Yugoslav Partisans


Yugoslav Partisans
People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia
Participant in the Yugoslav Front
Yugoslav Partisans flag 1945.svg
Flag of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, used by the Partisans
Active 1941-1945
Ideology Communism[1][2][3][4][5]
Leaders Josip Broz Tito
Headquarters mobile, attached to the Main Operational Group
Area of
operations
Axis-occupied Yugoslavia
Strength 80,000-800,000 (see below)
Became Yugoslav People's Army
Allies Allied powers, Soviet Union
Opponents Axis powers, Germany, Italy, NDH, Bulgaria, Chetniks, Balli Kombëtar
Battles/wars Battle of the Neretva, Battle of the Sutjeska, Raid on Drvar, Battle of Belgrade, Syrmian Front (most notable)

The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans[6] (officially the People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,[7] abbreviated NOV i POЈ)[8] were a Communist-led[9] World War II anti-fascist resistance movement in Yugoslavia. The Partisans were the military arm of the People's Liberation Front (JNOF) coalition, led by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (KPJ)[1] and represented by the AVNOJ (Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia), the Yugoslav wartime deliberative assembly. The commander of the Partisans was Marshal Josip Broz Tito.

The Partisans' goal was to create a communist state in Yugoslavia. To this end, the KPJ attempted to appeal to all the various ethnic groups within Yugoslavia, by preserving the rights of each group. The rival resistance movement, the Chetniks, emerged earlier, were united by their desire to ensure the survival of the Serbian population, the ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs from areas under Chetnik control, and their loyalty to the old Royalist regime. Relations between the two movements were uneasy from the start, but from October 1941 they degenerated into full-scale conflict. To the Chetniks, Tito's pan-ethnic policies seemed anti-Serbian, whereas the Chetniks' Royalism was anathema to the Communists.[10][11]

The common name of the movement is "the Partisans" (capitalized), while the adjective "Yugoslav" is used sometimes in exclusively non-Yugoslav sources to distinguish them from other (World War II) partisan movements. Despite the fact that their name suggests they fought as a guerrilla force, this was only true for the first three years of the conflict. From the second half of 1944, the total forces of the Partisans numbered 800,000 men and women organized in four field armies and 52 divisions, which engaged in conventional warfare.[12] When referring to this period, sources often use the term People's Liberation Army.

Contents

Background and origins

Partisan fighter Stjepan "Stevo" Filipović shouting "Death to fascism, freedom to the People!" (the Partisan slogan) seconds before his execution by a Serbian State Guard (local collaborator) unit in Valjevo, occupied Yugoslavia.

On 6 April 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was invaded from all sides by the Axis powers, primarily by German forces but including Italian, Hungarian and Bulgarian formations as well. During the invasion, Belgrade was bombed by the Luftwaffe. The invasion lasted little more than ten days, ending with the unconditional surrender of the Royal Yugoslav Army on April 17. Besides being hopelessly ill-equipped when compared to the Wehrmacht, the Army attempted to defend all borders but only managed to thinly spread the limited resources available.

The terms of the capitulation were extremely severe, as the Axis proceeded to dismember Yugoslavia. Germany occupied northern Slovenia, while retaining direct occupation over a rump Serbian state and considerable influence over its newly created puppet state,[13] the Independent State of Croatia, which extended over much of today's Croatia and contained all of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and Syrmia region of modern day Serbia. Mussolini's Italy gained the remainder of Slovenia, Kosovo, and large chunks of the coastal Dalmatia region (along with nearly all its Adriatic islands). It also gained control over the newly created Montenegrin puppet state, and was granted the kingship in the Independent State of Croatia, though wielding little real power within it. Hungary dispatched the Hungarian Third Army to occupy Vojvodina in northern Serbia, and later forcibly annexed sections of Baranja, Bačka, Međimurje and Prekmurje.[citation needed] Bulgaria, meanwhile, annexed nearly all of the modern-day Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. (All these territorial acquisitions, and the dissolution of Yugoslavia itself, were of course not recognized by any Allied state, nor are they today considered legal by any modern-day state, or the United Nations.)

The occupying forces instituted such severe burdens on the local populace that the Partisans came not only to enjoy widespread support but for many were the only option for survival. In certain instances, Axis forces and local collaborators would hang or shoot indiscriminately, including women, children and the elderly, up to 100 local inhabitants for every one German soldier killed. Furthermore, the country experienced a breakdown of law and order, with collaborationist militias roaming the countryside terrorizing the population. The government of the puppet Independent State of Croatia found itself unable to control its territory in the early stages of the occupation, resulting in a severe crackdown by the Ustaše militias and the German army.

