Hudson County, New Jersey


Hudson County, New Jersey

Infobox U.S. County
county = Hudson County
state = New Jersey




map size = 100
founded = 1840
seat = Jersey City
largest city = Jersey City | area_total_km2 = 162
area_total_sq_mi = 62
area_land_km2 = 121
area_land_sq_mi = 47
area_water_km2 = 41 | area_water_sq_mi = 16
area percentage = 25.21%
census yr = 2000
pop = 608975
density_km2 = 5036
density_sq_mi = 13044
web = www.hudsoncountynj.org
|

Hudson County is in New Jersey, United States. Its county seat is Jersey CityGR|6.

Geography and topography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 62 square miles (162 km²), of which, 47 square miles (121 km²) is land and 16 square miles (41 km²)(25.21%) is water. It is the smallest of New Jersey's 21 counties.

Hudson is bordered by the Hudson River and Upper New York Bay to the east; Kill van Kull to the south; Newark Bay, and either the Hackensack River or Passaic River to the west.

The topography is marked by New Jersey Palisades in the north with cliffs overlooking the Hudson to the east and less severe cuesta or slope to the west. They gradually level off to the southern peninsula, which is coastal and flat. The western region, around the Hackensack and Passaic is part of the New Jersey Meadowlands.

There are two equally high points, 260 feet (79 m) above sea level, in Guttenberg and West New York; the lowest point is sea level itself along the rivers.

Ellis Island and Liberty Island, opposite Liberty State Park, lie entirely within Hudson County's waters, which extend to the New York state line. Liberty Island is wholly part of New York. Ellis Island is jointly administered by the states of New Jersey and New York. Nine-tenths of its land is technically part of Hudson County, with the remainder being part of New York. [ [http://www.cnn.com/US/9805/26/scotus.ellis.island/ New Jersey wins claim to Ellis Island] , CNN.com, May 26, 1998] Shooters Island, in the Kill van Kull, is also shared with New York. Robbins Reef Light sits atop a the reef which runs parallel the Bayonne and Jersey City waterfront.Given its proximity to Manhattan, is sometimes referred to as New York City's sixth borough. [Holusha, John. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D07EFDB123BF932A25753C1A96E958260 " Commercial Property / The Jersey Riverfront; On the Hudson's West Bank, Optimistic Developers"] , "The New York Times", October 11, 1998. Accessed May 25, 2007. "That simply is out of the question in midtown," he said, adding that some formerly fringe areas in Midtown South that had previously been available were filled up as well. Given that the buildings on the New Jersey waterfront are new and equipped with the latest technology and just a few stops on the PATH trains from Manhattan, they become an attractive alternative. "It's the sixth borough," he said."]

Counties adjacent to Hudson are New York County, New York and Kings County, New York to the east; Essex County, New Jersey and Union County, New Jersey to west; Richmond County, New York to the south; and Bergen County, New Jersey, the only one with which it shares a land border, to the north and west.

Much of the county lies between the Hackensack and Hudson Rivers on geographically long narrow peninsula that is a contiguous urban area where it's often difficult to know when one's crossed a civic boundary. These boundaries and the topography-including many hills and inlets-create very distinct neighborhoods.

National protected area

* Statue of Liberty National Monument (part)

Demographics

USCensusPop
1840=9483
1850=21822
1860=62717
1870=129067
1880=187944
1890=275126
1900=386048
1910=537231
1920=629154
1930=690730
1940=652040
1950=647437
1960=610734
1970=607839
1980=556972
1990=553099
2000=608975
estimate=601146
estyear=2006
estref= [cite web
url=http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34/34017.html
title=QuickFacts: Hudson County, New Jersey
publisher=U.S. Census Bureau
accessdate=2007-07-30
]
footnote=historical census data source: [cite web
url=http://www.wnjpin.net/OneStopCareerCenter/LaborMarketInformation/lmi01/poptrd5.htm
title=New Jersey Resident Population by County: 1880 - 1930
] [cite web
url=http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/
title=Geostat Center: Historical Census Browser
publisher=University of Virginia Library
accessdate=2007-03-02
]

As of the United States 2000 Census, the population was 608,975. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. There were 230,546 households and 143,630 families residing in the county. The population density was 13,044 people per square mile (5,036/km²). It is the sixth-most densely populated county in the United States, trailing only four of New York City's boroughs (all except Staten Island) and San Francisco County, California. There were 240,618 housing units at an average density of 5,154 per square mile (1,990/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 55.58% White, 13.48% Black or African American, 0.42% Native American, 9.35% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 15.48% from other races, and 5.63% from two or more races. 39.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to Census 2000 9.9% were of Italian and 6.7% Irish ancestry.

