- Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name=Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary
type= wildlife sanctuary
label= Parambikulam WS
iucn_category = IV
latd=10 |latm=23 |lats=00 |longd=76 |longm=42 |longs=30
location map marker|kerala|label=Parambikulam WS|position=right|lat=10.38|long=76.708 | locator_position = left
inset_map_size = 150px
inset_map_x = 350px
inset_map_y = 450px
inset_map_marker = yes
inset_map_marker_size = 8x8px
inset_map_default = yes
skyline_caption = look for
nearest_city = 45 km
Pollachi, Tamilnadu | altitude=600
established_title = Established
established_date = 1973
blank_title_1 = | blank_value_1 =
leader_title= Governing Body:
leader_name= [http://www.keralaforest.gov.in/html/general/wildlife.htm Kerala Forest Dept.] , Hon. Minister for Forest, Sri Binoy Viswam
website= http://www.parambikulam.org |
Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a 285 km² Protected area in
Chitturtaluk in Palakkad districtof Keralastate, South India. Established in 1973, it is in the Sungam range of hills between the Anaimalai Hillsand Nelliampathy Hills. [Parambikkulam Forest Development Agency. [http://www.parambikulam.org official website] ] , [Wildlife Institute of India, "State/UT Wise Details of Protected Areas" [http://www.wii.gov.in/envis/pa_database/kerala.html ENVIS] ] , [ T R Shankar Raman, Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore [http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/envis/owldoc716.html Rediscovery of the Oriental Bay-Owl] ] The Western Ghats, Anamalai Sub-Cluster, including all of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is under consideration by the UNESCOWorld Heritage Committee for selection as a World Heritage Site.UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Niligiris. retrieved 4/20/2007 [http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/2103/ World Heritage sites, Tentative lists] ] The sanctuary is the home of 4 different tribes of indigenous peoplesincluding the Kadar, Malasar, Muduvar and Maha Malasarsettled in six colonies. The Union Ministry of Environment and Forests has agreed to the Kerala government’s proposal for declaring the Parambikkulam Wildlife Sanctuary as a Tiger Reserve. [cite web
title = Parambikkulam likely to become a tiger reserve soon
date = 9/3/2008
publisher = The Hindu
The sanctuary is located between Longitude:76° 35’- 76° 50’ E, and Latitude:10° 20’ – 10° 26’ N. It is 135 km from
Palakkadtown and adjacent to the Annamalai Wildlife Sanctuary to the east in Tamil Nadu. It is bordered to the north by Nemmara Forest Division, to the south by Vazhachal Forest Division and the west by Chalakudy Forest Division. The sanctuary has a hornblende, biotite, gneissand charnockitegeology.
Altitude ranges between 300 m and 1438 m. There is a 600 m elevation opening through the Nelliampathy hills from Anamalai hills on the northern boundary of the sanctuary at
Thoothampara. Major peaks in the sanctuary are Karimala (1438 m) in the southern boundary of the sanctuary, Pandaravarai (1290 m) in the north, Kuchimudi, Vengoli Malai (1120 m) in the eastern boundary and Puliyarapadam (1010 m) in the west. The sanctuary has three man-made reservoirs; Parambikulam, Thunacadavu and Peruvaripallam, with a combined area of 20.66 km². The Thuvaiar water falls empty into one of the reservoirs. There are 7 major valleys and 3 major rivers, the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkedy. The Karappara river and Kuriarkutty river also drain the area. See [http://www.parambikulam.org/topgraphy.htm 3-D topographic maps]
Trekking in the forest is allowed with prior permission.Contact: Ecocare Centre, Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Anappady, Thunakadavu (PO), Pollachi (Via), Palakkad, Kerala – 678 661.Phone : 04253 – 245025 [http://www.parambikulam.org/ecocareCentre.htm] Boating can be done at the reservoir. The "Cannimare
TeakTree", which is said to be Asia’s largest, is here near Thoonakkadavuvillage.
There is a tree-house in the Reserve Forest area in Thoonakkadavu, the headquarters of Parambikkulam, which has to be booked in advance. The Rest Houses of the State Forest Department at Thoonakkadavu,
Thellikkaland Elathodeoffer comfortable lodging. [Department of Tourism, Government of Kerala "Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary", retrieved Mar 24, 2007 [http://www.keralatourism.org/index.php?source=desti&destid=221&zone=1 Department of Tourism] ]
Parambikkulam is accessible by a road from
Pollachi, Tamilnadu. Palakkad to Pollachi is about 45 km then Pollachi to Parambikkulam is about 65 km. The nearest railway station is at Pollachi and the nearest airport is at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, about 120 km via Palakkad.