Amid the relative chaos that ensued, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia moved to organize and unite anti-fascist factions and political forces into a nation-wide uprising. The party, led by Josip Broz Tito, was banned after its significant success in the post-World War I Yugoslav elections and operated underground since. Tito, however, could not act openly without the backing of the USSR, and as the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact was still in force, he was compelled to wait.

Formation and early rebellion

Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, began on 22 June 1941.[14]

The first communist military unit, the Sisak Brigade, on 22 June 1941, the day Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. This was ignored in official Yugoslav Historiography as it was not related to the Partisan movement. The first uprising, led by Tito, occurred two weeks later, in Serbia. [15]

The Communist Party of Yugoslavia formally decided to launch an armed uprising on 4 July, a date which was later marked as Fighter's Day — a public holiday in the SFR Yugoslavia. One Žikica Jovanović Španac shot the first bullet of the campaign on 7 July, later the Uprising Day of the Socialist Republic of Serbia (part of SFR Yugoslavia).

Sixteen blindfolded Partisan youth await execution by German forces in Smederevska Palanka, 20 August 1941.

On 10 August in Stanulović, a mountain village, the Partisans formed the Kopaonik Partisan Detachment Headquarters. Their liberated area, consisting of nearby villages, was called the "Miners Republic" and lasted 42 days. The resistance fighters formally joined the ranks of the Partisans later on.

On Joseph Stalin's birthday, 21 December 1941 Partisans formed the 1st Proletarian Assault Brigade (1. Proleterska Udarna Brigada) — the first regular Partisan military unit, capable of operating outside its local area. After the breakup between Stalin and Tito, 22 December became the "Day of the Yugoslav People's Army". In 1942 Partisan detachments officially merged into the People's Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia (NOV i POJ) with an estimated 236,000 soldiers in December 1942.[16] After the war, the Partisan ground forces were the basis for the formation of the Yugoslav People's Army, officially created on 1 March 1945.

The extent of support for the Partisan movement varied according to region and nationality, reflecting the existential concerns of the local population and authorities. The first Partisan uprising occurred in Croatia on 22 June 1941, when forty Croatian Communists staged an uprising in the Brezovica woods between Sisak and Zagreb.[15] An uprising occurred in Serbia two weeks later led by Tito (Uzice Republic), but it was quickly defeated by the Axis forces and support for the Partisans in Serbia thereafter dropped. Partisan numbers from Serbia would be diminished until 1943 when the Partisan movement gained upswing by spreading the fight against the axis.[17] Increase of number of Partisans in Serbia, similarly to other republics, came partly in response to Tito's offer of amnesty to all collaborators on 17 August 1944. At that point tens of thousands of Chetniks switched sides to the Partisans. The amnesty would be offered again after German withdrawal from Belgrade on 21 November 1944 and 15 January 1945.[18]

It was a different story for Serbs in Axis occupied Croatia who turned to the multi-ethnic Partisans, or the Serb Royalist Chetniks whose brutality mirrored that of the Ustashi.[19] Historian Tim Judah notes that in the early stage of the war the initial preponderance of Serbs in the Partisans meant in effect a Serbian civil war had broken out.[20] A similar civil war existed within the Croatian national corpus with the competing national narratives provided by the Ustashi and Partisans.

Multiethnic resistance fighters

According to the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,

"In partitioned Yugoslavia, partisan resistance developed among the Slovenes in German-annexed Slovenia, engaging mostly in small-scale sabotage. In Serbia, a cetnik resistance organization developed under a former Yugoslav Army Colonel, Draža Mihailovic. After a disastrous defeat in an uprising in June 1941, this organization tended to withdraw from confrontation with the Axis occupying forces. The Communist-dominated Partisan organization under the leadership of Josef Tito was a multi-ethnic resistance force -- including Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks (Serbo-Croatian speaking Muslims), Jews, and Slovenes. Based primarily in Bosnia and northwestern Serbia, Tito's Partisans fought the Germans and Italians most consistently and played a major role in driving the German forces out of Yugoslavia in 1945."[21]

Croatian Partisans

As the Partisan movement penetrated the Croatian mainstream and reached critical mass, by 1943 the majority of Partisans from Croatia were Croats. In late 1944, statistics show that the Croats represented 61% of the Partisan troops in Croatia, thus while the Serbian contribution of 28% represented above their proportion of the local population, the majority were Croat.[19][22][23][24] This process was facilitated by the amnesty offered to all collaborators if they switch sides and join Partisans by 15 September 1944.