By 2005, 34.6% of the population was non-Hispanic whites. 15.1% of the population was African-American. 11.0% of the population was Asian. 2.1% of the population reported two or more races. 41.0% of the population was Latino. [ [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34/34017.html Hudson County QuickFacts] , United States Census Bureau]

There were 230,546 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.80% were married couples living together, 16.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.70% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.27.

In the county the population was spread out with 22.60% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 35.60% from 25 to 44, 20.00% from 45 to 64, and 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $40,293, and the median income for a family was $44,053. Males had a median income of $36,174 versus $31,037 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,154. About 13.30% of families and 15.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.00% of those under age 18 and 15.70% of those age 65 or over.

Hudson County is the most densely populated county in the state. Union City, within the county, is the most densely populated city in the country.

Municipalities

Numbers correspond to map at right.

#Bayonne (city)
#Jersey City (city)
#Hoboken (city)
#Union City (city)
#West New York (town)
#Guttenberg (town)
#Secaucus (town)
#Kearny (town)
#Harrison (town)
#East Newark (borough)
#North Bergen (township)
#Weehawken (township)

Government

The County Executive is elected by a direct vote of the electorate. The executive, together with the Board of Chosen Freeholders in a legislative role, administer all county business. Nine members are elected concurrently to serve three-year terms as Freeholder, each representing a specified district which are equally proportioned based of population. Each year, in January, the Freeholders select one of their nine to serve as Chair and one as Vice Chair for a period of one year.

Hudson County's County Executive is Thomas A. DeGise. Hudson County's Freeholders, as of 2008, are: [ [http://www.hudsoncountyclerk.org/cgi-bin/election.pl November 2005 Election Results] , accessed January 31, 2006]
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%201.pdf District 1] : Doreen McAndrew DiDomenico (Bayonne and parts of Jersey City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%202.pdf District 2] : William O'Dea (parts of Jersey City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%203.pdf District 3] : Jeffrey Dublin, Chairman (parts of Jersey City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%204.pdf District 4] : Eliu Rivera (parts of Jersey City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%205.pdf District 5] : Maurice Fitzgibbons (Hoboken and parts of Jersey City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%206.pdf District 6] : Tilo Rivas (Union City)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%207.pdf District 7] : Jose Munoz (West New York, Weekhawken, Guttenberg)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/freeholders/docs/district_maps/HC_Freeholder_District_8.pdf District 8] : Thomas Liggio - Vice-Chairman (North Bergen and parts of Jersey City and Secaucus)
* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/downloads/freeholders/HC%20Freeholder%20District%209.pdf District 9] : Albert Cifelli (East Newark, Harrison, Kearny and parts of Secaucus)

Three federal Congressional Districts cover the county, including portions of New Jersey's 9th congressional district, represented by Steve Rothman (D), New Jersey's 10th congressional district, represented by Donald Payne (D) and New Jersey's 13th congressional district, represented by Albio Sires (D).

The Hudson County court system consists of several municipal courts, including the busy Jersey City Court, plus the Hudson County Superior Court.

Politics

In the 2004 U.S. Presidential election, John Kerry carried the county by a 35.3% margin over George W. Bush, with Kerry carrying the state by 6.7% over Bush. [ [http://www.njvoterinfo.org/2004presNJ.htm New Jersey Presidential Election Returns by County 2004] , Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers University. Accessed August 31, 2008.] Democrat Jon Corzine beat Republican Doug Forrester by a 3-to-1 margin in the 2005 gubernatorial race. [ [http://ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=140878 Hudson County NJ US President] , ourcampaigns.com. Accessed July 30, 2007.] [ [http://ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=271074 Hudson County NJ Governor] , ourcampaigns.com. Accessed July 30, 2007.] Both Republican candidates failed to carry even one municipality within the county. [ [http://www.hudsoncountyclerk.org/elections/04_totals.pdf Hudson County, New Jersey Official General Election November 2, 2004] , Hudson County Clerk. Accessed July 30, 2007.] [ [http://www.hudsoncountyclerk.org/elections/05_totals.pdf Hudson County General Election Official Results November 8, 2005] , Hudson County Clerk. Accessed July 30, 2007.] Two out of the three statewide elected officials, Governor Corzine and United States Senator Bob Menendez, hail from Hudson County.