The sanctuary has a rich diversity of animal life including: Mammals 39 species, Amphibians 16 sp., Birds 268 sp., Reptiles 61 sp., Fish 47 sp., Insects 1049 sp. and Butterflies 124 sp.
*Mammals- Important mammals include:
Lion-tailed Macaques, Nilgiri Tahr, elephants, tigers, panthers, Wild boar, Sambar, Bonnet Macaques, Nilgiri Langurs, Sloth Bears, Nilgiri MartenSmall Travancore Flying Squirrel and Gaur, the flagship mammal of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary.
*Reptiles- Reptiles of very high importance in Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary include:
King cobra, Kerala sheildtail [http://www.wildindia.org/wiki/Sheildtail] , Travancore kukri snake, Travancore wolf snake, Cochin cane turtle, Travancore tortoise, Indian day gecko and Western Ghats flying lizard. Others Important Reptiles are Indian rock python, Malabar pit viper, Travancore tortoise, South Indian forest ground gecko[http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/biodiversity/documents/title172fi.htm ?] , South Indian rock lizard, Mountain skink, Mugger Crocodile, Varanus, Pond terapin, Chameleonand the snakes Spectacled Cobra, Krait, Green keelback, Olivaceous keelback, Western Rat snakeand Vine snake. See [http://www.parambikulam.org/reptiles.htm Checklist] Of Reptile Species
*Fish- 47 species of fish are recorded in the Sanctuary of which seven species are listed as endangered and 17 are endemic to Western Ghats. Some fishes include:
Aral, bral, vattudi, tilapia, noori, mooshu, poochutti, kollotty, exypriusand taral. See full [http://www.parambikulam.org/fishes.htm listing] of Fish.
*Birds- 268 bird species have been recorded in the sanctuary. 134 species are listed as rare and 18 species are endemic to Western Ghats. Lesser adjutant stork,
Grey-headed Fish-eaglePeninsular bay owl, Broad-billed rollerand Great pied hornbill. Other birds include: Darter, Little Cormorant, Black eagle, Black-capped kingfisher, Great Indian hornbill, and Black woodpecker. [Kerala Information & Public Relations Department, PARAMBIKULAM WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, retrieved 5/11/2007 [http://www.prd.kerala.gov.in/parambikulam.htm PARAMBIKULAM WILDLIFE SANCTUARY] ] See complete checklist of birds of Parambikulam Wildlife sanctuary: [http://www.parambikulam.org/assets/checklists/birds.pdf PDF]
*Butterflies- There are 124 species of butterflies recorded in the sanctuary of which 34 are rare and endemic. See checklist of Butterflies found in Parambikulam [http://www.parambikulam.org/assets/checklists/Butterflies.pdf PDF]
*Amphibians- 23 amphibians living in the sanctuary include: Ridged toad
Bufo parietalis, Common Asiatic toad Bufo melanostictus, Large wrinkled frog Nyctibatrachus major, Small wrinkled frog Nyctibatrachus minor, Rana tigerina, Rana keralensis, Rana cyanophlyctis, Rana leptodactyla, Rana limnocharis, Rana beddomil, Rana semipalamata, Bicoloureol frog Rana curtipes, Bronzed frog Rana temporalis, Reddish burrowing frog Tomopterna rufescens, Parambikulam frog Tomopterna parambikulamana, White-nosed bush frog Philautus leucorhinus, White-spotted bush frog Philautus chalzodes, Kerala warty frog Limnonectes keralensis, Indian skipper frog Euphlyetis cyanophlyctis, Limnonectes limnocharis, Beddome’s leaping frog Indirana beddomii, Short webbed leaping frog Indirana brachytarsusand the Common frog Micrixalus fuscus[ [http://www.parambikulam.org/amphibians.htm amphibians] ]
The sanctuary has a variety of trees mainly
teak, neem, sandalwoodand rosewood.
In April 2007 a wild fire in parts of Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary and the adjoining Nelliampathy forests destroyed hundreds of acres of forest tracts and plantations. Fires were caused by unemployed firewatchers and honey gatherers.
One of the reasons for the fires was the lack of pre-monsoon rain in the area. The area used to get rain in during January, February, March and April. This year, there was only 4 mm rain in January and after that there was no rain. Nelliampathy was facing an unprecedented drought this summer. The temperature reached 34oC in April when the average high is usually 26oC. [Prabhakaran G. (4/9/2007) "Fire engulfs Parambikulam, Nelliampathy forests", The Hindu, retrieved 6/12/2007 [http://www.hindu.com/2007/04/09/stories/2007040901140300.htm Fire] ]
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