Croatian Partisans were integral to overall Yugoslav Partisans; by the end of 1943 Croatia proper, with 24% of the Yugoslav population, provided more Partisans than Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia and Macedonia combined which collectively accounted for 59% of the Yugoslav population.[19] The Croatian partisans were unique in that they had the highest numbers of local Jews in their ranks of any other European resistance, and in early 1943 they took steps to establish ZAVNOH (National Anti-Fascist Council of the People's Liberation of Croatia) to act as a parliamentary body for all of Croatia — the only one of its kind in occupied Europe. ZAVNOH held three plenary sessions during the War in areas which remained surrounded by Axis troops. At its fourth and last session, held on 24–25 July 1945 in Zagreb, ZAVNOH proclaimed itself as the Croatian Parliament or Sabor.[25]

Recruitment patterns

Fourth Montenegrin Proletarian Brigade

The Chetniks, were a mainly Serb oriented group and their Serb nationalism resulted in an inability to recruit or appeal to many of the non-Serb nationalities. The Partisans, on the other hand, learned to play down Communism in favour of a Popular Front approach which appealed to all Yugoslavs. In Bosnia, for example, the Partisan rallying cry was for a country which was to be neither Serbian nor Croatian nor Muslim, but instead to be free and brotherly in which full equality of all groups would be ensured.[26] Nevertheless, Serbs remained the dominant ethnic group in the Yugoslav Partisans throughout the war. [27][28] Chetnik ethnic cleansing policies against the Muslims in Eastern Bosnia, and Dalmatia alienated Croats and Muslims from joining the Chetniks.[29] Italian repression and ambitions of taking Dalmatia did not appeal to the Croats. Italian collaboration with Chetniks in Northern Dalmatia resulting in atrocities which further galvanizing support for the Partisans among Dalmatian Croats. For example, Chetnik attacks on Gala, near Split, resulted in the slaughter of 200 Croatian civilians.[30] In particular, Mussolini's policy of forced Italianization ensured the first significant number of Croats joining the Partisans in late 1941.

In other areas, recruitment of Croats was hindered by some Serbian Partisans tendency to view the organisation as exclusively Serb, rejecting non-Serb members and raiding the villages of their Croat neighbours.[19] A group of Jewish youths from Sarajevo attempted to join a Partisan detachment in Kalinovnik, but the Serbian Partisans turned them back to Sarajevo, where many were captured by the Axis forces and perished.[31] Attacks from Croatian Ustaše on the Serbian population was considered to be one of the important reasons for the rise of guerrilla activities, thus aiding an ever growing Partisan resistance.[32]

As an allied victory became increasingly apparent, non-Serb communities opted for the Partisans as providing a more palatable future than the Serbianization policies of the royalist government in the first Yugoslavia. By contrast, the dynamic in Serbia was influenced by the allies' support of the Partisan governmental institutions over that of the royal government and the need to be part of the Partisans to have a say in the future structure of a Socialist Yugoslavia.

Operations

Resistance and retaliation

Yugoslav Partisan troops on the march in Slavonia, 1943.

The Partisans staged a guerrilla campaign which enjoyed gradually increased levels of success and support of the general populace, and succeeded in controlling large chunks of Yugoslav territory. These were managed via the People's committees, which were organized to act as civilian governments in liberated areas of the country, even limited arms industries were set up. At the very beginning, though, Partisan forces were relatively small, poorly armed and without any infrastructure. But they had two major advantages over other military and paramilitary formations in former Yugoslavia: the first and most immediate was a small but valuable cadre of Spanish Civil War veterans who, unlike anyone else at the time, had experience with modern war fought in circumstances quite similar to those of World War II Yugoslavia. Another advantage, which became apparent in later stages of war, was in Partisans being founded on ideology rather than ethnicity, which meant the Partisans could expect at least some levels of support in any corner of the country, unlike other paramilitary formations whose support was limited to territories with Croat or Serb majorities. This allowed their units to be more mobile and fill their ranks with a larger pool of potential recruits.

Occupying and quisling forces, however, were quite aware of the Partisan threat, and attempted to destroy the resistance in what Yugoslav historiographers defined as seven major anti-Partisan offensives. These are:

  • The First anti-Partisan Offensive (First Enemy Offensive), the attack conducted by the Axis in autumn of 1941 against the "Republic of Užice", a liberated territory the Partisans established in western Serbia. In November 1941, German troops attacked and reoccupied this territory, with the majority of Partisan forces escaping towards Bosnia. It was during this offensive that tenuous collaboration between the Partisans and the royalist Chetnik movement broke down and turned into open hostility.
  • The Second anti-Partisan Offensive (Second Enemy Offensive), the coordinated Axis attack conducted in January 1942 against Partisan forces in eastern Bosnia. The Partisan troops once again avoided encirclement and were forced to retreat over Igman mountain near Sarajevo.
  • The Third anti-Partisan Offensive (Third Enemy Offensive), an offensive against Partisan forces in eastern Bosnia, Montenegro, Sandžak and Herzegovina which took place in the spring of 1942. It was known as Operation TRIO by the Germans, and again ended with a timely Partisan escape. This attack is mistakenly identified by some sources as the Battle of Kozara, which took place in the summer of 1942.
  • The Fourth anti-Partisan Offensive (Fourth Enemy Offensive), against "Republic of Bihać", also known as the Battle of the Neretva or Fall Weiss (Case White), a conflict spanning the area between western Bosnia and northern Herzegovina, and culminating in the Partisan retreat over the Neretva river. It took place from January to April, 1943.
  • The Fifth anti-Partisan Offensive (Fifth Enemy Offensive), also known as the Battle of the Sutjeska or Fall Schwartz (Case Black). The operation immediately followed the Fourth Offensive and included a complete encirclement of Partisan forces in southeastern Bosnia and northern Montenegro in May and June 1943.
  • The Sixth anti-Partisan Offensive (Sixth Enemy Offensive), a series of operations undertaken by the Wehrmacht and the Ustaše after the capitulation of Italy in an attempt to secure the Adriatic coast. It took place in the autumn and winter of 1943/1944.
  • The Seventh anti-Partisan Offensive (Seventh Enemy Offensive), the final attack in western Bosnia in the spring of 1944, which included Operation Rösselsprung (Knight's Leap), an unsuccessful attempt to eliminate Josip Broz Tito personally and annihilate the leadership of the Partisan movement.

The largest of these were combined by Wehrmacht, the SS, fascist Italy, Ustaše, Chetniks, and Bulgarian forces.

Allied support

Later in the conflict the Partisans were able to win the moral, as well as limited material support of the western Allies, who until then had supported General Draža Mihailović's Chetnik Forces, but were finally convinced of their collaboration fighting by many military missions dispatched to both sides during the course of the war.

To gather intelligence, agents of the western Allies were infiltrated into both the Partisans and the Chetniks. The intelligence gathered by liaisons to the resistance groups was crucial to the success of supply missions and was the primary influence on Allied strategy in Yugoslavia. The search for intelligence ultimately resulted in the demise of the Chetniks and their eclipse by Tito’s Partisans. In 1942, though supplies were limited, token support was sent equally to each. The new year would bring a change. The Germans were executing Operation Schwarz (the Fifth anti-Partisan offensive), one of a series of offensives aimed at the resistance fighters, when F.W.D. Deakin was sent by the British to gather information.

His reports contained two important observations. The first was that the Partisans were courageous and aggressive in battling the German 1st Mountain and 104th Light Division, had suffered significant casualties, and required support. The second observation was that the entire German 1st Mountain Division had traveled from Russia by railway through Chetnik-controlled territory. British intercepts (ULTRA) of German message traffic confirmed Chetnik timidity. All in all, intelligence reports resulted in increased Allied interest in Yugoslavia air operations and shifted policy. In September 1943, at Churchill’s request, Brigadier General Fitzroy Maclean was parachuted to Tito’s headquarters near Drvar to serve as a permanent, formal liaison to the Partisans. While the Chetniks were still occasionally supplied, the Partisans received the bulk of all future support.[33]

Thus, after the Tehran Conference the Partisans received official recognition as the legitimate national liberation force by the Allies, who subsequently set-up the RAF Balkan Air Force (under the influence and suggestion of Brigadier-General Fitzroy MacLean) with the aim to provide increased supplies and tactical air support for Marshal Tito's Partisan forces. During a meeting with Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Combined Chiefs of Staff of November 24, 1943, Winston Churchill pointed out that:

It was a lamentable fact that virtually no supplies had been conveyed by sea to the 222,000 followers of Tito. (...) These stalwarts were holding as many Germans in Yugoslavia as the combined Anglo-American forces were holding in Italy south of Rome. The Germans had been thrown into some confusion after the collapse of Italy and the Patriots had gained control of large stretches of the coast. We had not, however, seized the opportunity. The Germans had recovered and were driving the Partisans out bit by bit. The main reason for this was the artificial line of responsibility which ran through the Balkans. (...) Considering that the Partisans had given us such a generous measure of assistance at almost no cost to ourselves, it was of high importance to ensure that their resistance was maintained and not allowed to flag.
Winston Churchill, 24 November 1943[34]

Activities increase 1943-45

With Allied air support (Red Army, in the second half of 1944 the Partisans turned their attention to Serbia, which had seen relatively little fighting since the fall of the Republic of Užice in 1941. On 20 October, the Red Army and the Partisans liberated Belgrade in a joint operation known as the Belgrade Offensive. At the onset of winter, the Partisans effectively controlled the entire eastern half of Yugoslavia — Serbia, Vardar Macedonia and Montenegro, as well as the Dalmatian coast.