Education

Each municipality has a public school district. All but two have their own public high schools. East Newark students attend Harrison High School and Guttenberg students attend North Bergen High School. Hudson County Schools of Technology is a public secondary and adult vocational-technical school with locations in North Bergen, Jersey City, Union City and Harrison. Colleges and universities are Hudson County Community College, New Jersey City University, Saint Peter's College, all in Jersey City, and Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken. There are private and parochial elementary and secondary schools located throughout Hudson.

Transportation

The confluence of roads and railways of the BosWash megalopolis and Northeast Corridor passing through Hudson County make it one of the Northeast's major transportation crossroads and provide access to an extensive network of interstate highways, state freeways and toll roads, and vehicular water crossings. Many long distance trains and buses pass through the county, though Amtrak and the major national bus companies -- Greyhound Lines and Trailways -- do not provide service within it. There many local, intrastate, and Manhattan-bound bus routes, an expanding light rail system, ferries traversing the Hudson, and commuter trains to North Jersey, the Jersey Shore, and Trenton. Much of the rail, surface transit, and ferry system is oriented to commuters traveling to Newark, lower and midtown Manhattan, and the Hudson Waterfront. Public transportation is operated by a variety of public and private corporations, notably New Jersey Transit, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, and NY Waterway, each of which charge customers separately for their service.

Hubs

Hoboken Terminal, Bergenline Avenue at 32nd, 48th, and 91st Streets in North Hudson, Journal Square Transportation Center and Exchange Place in Jersey City are major public transportation hubs. The Port Authority Bus Terminal and Penn Station in midtown Manhattan, the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan, and Newark Penn Station also play important roles within the county's transportation network. Secaucus Junction provides access to eight commuter rail lines.

Rail

*Hudson-Bergen Light Rail (HBLR) serves Bayonne, Jersey City, Hoboken, and North Hudson at the Weehawken waterfront, Bergenline (Union City/West New York) and Tonnele Ave (North Bergen)
*New Jersey Transit Hoboken Division: Main Line (to Suffern, and in partnership with MTA/Metro-North, express service to Port Jervis), Bergen County Line, and jointly with MTA/Metro-North, Pascack Valley Line, all via Secaucus Junction; Montclair-Boonton Line and Morris and Essex Lines; North Jersey Coast Line (limited service as Waterfront Connection); Raritan Valley Line (limited service)
*New Jersey Transit Newark Division: Northeast Corridor Line and North Jersey Coast Line can be reached via Secaucus Junction or PATH

*PATH is a 24-hour subway mass transit system serving Newark Penn Station (NWK), Harrison, Journal Square (JSQ), downtown Jersey City, Hoboken Terminal (HOB), midtown Manhattan (33rd) (along 6th Ave to Herald Square/Pennsylvania Station), and World Trade Center (WTC)

Water

*NY Waterway ferry service, from Jersey City, Hoboken and Weehawken to World Financial Center and Pier 11/Wall Street in lower Manhattan, and to West 39th in midtown Manhattan, where free transfer is available to a variety of "loop" buses.
*Circle Line Downtown operates ferries to the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island from Liberty State Park
*Cape Liberty Cruise Port in Bayonne is one of three passenger terminals in New York Harbor.

Road

Major highways include New Jersey Routes 3, 7, 139, 185, 440, 495, Interstates 78, 95, and 280, and U.S. Routes 1 and 9, as well as the New Jersey Turnpike and The Pulaski Skyway. Automobile access to New York City is available through the Lincoln Tunnel (via Weehawken to midtown Manhattan) and the Holland Tunnel (via Jersey City to lower Manhattan), and over the Bayonne Bridge to Staten Island.

Air

Newark Liberty International Airportis the closest of the metropolitan area's three major airports. John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport are located in Queens, New York. Teterboro Airport and Essex County Airport are general aviation airports closest the county.

Parks

There are nine county parks including Lincoln Park, Columbus Park, and North Hudson Park and the newest, Laurel Hill, home to Snake Hill. . There are also wetlands preservation areas in the Meadowlands, most of which do not encourage public access.

