Shuttle vector


Shuttle vector

A shuttle vector is a vector (usually a plasmid) constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=Books&cmd=Search&term=vector%20AND%20mcb%5Bbook%5D&doptcmdl=TOCView] ). Therefore, DNA inserted into a shuttle vector can be tested or manipulated in two different cell types. The main advantage of these vectors is they can be manipulated in "E. coli" and then used in a system which is more difficult or slower to use (e.g. yeast, other bacteria).

Shuttle vectors include plasmids that can propagate in eukaryotes and prokaryotes (eg. both "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" and "Escherichia coli") or in different species of bacteria (eg. both "E. coli" and "Rhodococcus erythropolis"). There are also adenovirus shuttle vectors, which can propagate in "E. coli" and mammals.

Shuttle vectors are frequently used to quickly make multiple copies of the gene in "E. coli" (amplification). They can also used for "in vitro" experiments and modifications (e.g. mutagenesis, PCR)

One of the most common types of shuttle vectors is the yeast shuttle vector [http://dbb.urmc.rochester.edu/labs/Sherman_f/yeast/9.html] . Almost all commonly used "S. cerevisiae" vectors are shuttle vectors. Yeast shuttle vectors have components that allow for replication and selection in both "E. coli" cells and yeast cells. The "E. coli" component of a yeast shuttle vector includes an origin of replication and a selectable marker, e.g. antibiotic resistance, Beta lactamase. The yeast component of a yeast shuttle vector includes an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS), a yeast centromere (CEN), and a yeast selectable marker (eg. URA3, a gene that encodes an enzyme for uracil synthesis, Lodish et al. 2007).

References

* An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, Griffiths et al., 7th ed. ISBN 071673771X
* Principles of Genetics, Snustad & Simmons, 4th ed. ISBN 047169939X
* Molecular Cell Biology, Lodish et al., 6th ed. ISBN 1429203145 Free online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=mcb.TOC (accessed 17 Oct 2007)
* Sherman, Fred. "9 Yeast Vectors" http://dbb.urmc.rochester.edu/labs/Sherman_f/yeast/9.html (accessed Sept. 30, 2007).
* Yang et al., Characterization of the mobilization determinants of pAN12, a small replicon from Rhodococcus erythropolis AN12. Plasmid 57, 71-81.


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