In 1945, the Partisans, numbering over 800,000 strong[12] defeated the Independent State of Croatia and the Wehrmacht, achieving a hard-fought breakthrough in the Syrmian front in late winter, taking Sarajevo in early April, and the rest of Croatia and Slovenia through mid-May. After taking Rijeka and Istria, which were part of Italy before the war, they beat the Allies to Trieste by a day.

The "last battle of World War Two in Europe", the Battle of Poljana, was fought between the Partisans and retreating Wehrmacht and quisling forces at Poljana, near Prevalje in Carinthia, on 14–15 May 1945.

Services

Aircraft and men of the Balkan Air Force during a review by Marshal Josip Broz Tito.

Aside from ground forces, the Yugoslav Partisans were the first and only resistance movement in occupied Europe to employ significant air and naval forces.

Partisan Navy

Naval forces of the resistance were formed as early as 19 September 1942, when Partisans in Dalmatia formed their first naval unit made of fishing boats, which gradually evolved into a force able to engage the Italian Navy and Kriegsmarine and conduct complex amphibious operations. This event is considered to be the foundation of the Yugoslav Navy.

At its peak during World War II, the Yugoslav Partisans' Navy commanded 9 or 10 armed ships, 30 patrol boats, close to 200 support ships, six coastal batteries, and several Partisan detachments on the islands, around 3,000 men. On 26 October 1943, it was organized first into four, and later into six, Maritime Coastal Sectors (Pomorsko Obalni Sektor, POS). The task of the naval forces was to secure supremacy at sea, organize defense of coast and islands, and attack enemy sea traffic and forces on the islands and along the coasts.[35]

Partisan Air Force

The Partisans gained an effective air force in May 1942, when the pilots of two aircraft belonging to the Air Force of the Independent State of Croatia (French-designed and Yugoslav-built Potez 25, and Breguet 19 biplanes, themselves formerly of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force), Franjo Kluz and Rudi Čajavec, defected to the Partisans in Bosnia.[36] Later, these pilots used their aircraft against Axis forces in limited operations. Although short-lived due to a lack of infrastructure, this was the first instance of a resistance movement having its own air force. Later, the air force would be re-established and destroyed several times until its permanent institution.[37] The Partisans later established a permanent air force by obtaining aircraft, equipment, and training from captured Axis aircraft, the British Royal Air Force (see BAF), and later the Soviet Air Force.

Statistics

Composition

Regional

By April 1945, there were some 800,000 soldiers in the Partisan army. Composition by region is as follows:[38]

Note: The tables can be variously sorted using the Sort none.gif icon.

Partisans by regions
Rank Region Late 1941 Late 1942 Sept. 1943 Late 1943 Late 1944 Partisan Veteran Organization membership in 1978 (per region's population)[39]
1 Slovenia 1,000 19,000 21,000 25,000 40,000 6.84
2 Montenegro 22,000 6,000 10,000 24,000 30,000 6.01
3 Croatia 7,000 48,000 78,000 122,000 150,000 5.77
4 Serbia (proper) 23,000 8,000 13,000 22,000 204,000 5.64
5 Vojvodina 1,000 1,000 3,000 5,000 40,000 4.85
6 Macedonia 1,000 2,000 10,000 7,000 66,000 3.65
7 Kosovo 5,000 6,000 6,000 7,000 20,000 2.88
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina 20,000 60,000 89,000 108,000 100,000 2.83

Ethnic

Partisan supreme commander, Marshal Josip Broz Tito reviewing the 1st Proletarian Brigade.

According to Tito the national composition of the Partisan army in 1944 was 44% Serb, 30% Croat, 10% Slovene, 5% Montenegrin, 2.5% Macedonian, and 2.5% Bosnian Muslim.[40] This was the lowest percentage that the Serbs had during the war.

Bosnia & Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, by late 1943, 70 percent of the Partisans were Serb and 30 percent were Croat and Muslim.[41] In the entirety of the war the Bosnian Partisans were 64.1 percent Serb, 23 percent Muslim, and 8.8 percent Croat.[41]

Croatia

Among Croatian partisans at the end of 1941 there were approximately 77% Serbs and 21.5% Croats and others as well as unknown nationalities. The percentage of Croats in the partisan troops had increased to 32% by August 1942, which rose to 34% by September 1943. After the capitulation of Italy, it continued to increase rapidly and at the end of 1944 there were 60.4% Croats, 28.6% Serbs and 11% of other unknown nationalities in Croatians partisan units.[42]

Casualties

Despite their success, the Partisans suffered heavy casualties throughout the war. The table depicts Partisan losses, 7 July 1941-16 May 1945:[22][23][24]

1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Total
Killed in action 18,896 24,700 48,378 80,650 72,925 245,549
Wounded in action 29,300 31,200 61,730 147,650 130,000 399,880
Died from wounds 3,127 4,194 7,923 8,066 7,800 31,200
Missing in action 3,800 6,300 5,423 5,600 7,800 28,925