National protected area

Statue of Liberty National Monument (part)

History

Lenape

Hudson County was originally inhabited the Lenape or Lenni-Lenape (later named Delaware Indian), who practiced small-scale (slash and burn) agriculture to augment a largely mobile hunter-gatherer society which likely, given the topography of the area, included much (shell)fishing and trapping. The bands (or family groups) that circulated in the area were known as the Hackensack, the Tappan, the Raritan, and the Manhattan. They were displaced by European settlers, whose purchase of their lands was misconstrued by both parties. Their Algonquian language, namely the Munsee dialect, can still be inferred in some local place names such as Communipaw, Hackensack, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Secaucus.

New Netherland

Henry Hudson, for whom the county and river on which it sits is named, established a claim for the area in 1609 when anchoring his ship the "Halve Maen" ("Half Moon") at Harsimus Cove and Weehawken Cove. The west bank of the North River (as it was called) and the cliffs, hills, and marshlands abutting and beyond it, were settled by Europeans (Dutch, Flemish, Walloon, Huguenot) from the Lowlands around the same time as New Amsterdam. In 1630, Michael Pauw received a land grant, or patroonship and purchased the land between the Hudson and Hackensack Rivers, giving it the Latin-ized form of his name, Pavonia. He failed to settle the area and was forced to return his holdings to the Dutch West India Company. Homesteads were established at Communipaw (1633), Harsumus (1634), Paulus Hook (1638) and Hoebuck (1643). Relations were tenuous with the Lenape, and eventually led to Kieft's War, which began as a slaughter by the Dutch at Pavonia and is considered to be one of thethe first genocides of Native Americans by Europeans. A series of raids and reprisals across the province lasted two years, and ended in an uneasy truce. Other homesteads were established at Constable Hook (1646), Awiehaken (1647), and other lands Achter Col, on the "back" side of Bergen Neck (1647). In 1658, Governor Peter Stuyvesant of New Netherland negotiated a deal with the Lenape to re-purchase the area named Bergen, "by the great rock above Wiehacken," including the whole penisula from Sikakes Secaucus south to Bergen Point/Constable Hook . [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=owpYaTSYmDMC&pg=PA62&lpg=PA62&dq=%22by+the+great+rock+above+wiehacken%22&source=web&ots=N3sWTbWs6r&sig=OWea40y4zZcNeK6XlvGItRN7nlY#PPA62,M1 History of the County of Hudson, New Jersey, from Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time] , p. 62, accessed March 29, 2007.] In 1661, a charter was granted the new village/garrison at the site of present-day Bergen Square, establishing what is considered to be the oldest self-governing municipality in New Jersey. The Dutch finally ceded control of province to the English in 1674.

The British and early America

By 1675, the Treaty of Westminster finalized the transfer and the area became part of the British colony of East Jersey, in the administrative district of Bergen County. The county's seat was transferred to Hackensack in 1709. Small villages and farms supplied the burgeoning city of New York, across the river, notably with oysters from the vast beds in the Upper New York Bay, and fresh produce, sold at Weehawken Street, in Manhattan. During the American Revolutionary War the area was under British control though colonialist troops used the heights to observe enemy movements. The Battle of Paulus Hook, a surprise raid on a British fortification in 1779, was seen as an a victory and morale booster for revolutionary forces. Many downtown Jersey City streets bear the name of military figures (Mercer, Greene, Wayne, and Varick among them). Weehawken became notorious for duels, including the nation's most famous between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr in 1804. Border conflicts for control of the waterfront with New York (which claimed jurisdiction to the high water line and the granting of ferry concessions) restricted development though some urbanization took place in downtown Jersey City and Hoboken, which became a vacation spot for well-off New Yorkers. The Morris Canal, early steam railroads, and the development of the harbor stimulated further growth. In September 1840, Hudson County was created by separation from Bergen County and annexation of some Essex County lands, namely New Barbadoes Neck. During the 19th century, Hudson played an integral role in the Underground Railroad, with four routes converging in Jersey City. [ [http://www.hudsonreporter.com/site/index.cfm?newsid=14587630&BRD=1291&PAG=461&dept_id=523584&rfi=8 "Jersey City's Underground Railroad history,"] "Jersey City Magazine", Spring & Summer 2005.]

