- Brixton (hundred)
infobox historic subdivision
Start= in antiquity
Replace= various, see text
Brixton was an ancient hundred in the north east of the county of
Surrey, England. Its area has been entirely absorbed by the growth of London; with its name currently referring to the Brixtondistrict.Mills, A., "Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names", (2001)] Its former area now corresponds to the London Borough of Southwark, the London Borough of Lambeth, the London Borough of Wandsworthand parts of the London Borough of Mertonand the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames.
The name is first recorded as "Brixiges stan" in 1062, meaning "stone of a man called Beorhtsige". The stone may have been the location that early hundred meetings took place. Brixges Stane, the Meeting Place of the Brixton Hundred in Surrey, Graham Gower, Local History Publications 1996 ISBN 9781873520208 ] Gower suggests that the stone was located at the boundary of
Streatham, Claphamand Lambethparishes. A nearby location on Brixton Hillbecame the location for the hundred gallows. Brixton Hill had been known as "Bristowe Causeway" long before the modern Brixtonarea was developed. The Surrey House of Correction, now known as Brixton Prison, was opened there in 1820.
The hundred contained the parishes of
Battersea(including the detached part of Penge), Bermondsey(also later Rotherhithe), Camberwell, Hatcham, Lambeth, Walworth, Streatham, Barnes, Merton, Mortlake(also later Wimbledon and Putney), Tootingand Wandsworth. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=43023 British History Online] - The hundred of Brixton]
The northern boundary with the
City of Londonand the Ossulstonehundred of Middlesexwas the River Thames. Within Surrey it was bounded by Wallington hundred to the south and Kingston hundred to the west. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/image.aspx?compid=43023&filename=fig1.gif&pubid=304 British History Online] - Map of Brixton hundred] In the east was a boundary with the Blackheath hundred of Kent.
In 1831, the hundred occupied convert|30400|acre|km2|0. [ [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/data_cube_table_page.jsp?data_theme=T_POP&data_cube=N_AREA_A&u_id=10206194&c_id=10001043&add=Y Vision of Britain] - Brixton hundred - area ( [http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/bound_map_page.jsp?first=true&u_id=10206194&c_id=10001043 historic map] )] Most of the hundred (except Barnes, Merton, Mortlake and Wimbledon) was included in 1829 in the
Metropolitan Police Districtby the Metropolitan Police Act 1829and in 1840 the rest of the hundred was included by the Metropolitan Police Act 1839.
In 1851 the hundred is recorded as comprising an "Eastern division" (including Lambeth) of convert|22186|acre|km2|0 and a population of 314,815 and "Western division" (including Wandsworth) of convert|7699|acre|km2|0 and a population of 9,552. The population in 1861 is recorded as 409,504. [John Marius Wilson, "Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales", (1870-72)] In 1887 the hundred is recorded as occupying an area of convert|29714|acre|km2|0, with a population of 825,155. [John Bartholomew, "Gazetteer of the British Isles", (1887)]
The hundreds of England declined in administrative use because of the rise of various "ad-hoc" boards. In 1855, most of the hundred (except Barnes, Merton, Mortlake and Wimbledon) was included in the area of responsibility of the
Metropolitan Board of Worksby the Metropolis Management Act 1855. The hundred was effectively abolished when the area (except Barnes, Merton, Mortlake and Wimbledon) became part of the County of Londonin 1889. The entire area has formed part of Greater Londonsince 1965.
In 1894 and 1900 all local government functions were effectively replaced by a system of uniform districts, which were consolidated over time and finally replaced in 1965 by the
London boroughswhich are still in use today.
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