Rescue operations

The Partisans were responsible for the successful and sustained evacuation of downed Allied airmen from the Balkans. For example, between 1 January and 15 October 1944, according to statistics compiled by the US Air Force Air Crew Rescue Unit, 1,152 American airmen were airlifted from Yugoslavia, 795 with Partisan assistance and 356 with the help of the Chetniks.[43] Yugoslav Partisans in Slovene territory rescued 303 American airmen, 389 British airmen and prisoners of war, and 120 French and other prisoners of war and slave laborers.[44]

The Partisans also assisted hundreds of Allied soldiers who succeeded in escaping from German POW camps (mostly in southern Austria) throughout the war, but especially from 1943-45. These were transported across Slovenia, from where many were airlifted from Semič, while others made the longer overland trek down through Croatia for a boat passage to Bari in Italy. In the spring of 1944, the British military mission in Slovenia reported that there was a "steady, slow trickle" of escapes from these camps. They were being assisted by local civilians, and on contacting Partisans on the general line of the River Drava, they were able to make their way to safety with Partisan guides.

Raid at St Lorenzen

A total of 132 Allied prisoners of war were rescued from the Germans by the Partisans in a single operation in August 1944 in what is known as the Raid at St. Lorenzen.

In June 1944, the Allied escape organization began to take an active interest in assisting prisoners from camps in southern Austria and evacuating them through Yugoslavia. A post of the Allied mission in northern Slovenia had found that at Sankt Lorenzen ob Eibiswald, just on the Austrian side of the border, about 50 km (31 mi) from Maribor, there was a poorly guarded working camp from which a raid by Slovene Partisans could free all the prisoners. Over 100 POWs were transported from Stalag XVIII-D at Maribor to St. Lorenzen each morning to do railway maintenance work, and returned to their quarters in the evening. Contact was made between Partisans and the prisoners with the result that at the end of August a group of seven slipped away past a sleeping guard at 15:00, and at 21:00 the men were celebrating with the Partisans in a village, 8 km (5.0 mi) away on the Yugoslav side of the border.[45]

The seven escapees arranged with the Partisans for the rest of the camp to be freed the following day. Next morning, the seven returned with about a hundred Partisans to await the arrival of the work-party by the usual train. As soon as work had begun the Partisans, to quote a New Zealand eye-witness, "swooped down the hillside and disarmed the eighteen guards". In a short time prisoners, guards, and civilian overseers were being escorted along the route used by the first seven prisoners the previous evening. At the first headquarters camp reached, details were taken of the total of 132 escaped prisoners for transmission by radio to England. Progress along the evacuation route south was difficult, as German patrols were very active. A night ambush by one such patrol caused the loss of two prisoners and two of the escort. Eventually they reached Semič, in White Carniola, Slovenia, which was a Partisan base catering for POWs. They were flown across to Bari on 21 September 1944.[45]

Post-war

SFR Yugoslavia was one of only two European countries that were liberated by its own forces during World War II, only with limited assistance and participation by the remaining Allies. It received support from both Western Allies and the Soviet Union, and at the end of the war no foreign troops were stationed on its soil. Partly as a result, the country found itself halfway between the two camps at the onset of the Cold War.

In 1947-1948, the Soviet Union attempted to command obedience from Yugoslavia, primarily on issues of foreign policy, which resulted in the Tito-Stalin split and almost ignited an armed conflict. A period of very cool relations with the Soviet Union followed, during which the U.S. and the UK considered courting Yugoslavia into the newly-formed NATO. This however changed in 1953 with the Trieste crisis, a tense dispute between Yugoslavia and the Western Allies over the eventual Yugoslav-Italian border (see Free Territory of Trieste), and with Yugoslav-Soviet reconciliation in 1956.

This ambivalent position at the start of the Cold War matured into the non-aligned foreign policy which Yugoslavia actively espoused until its dissolution.

Reprisals

A number of Partisan units, and the part of local population, engaged in mass murder in the immediate postwar period against perceived Axis sympathizers, collaborators, and/or fascists. The best known incidents include the Bleiburg massacre, the foibe massacres, and the killings in Bačka.