Boundaries

Most of Hudson County, apart from the western municipalities not on the Bayonne Peninsula, was part of Bergen Township, created by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798, as one of the first group of 104 townships formed in New Jersey, while the area was still a part of Bergen County. . As originally constituted, Bergen Township included the area between the Hudson River on the east, the Hackensack River to the west, south to Constable Hook/Bergen Point and north to the present-day Hudson-Bergen border. For the next 127 years civic borders within the county took many forms, until they were finalized with the creation of Union City in 1925.

The City of Jersey was incorporated by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 28, 1820, from portions of Bergen Township. The city was reincorporated on January 23, 1829, and again on February 22, 1838, at which time it became completely independent of Bergen Township and was given its present name. On February 22, 1840, it became part of the newly-created Hudson County."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 146-147.] As Jersey City grew, several neighboring communities were annexed: Van Vorst Township (March 18, 1851), Bergen City and Hudson City (both on May 2, 1870), and Greenville Township (February 4, 1873).

North Bergen was incorporated as a township on April 10, 1843, by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature, from Bergen Township. Portions of the township have been taken to form Hoboken Township (April 9, 1849, now the City of Hoboken), Hudson Town (April 12, 1852, later part of Hudson City), Hudson City (April 11, 1855, later annexed by Jersey City), Guttenberg (formed within the township on March 9, 1859, and set off as an independent municipality on April 1, 1878), Weehawken (March 15, 1859), Union Township and West Hoboken Township (both created on February 28, 1861), Union Hill town (March 29, 1864) and Secaucus (March 12, 1900)."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 145.]

Hoboken was established in 1804, and formed as a township on April 9, 1849, from portions of North Bergen Township and incorporated as a full-fledged city, and in a referendum held on March 29, 1855, ratified an Act of the New Jersey Legislature signed the previous day, and the City of Hoboken was born. ["How Hoboken became a city," [http://www.hudsonreporter.com/site/index.cfm?newsid=15203872&BRD=1291&PAG=461&dept_id=523584&rfi=8 Part I] , [http://www.hudsonreporter.com/site/index.cfm?newsid=15203874&BRD=1291&PAG=461&dept_id=523584&rfi=8 Part II] , [http://www.hudsonreporter.com/site/index.cfm?newsid=15203878&BRD=1291&PAG=461&dept_id=523584&rfi=8 Part III] , "Hoboken Reporter", March 27, April 3, and April 10, 2005.]

Weehawken was formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 15, 1859, from portions of Hoboken and North Bergen. A portion of the township was ceded to Hoboken in 1874. Additional territory was annexed in 1879 from West Hoboken.

West New York was incorporated as a town by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on July 8, 1898, replacing Union Township, based on the results of a referendum held three days earlier."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 149.]

Kearny was originally formed as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1867, from portions of Harrison Township. Portions of the township were taken on July 3, 1895, to form East Newark. Kearny was incorporated as a town on January 19, 1899, based on the results of a referendum held two days earlier."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 147.]

Bayonne was originally formed as a township on April 1, 1861, from portions of Bergen Township. Bayonne was reincorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 10, 1869, replacing Bayonne Township, subject to the results of a referendum held nine days later."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 146.]

Soon after the Civil War the idea of uniting all of the town of Hudson County in one municipality of Jersey City began to gain favor. In 1868 a bill for submitting the question of consolidation of all of Hudson County to the voters was presented to the board of chosen freeholders. The bill did not include the western towns of Harrison and Kearny but included all towns east of the Hackensack River.

The bill was approved by the State legislature on April 2, 1869 and the special election was scheduled for October 5, 1869. An element of the bill provide that only contiguous towns could be consolidated. The results of the election were as follows:

In Favor/Against Jersey City: 2220 911 Hudson City: 1320 220 Bergen: 815 108 Hoboken: 176 893 Bayonne: 100 250 Greenville: 24 174 Weehawken: 0 44 Town of Union: 123 105 West Hoboken: 95 256 North Bergen: 80 225 Union Township:140 65 Totals: 5,093 3,251

While a majority of the voters approved the merger only Jersey City, Hudson and Bergen could consolidated since they were the only continuous approving towns. Both the Town of Union and Union Township could not be included due to the dissenting vote of West Hoboken which lay between them and Hudson City. On March 17, 1870 Jersey City, Hudson City and Bergen merged into Jersey City. Only three years later the present outline of Jersey City was completed when Greenville agreed to merge into the Greater Jersey City.

