Defense of Global Capitalism". ISBN 1930865473 p.194]
Egypt's Ambassador to the UN has also stated "The question is why all of a sudden, when third world labor has proved to be competitive, why do industrial countries start feeling concerned about our workers? When all of a sudden there is a concern about the welfare of our workers, it is suspicious." [Michael Veseth, Louis Uchitelle. "The Rise of the Global Economy". ISBN 1579583695 p. 558]
Global Justice Movement
Global Citizens Movement
Globalization and Health
The Yes Men
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade(GATT)
North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA)
World Trade Organization
Books on anti-globalization
* Holloway, John. 2002. "." Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1863-0
* Kingsnorth, Paul. 2004. "One No, Many Yeses: A Journey to the Heart of the Global Resistance Movement." Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2027-7
* Klein, Naomi. 2000. "
No Logo." Flamingo. ISBN 0-00-653040-0
* Korten, David. 1995. "
When Corporations Rule the World." Earthscan Publications Ltd (Nov 1995). ISBN 1-85383-313-4
* Notes From Nowhere. 2003. "we are everywhere: the irresistible rise of global anti-capitalism." Verso Books. ISBN 1-85984-447-2
* Perkins, John. 2003. "." Ebury Press. ISBN 0-09-190910-4.
* Wall, Derek. 2005. "Babylon and Beyond: The Economics of Anti-capitalist, Anti-globalist and Radical Green Movements." London: Pluto. ISBN 0-7453-2390-1
* Dave Stockton, Richard Brenner, et al, "Summit Sieges and Social Forums: a Rough Guide to the Anticapitalist Movement", London, 2004
* [http://www.nyinquirer.com/ The New York Inquirer,] a blog on international news and globalization
* [http://www.abahlali.org South African Shack Dwellers' Movement]
* [http://www.antieviction.org.za Western Cape Anti-Eviction Campaign]
* [http://www.bicusa.org Bank Information Center]
* [http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/development_2005_09.pdf CEPR-The Scorecard on Development, 25 Years of Diminished Progress]
* [http://globalization.about.com About Globalization]
* [http://www.cepr.net/ Center for Economic and Policy Research]
* [http://www.imf.org International Monetary Fund]
* [http://www.worldbank.org World Bank Group]
* [http://www.weforum.org/ World Economic Forum]
* [http://www.wto.org World Trade Organization]
* [http://www.pacinst.org/topics/globalization_and_environment/ Economic Globalization and the Environment]
* [http://www.corporatewatch.org Corporatewatch]
* [http://www.direct.gov.uk/Gtgl1/GuideToGovernment/InternationalBodies/InternationalBodiesArticles/fs/en?CONTENT_ID=4003091&chk=h%2Bl9pN History of the G8] - UK government site
* [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu YaleGlobal Online] - An online publication of the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization
* [http://www.rte.ie/news/features/new_world_disorder/ New World Disorder] - Feature website on the movement from RTÉ, the Irish national broadcaster.
* [http://www.dollarsandsense.org/archives/2000/0300collect.html "The ABCs of the Global Economy"] from
Dollars & SenseMagazine
* [http://www.shutthemdown.org Shut them down] - Collection of theoretical texts reflecting on the 2005 G8 protests in Scotland.
* [http://www.studiesinanti-capitalism.net Studies in Anti-Capitalism.]
* [http://www.pinkyshow.org/archives/episodes/070307/ "Globalization (and the metaphysics of control in a free market world)"] - an online video.
* [http://www.pinkyshow.org/archives/episodes/070311/ "Defending Globalization (a mission for the educated and enlightened)"] - an online video.
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