The Bleiburg massacre was the retribution enacted by the Partisans on the retreating column of Chetnik, Slovene Home Guard, and Ustaše soldiers that was retreating towards Austria in an attempt to surrender to western Allied forces. The "foibe massacres" draw their name from the "foibe" pits in which Croatian Partisans of the 8th Dalmatian Corps (often along with groups of angry civilian locals) shot Italian fascists, and suspected (or even alleged) collaborationists and/or separatists, in retribution to the decades-long Italian oppression they experienced. According to a mixed Slovene-Italian historical commission[46] established in 1993, which investigated only on what happened in places included in present-day Italy and Slovenia, the killings seemed to proceed from endeavors to remove persons linked with fascism (regardless of their personal responsibility), and endeavors to carry out preventive cleansing of real, potential or only alleged opponents of the Communist government. The 1944-1945 killings in Bačka were similar in nature and entailed the killing of Hungarian fascist separatists, and their suspected affiliates, without regard to their personal responsibility.

There were also differences between the conduct of Partisans from different areas. For example, in Ajdovščina Slovenian Partisans and the local garrison of (Austrian) German forces agreed to abstain from any further fighting in the closing days of the war, with the German garrison agreeing to be disarmed. When Partisans from the other parts of Yugoslavia entered the village, the unarmed Austrians were shot in cold blood, something not received well by the Slovene Partisans.

The numbers of dead due to Italian, German and collaborationist organised killings, however, far outstrip even the most lavish estimates of the Partisan crimes' death toll. Indeed, the Partisans didn't have an official genocidal agenda (unlike the Ustaše, the Chetniks, the Italians, and the Germans), as their cardinal ideal was the "brotherhood and unity" of all Yugoslav nations (the phrase became the motto for the new Yugoslavia). To put in perspective the extent of genocide occurring throughout Yugoslavia during the war, it suffices to say the country suffered about 1,027,000 dead during the Axis occupation, civilian and military (in comparison, the United States and Great Britain together suffered approximately 630,000). Only a small fraction constitute civilians actually killed by the Partisans.

This controversial chapter of Partisan history was a taboo subject for conversation in the SFR Yugoslavia until the late 1980s, and as a result, decades of official silence created a reaction in the form of numerous data manipulation for nationalist propaganda purposes.[47]

Equipment

The first small arms for the Partisans were acquired from the dissolved Royal Yugoslav Army. Throughout the war the Partisans used any weapons they could find, mostly capturing weapons from the Germans, Italians, Croatian Home Guard, Ustaše, and The Chetniks such as the Kar98k, MP40, MG34 and Carcano rifles and carbines and Beretta Sub Machine Guns. The other way that the Partisans acquired weapons was from supplies given to them by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, weapons acquired include the PPSH 41 and the Sten MKII. Additionally, Partisan workshops created their own weapons modelled on factory-made weapons already in use, including the so-called "Partisan rifle" and the anti-tank "Partisan mortar".

Cultural legacy

Monument commemorating the Battle of the Sutjeska in Tjentište, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Partisan ranks included some of the most important artists and writers of 20th century Yugoslavia. The experiences of Partisans in particular had a major impact on the culture of the country. The Partisan struggle was therefore well-chronicled through the memoirs of its participants, and later those experiences served as basis for important literary works, most notably by authors like Jure Kaštelan, Joža Horvat, Oskar Davičo, Antonije Isaković, Branko Ćopić, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Karel Destovnik Kajuh, Mihailo Lalić, Edvard Kocbek, Tone Svetina, Vitomil Zupan and others.

According to Vladimir Dedijer, over 40,000 works of folk poetry were inspired by the Partisans.[48]

Comic books depicting the Partisan struggle also became very popular, most notably works by Croatian artist Jules Radilović. The most popular, however, was the Mirko i Slavko comic book series.

The Partisan struggle also influenced the film industry, which developed its own genre of Partisan film, with its own set of unofficial rules and motives, very much like American Western or the Japanese Jidaigeki movies. The most notable of these was the Oscar-nominated 1969 Battle of Neretva (film). The movie Force 10 from Navarone displayed the struggle of the Yugoslav Partisans during the war, as British and American special forces arrive to help them destroy a German-held bridge.

An outsider's perspective of the partisans is recorded in Evelyn Waugh's 1961 novel Unconditional Surrender, the last of The Sword of Honour trilogy. Waugh was stationed in Yugoslavia towards the end of the war.

The most visible aspect of Partisan legacy, however, is the series of monuments commemorating their struggle. Most of these sculptures belong to the socialist realism art form, with some of them becoming victims of state-sponsored vandalism following the break-up of the country in the early 1990s. (see Yugoslav wars).