Union City was incorporated as a city by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 1, 1925, replacing both Union Hill and West Hoboken Township."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 148.]

Urbanization and immigration

During the latter half of the 19th and early part of the 20th centuries, Hudson experienced intense industrial, commercial and residential growth. Construction, first of ports, and later railroad terminals, in Jersey City, Bayonne, Hoboken, and Weehawken (which significantly altered the shoreline with landfill) fueled much of the development. European immigration, notably German-language speakers and Irish (many fleeing famine) initiated a population boom that would last for several decades.

Neighborhoods grew as farms, estates, and other holdings were sub-divided for housing, civic and religious architecture. Streets (some with trolley lines) were laid out. Stevens Institute of Technology and Saint Peter's College were established.

Before the opening, in 1910, of the Pennsylvania Railroad's North River Tunnels under the Hudson, trains terminated on the west bank of the river, requiring passengers and cargo to travel by ferry or barge to New York. Transfer to the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad tubes (now PATH) became possible upon its opening in 1908. Hoboken Terminal, a national historic landmark originally built in 1907 by the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad to replace the previous one, is the only one of five major rail/ferry terminals that once dotted the waterfront still in operation. West Shore Railroad Terminal in Weehawken, Erie Railroad's Pavonia Terminal and Pennsylvania Railroad's Exchange Place in Jersey City were all razed.
Central Railroad of New Jersey's Communipaw Terminal, across a small strait from Ellis Island and The Statue of Liberty, played a crucial role in the massive immigration of the period, with many newly-arrived departing the station to embark on their lives in America. Many, though, decided to stay, taking jobs on the docks, the railroads, the factories, the refineries, and in the sweatshops and skyscrapers of Manhattan. Many manufacturers, whose names read as a "who's who" in American industry established a presence, including Colgate, Dixon Ticonderoga, Maxwell House, Standard Oil, and Bethlehem Steel. , particularly Union City became the "embroidery capital of America". Secaucus boasted numerous pig farms and rendering plants.It was during this period that much of the housing stock, namely one and two family homes and low-rise apartment buildings, was built; municipal boundaries finalized, neighborhoods established. Commercial corriders such as Bergenline, Central, Newark and Ocean Avenues came into prominence. Journal Square became a business, shopping, and entertainment mecca, home to The Jersey Journal, after which it is named, and movie palaces such as Loew's Jersey Theater and The Stanley.

World Wars and New Deals

Upon entry to World War I the US government took the Hamburg-American Line piers in Hoboken under eminent domain, and Hudson became the major point of embarkation for more than three million soldiers, known as "doughboys". In 1916, an act of sabotage literally and figuratively shook the region when German agents set off bombs at the munitions depot in New York Bay at Black Tom. The fore-runner of Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was established on April 30, 1921. Huge transportation projects opened between the wars: The Holland Tunnel in 1927, The Bayonne Bridge in 1931, and The Lincoln Tunnel in 1937, allowing vehicular travel between New Jersey and New York City to bypass the waterfront. Hackensack River crossings, notably the Pulaski Skyway, were also built. What was to become New Jersey City University opened. Major Works Progress Administration projects included construction of stadiums in Jersey City and Union City. Both were named for President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who attended the opening of the largest project of them all, The Jersey City Medical Center, a massive complex built in the Art Deco Style. During this era the "Hudson County Democratic Machine", known for its cronyism and corruption, with Jersey City mayor Frank Hague at its head was at its most powerful. Industries in Hudson were crucial to the war effort during WWII, including the manufacture PT boats by Elco in Bayonne. Military Ocean Terminal at Bayonne (MOTBY) was opened in 1942 as a U.S. military base and remained in operation until 1999.

Post-war years

After the war maritime and manufacturing industries still dominated the local economy,and union membership provided guarantees of good pay packages. Though some returning service men took advantage of GI housing bills and moved to close-by suburbs, many with strong ethnic and familial ties chose to stay. Baseball legend Jackie Robinson made his minor league debut at Roosevelt Stadium and "broke" the baseball color line. Much of Hudson County experienced the phenomenon of some ethnic/economic groups leaving and being replaced by others, as was typical of most urban communities of the New York Bay region. When the big businesses decided to follow them or vis-versa, Hudson County's socio-economic differences became more profound. By the early 1970s the old economic underpinnings were gone and nothing new seemed to be on the horizon. Attempts were made to stabilize the population by demolishing so-called slums and build subsidized middle-income housing and the pockets of so-called "good neighborhoods" came in conflict with those that went into decline, leading to lower property values which allowed the next wave of immigrants, many from Latin America, to rent or buy cheap houses. North Hudson, particularly Union City, saw many emigrees fleeing the Cuban revolution take up residence. Riots occurred in Jersey City in 1964.

