VOB


VOB
VOB
Filename extension .VOB
Internet media type video/dvd, video/mpeg, video/x-ms-vob
Developed by DVD Forum
Type of format Media container
Container for Audio, video, subtitles
Contained by DVD-Video
Extended from MPEG program stream, ISO/IEC 13818-1
Standard(s) DVD-Video Book[1][2]

A VOB file (Video Object) is a container format in DVD-Video media. VOB can contain video, audio, subtitle, menu and navigation contents multiplexed together into a stream form. VOB is based on the MPEG program stream format, but with additional limitations and specifications in the private streams.[3][4][5] The MPEG program stream has provisions for non-standard data (as used in VOB files) in the form of so-called private streams. VOB files are a very strict subset of the MPEG program stream standard. While all VOB files are MPEG program streams, not all MPEG program streams comply with the definition for a VOB file.[3]

Analogous to the MPEG program stream, VOB file can contain H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2 or MPEG-1 Part 2 video, MPEG-1 Audio Layer II or MPEG-2 Audio Layer II audio, but usage of these compression formats in a VOB file has some restrictions in comparison to the MPEG program stream. In addition, VOB can contain Linear PCM, AC-3 or DTS audio and subpictures (subtitles).[4][6][7] VOB file cannot contain AAC audio (MPEG-2 Part 7), MPEG-4 compression formats and others, which are allowed in MPEG program stream standard.

On the DVD, all the content for one title set (VTS) is contiguous, but broken up into 1 GiB VOB files in the computer compatible file systems for the convenience of the various operating systems.[3] Each VOB file must be less than or equal to one GiB .[8]

Other DVD files include IFO and BUP files. IFO (Info) files contain all the information a DVD player needs to know about a DVD so that the user can navigate and play all DVD content properly[9] (e.g., where a chapter starts, where a certain audio or subtitle stream is located, information about menu functions and navigation, etc.). BUP (Backup) files are an exact copy and backup of IFO files in case of corruption. VOB files without IFO or BUP files do not allow DVD menu navigation. Images, video and audio used in DVD menus are stored in VOB files.

Contents

Copy protection

Almost all commercially produced DVD-Video titles use some restriction or copy protection method, which also affects VOB files.[10] Copy protection is usually used for copyrighted content.

Many DVD-Video titles are encrypted with Content Scramble System (CSS). This is a data encryption and communications authentication method designed to prevent copying video and audio data directly from the DVD-Video discs. Decryption and authentication keys needed for playing back encrypted VOB files are stored in the normally inaccessible lead-in area of the DVD and are used only by CSS decryption software (e.g., in a DVD player or software player). If someone is trying to copy the contents of an encrypted DVD-Video (e.g., VOB files) to a hard drive, an error can occur, because the DVD was not authenticated in the drive by CSS decryption software. Authentication of the disc allows the copying of individual VOB files without error, but the encryption keys will not be copied. If the copied undecrypted VOB files are opened in a player, they will request the keys from the DVD-ROM drive and will fail.[11][12] There are many CSS-decrypting programs, or ripping software, such as libdvdcss, DeCSS, DVD Decrypter, AnyDVD or DVD Shrink which allow a protected DVD-Video disc to be played without access to the original key or copied to hard disk unscrambled. In some countries, their usage can be a violation of law (e.g. for non-personal use).[12]

Other DVD containers

Some DVD Recorders use DVD-VR format and store multiplexed audiovisual content in VRO containers.[13][14] A VRO file is equivalent to a collection of DVD-Video VOB files. The VRO files can be played directly like a VOB if no editing is intended.[15] Fragmented VRO files are not widely supported by software players and video editing software.[13]

Playback

A player of generic MPEG-2 files can usually play unencrypted VOB files, which contain MPEG-1 Audio Layer II audio. Other audio compression formats such as AC-3 or DTS are less widely supported.[citation needed]

MPlayer, VLC media player, GOM player, Media Player Classic and more platform-specific players like ALLPlayer play VOB files.

See also

References

  1. ^ DVD FLLC (2009-02) DVD Book Construction - list of all available DVD Books, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  2. ^ DVD FLLC DVD Format Book - History of Supplements for DVD Books, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  3. ^ a b c What is a VOB file, Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  4. ^ a b DVD - MPeg differences, Retrieved on 2009-07-24
  5. ^ "Is it easy to understand DVD format?". Archived from the original on 2001-10-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20011024182535/http://dvdpro.com/dvd.htm. Retrieved 2011-02-26. 
  6. ^ MPEG.org (July 21, 1996) DVD Technical Notes - Video Data Specifications, Retrieved on 2009-07-25
  7. ^ Videohelp.com What is DVD? Technical Info for DVD-Video, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  8. ^ Doom9.org doom9.org What's on a DVD?, Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  9. ^ AfterDawn.com (2007-07-31) How to play VOB / IFO / BUP files, Retrieved on 2009-07-26
  10. ^ DVD Demystified (July 13, 2009) What are the copy protection issues?, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  11. ^ DVD Demystified (July 13, 2009) DVD Frequently Asked Questions (and Answers) - Why can't I play movies copied to my hard drive?, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  12. ^ a b What are the copy protection schemes used in DVD ? What is CSS ?, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  13. ^ a b DVD Demystified (July 13, 2009) What are .IFO, .VOB, .AOB, and .VRO files? How can I play them?, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  14. ^ Doom9's forum (2002-2005) DVD-RAM *.VRO File Conversion, Retrieved on 2009-07-28
  15. ^ DVD-VR Application format notes, Retrieved on 2009-07-28

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • .vob — ou Video object file est un format de fichiers informatiques présent sur les DVD les plus courants : les DVD video , produits par les industries audiovisuelles et vendus dans le commerce les DVD +R, ou R, gravés à partir de sources diverses …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VOB — ou Video object file est un format de fichiers informatiques présent sur les DVD les plus courants : les DVD video , produits par les industries audiovisuelles et vendus dans le commerce les DVD +R, ou R, gravés à partir de sources diverses …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Vob — pour Video object file est un format de fichiers informatiques présent sur les DVD les plus courants : les DVD video , produits par les industries audiovisuelles et vendus dans le commerce les DVD +R, ou R, gravés à partir de sources… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • VOB — Desarrollador DVD Forum Información general Extensión de archivo .VOB Tipo de MIME vide …   Wikipedia Español

  • VOB — (DVD Video Object или Versioned Object Base)  формат файлов, используемый для хранения DVD Video. VOB  это мультимедийный контейнерный формат файла, основанный на MPEG 2, и способный содержать в себе несколько потоков видео/аудио,… …   Википедия

  • VOB — VOB,   Abkürzung für Verdingungsordnung für Bauleistungen, Verdingung …   Universal-Lexikon

  • VOB/B — Die VOB/B ist im deutschen Recht ein vorformuliertes Klauselwerk, das dazu bestimmt ist, in Bauverträgen die Regelungen des hierfür anwendbaren gesetzlichen Werkvertragsrechts zu ergänzen und teilweise zu modifizieren. Dies dient insbesondere… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • VOB/A — Die Vergabe und Vertragsordnung für Bauleistungen (abgekürzt VOB) ist ein in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gültiges, dreiteiliges Klauselwerk, das Regelungen für die Vergabe von Bauaufträgen durch öffentliche Auftraggeber und für den Inhalt von… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • VOB — Die Abkürzung VOB steht für: Vergabe und Vertragsordnung für Bauleistungen Vereinigung Organisationseigener Betriebe, eine Rechtsform der DDR Video Object Block, ein Dateiformat von DVD Video Versioned Object Base, siehe Rational ClearCase… …   Deutsch Wikipedia