See also

References

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  2. ^ Jones, Howard (1997). A new kind of war: America's global strategy and the Truman Doctrine in Greece. Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0195113853. 
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  6. ^ Curtis, Glenn E. (1992). Yugoslavia: A Country Study. Library of Congress. p. 39. ISBN 0844407356. 
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  8. ^ Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Cyrillic: Партизани; the long name is Serbo-Croatian: Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije; Slovene: Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije; Macedonian: Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија
  9. ^ Rusinow, Dennison I. (1978). The Yugoslav experiment 1948-1974. University of California Press. p. 2. ISBN 0520037308. 
  10. ^ "Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941 -1945". Bbc.co.uk. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/partisan_fighters_01.shtml. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  11. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 96.
  12. ^ a b Perica, Vjekoslav (2004). Balkan Idols: Religion and Nationalism in Yugoslav States. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0195174291. 
  13. ^ "Independent State of Croatia". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 2010. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-1413183/Independent-State-of-Croatia. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  14. ^ Higgins, Trumbull (1966). Hitler and Russia. The Macmillan Company. pp. 11–59, 98–151. 
  15. ^ a b Cohen 1996, p. 94.
  16. ^ "Foreign News: Partisan Boom". Time. 3 January 1944. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,885272,00.html. Retrieved 15 February 2010. 
  17. ^ Hart, Stephen. "BBC History". Partisans : War in the Balkans 1941 - 1945. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/partisan_fighters_01.shtml#two. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  18. ^ Cohen 1996, p. 61.
  19. ^ a b c d Cohen 1996, p. 95.
  20. ^ Judah 2000, p. 119.
  21. ^ "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". Ushmm.org. 2011-01-06. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007332. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  22. ^ a b Strugar, Vlado (1969). Jugoslavija 1941-1945. Vojnoizdavački zavod. 
  23. ^ a b Anić, Nikola; Joksimović, Sekula; Gutić, Mirko (1982). Narodnooslobodilačka vojska Jugoslavije. Vojnoistorijski institut. 
  24. ^ a b Vuković, Božidar; Vidaković, Josip (1976). Putevim Glavnog štaba Hrvatske. 
  25. ^ Jelic, Ivan (1978). Croatia in War and Revolution 1941-1945. Zagreb: Školska knjiga. 
  26. ^ Judah 2000, p. 120.
  27. ^ Century of genocide: critical essays and eyewitness accounts, Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, 430.
  28. ^ Between past and future: civil-military relations in the post-communist Balkans,Biljana Vankovska, Håkan Wiberg, 197.
  29. ^ Judah 2000, p. 129.
  30. ^ Judah 2000, p. 128.
  31. ^ Cohen 1996, p. 77.
  32. ^ Judah 2000, p. 127-128.
  33. ^ Martin, David (1946). Ally Betrayed: The Uncensored Story of Tito and Mihailovich. Prentice Hall. p. 34. 
  34. ^ Walter R. Roberts, Tito, Mihailović, and the Allies Duke University Press, 1987 ISBN 0822307731, p.165
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  37. ^ "Yugoslav Partisan Air Force in 1943". Vojska.net. http://www.vojska.net/eng/world-war-2/yugoslavia/airforce/1943/. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  38. ^ Cohen 1996, p. 96.
  39. ^ Rakić, Petar (1980). Statistical pocket-book of Yugoslavia. Federal Statistical Office of Yugoslavia. ISSN 05851815. 
  40. ^ Ramet 1996, p. 61.
  41. ^ a b Hoare 2006, p. 10.
  42. ^ Goldstein. Serbs and Croats in the national liberation war in Croatia. , p. 266-267.
  43. ^ Leary, William Matthew (1995). Fueling the Fires of Resistance: Army Air Forces Special Operations in the Balkans during World War II. Government Printing Office. p. 34. ISBN 0-16-061364-7. 
  44. ^ Tomasevich 2001, p. 115.
  45. ^ a b Mason, Walter W.; Kippenberger, Howard K. (1954). Prisoners of War. Historical Publications Branch. p. 383. 
  46. ^ "Slovene-Italian historical commission". Kozina.com. http://www.kozina.com/premik/indexeng_porocilo.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-19. 
  47. ^ MacDonald, David B. (2002). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim Centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia. Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719064678. 
  48. ^ Dedijer, Vladimir (1980). Novi prilozi za biografiju Josipa Broza Tita. Mladost. p. 929. 
  • Cohen, Philip J.; Riesman, David (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0890967601. 
  • Hoare, Marko Attila (2006). Genocide and Resistance in Hitler's Bosnia: The Partisans and the Chetniks. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0197263801. 
  • Judah, Tim (2000). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300085079. 
  • Ramet, Sabrina P. (2006). The Three Yugoslavias: State-Building and Legitimation, 1918-2004. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0271016299. 
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804708576. 

Further reading

  • Bokovoy, Melissa (1998). Peasants and Communists: Politics and Ideology in the Yugoslav Countryside. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 0822940612. 
  • Irvine, Jill (1992). The Croat Question: Partisan Politics in the Formation of the Yugoslav Socialist State. Westview Press. ISBN 0813385423. 
  • Roberts, Walter R. (1987). Tito, Mihailovic and the Allies, 1941-1945. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822307731. 

External links


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