Pre/post-millennium

The county since the mid-1990s has seen much real estate speculation and development and a population increase, as many new residents purchase exisitng housing stock as well as condominiums in high and mid rise developments, many along the waterfront. What had started as a gentrification in the 1980s became a full-blown "redevelopment" of the area as many suburbanites, transplanted Americans, internationals, and immigrants (most focused on opportunities in NY/NJ region and proximity to Manhattan) began to make the "Jersey" side of the Hudson their home, and the "real-estate boom" of the era encouraged many to seek investment opportunities. The exploitation of certain parts of the waterfront and other brownfields led to commercial development as well, especially along former rail yards. Hudson felt the short and long term impact of the destruction of the World Trade Center intensely: its proximity to lower Manhattan made it a place to evacuate to, many residents who worked there lost their jobs (or their lives), and many companies sought office space across the river. Re-zoning, the Hudson-Bergen Light Rail, and New Jersey State land-use policy of transit villages have further spurred construction. Though very urban and with some of the highest residential densities in the United States the Hudson communities have remain fragmented, due in part to New Jersey's long history of home rule in local government; geographical factors such as Hudson River inlets/canals, the cliffs of the New Jersey Palisades and rail lines; and ethnic/demographic differences in the population. As the county sees more development this traditional perception is challenged.

National Registered Historic Places

"See List of Registered Historic Places in Hudson County, New Jersey"

Facts

*The only city in Hudson that is among the most populated hundred cities in the United States is Jersey City at sixty six. [http://www.uscensus US Census]
*Of municipalities with over 50,000 people, Union City, New Jersey is the most densely populated in the United States. [ [http://www.demographia.com/db-2000city50kdens.htm 2000 Census: US Municipalities Over 50,000: Ranked by 2000 Density] , accessed March 22, 2007]
*North Bergen is the city with the second most hills per square mile in the United States behind San Francisco. [http://www.hudsonreporter.com/site/news.cfm?BRD=1291&dept_id=523585&newsid=17118972&PAG=461&rfi=9 Most liquor licenses? Bumpiest town? Local municipalities hold unusual distinctions] , "Hudson Reporter", August 27, 2006]
*North Hudson has the second largest Cuban American population in the United States behind Miami.
*Jersey City is the twenty first most ethnically diverse city in the United States and the most ethnically diverse on the East Coast of the United States. [ [http://www.city-data.com/top35.html Top 100 Most Racially Diverse Cities (pop. 5,000+)] , accessed February 25, 2007]
*Hudson has three communities on the list of the 100 cities (population 5,000 and up) with the highest percent of foreign-born residents: West New York (65.2%), Union City (58.7%), and Guttenberg (48.7%) [ [http://www.city-data.com/top11.html Top 100 Cities with Highest Percentage of Foreign-Born Residents (pop. 5000+)] , accessed February 25, 2007]
*At 781 feet (238 m), the Goldman Sachs Tower at Exchange Place in Jersey City, is New Jersey's tallest building. [Kelley, Tina. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9806EED61730F930A1575AC0A9639C8B63 "Trump Unveils Condo Plan in Jersey City"] , "The New York Times", September 23, 2005. Accessed March 12, 2008. "At 560 feet, the tallest of the towers would still rank below the state's tallest building, the 781-foot Goldman Sachs tower nearby at 30 Hudson Street."]

ee also

*Bergen, New Netherland
*Bergen
*Bergen Point
*Bergen Square
*Bergen Township
*Constable Hook
*Hackensack RiverWalk
*Hudson River Waterfront Walkway
*Gateway Region
*Gold Coast
*New Jersey Meadowlands
*New Jersey Palisades
*North Hudson
*North Jersey
*Pavonia
*
*Snake Hill
*Union Township

References

External links

* [http://www.hudsoncountynj.org/ Hudson County Government]


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