- Lewis Valentine
Lewis Edward Valentine (
June 1, 1893-March 1986) was a Welsh politician, Baptistpastor, author, editor and Welsh languageactivist
Valentine was born in
Llanddulas, Conwy, son of Samuel Valentine, a limestonequarryman, and his wife Mary. He began studying to go into the ministry of the Baptist church at the University College of North Wales, Bangor but his studies were curtailed due to the First World War.
Founding Plaid Cymru
His experiences in
World War I, and his sympathy for the cause of Irish independence, brought him to Welsh nationalism, and in 1925 he met with Saunders Lewisand H.R. Jones, and others at a 1925 National Eisteddfodmeeting, held in Pwllheli, Gwynedd, with the aim of establishing "a Welsh party". [John Davies, "A History of Wales", Penguin, 1994, ISBN 0-14-014581-8, Page 547]
Discussions for the need of a "Welsh party" had been circulating since the 19th century [Davies, "op cit", pages 415, 454] . With the generation or so before 1922 there "had been a marked growth in the constitutional recognition of the Welsh nation," wrote
historianDr. John Davies [Davies, "op cit", Page 544] . By 1924 there were people in Wales "eager to make their nationality the focus of Welsh politics [Davies, "op cit", Page 547] ."
The principal aim of the new party would be to foster a Welsh speaking Wales [Davies, "op cit", page 548] . To this end it was agreed that party business be conducted in Welsh, and that members sever all links with other British parties [Davies, "op cit", page 548] . Valentine, Lewis and others insisted on these principles before they would agree to the Pwllheli conference.
According to the 1911 census, out of a population of just under 2.5 million, 43.5% of the total population of Wales spoke Welsh as a primary language. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/sites/language/pages/1911.shtml BBCWales History extracted 12-03-07] ] This was a decrease from the 1891 census with 54.4% speaking Welsh out of a population of 1.5 million. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/history/sites/language/pages/1891.shtml BBCWales history extracted 12-03-07] ]
With these prerequisites Lewis condemned "'Welsh nationalism' as it had hitherto existed, a nationalism characterized by inter-party conferences, an obsession with
Westministerand a willingness to accept a subservient position for the Welsh language," wrote Dr. Davies [Davies, "op cit", page 548] . It may be because of these strict positions that the party failed to attract politicians of experience in its early years [Davies, "op cit", page 548] . However, the party's members believed its founding was an achievement in itself; "merely by existing, the party was a declaration of the distinctiveness of Wales," wrote Dr. Davies [Davies, "op cit", page 548] .
During the inter-war years, "Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru" was most successful as a social and educational
pressure grouprather than as a political party. [Davies, "op cit", page 591]
"Tân yn Llŷn" 1936
Welsh nationalism was ignited in 1936 when the UK government settled on establishing a bombing school at
Penyberthon the Llŷn peninsula in Gwynedd. The events surrounding the protest, known as "Tân yn Llŷn" ("Fire in Llŷn"), helped define "Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru". [Davies, "op cit", page 593] The UK government settled on Llŷn as the site for its new bombing school after similar locations Northumberlandand Dorsetwere met with protests. [Davies, "op cit", page 592]
However, UK Prime Minister
Stanley Baldwinrefused to hear the case against the bombing school in Wales, despite a deputation representing half a million Welsh protesters [Davies, "op cit", page 592] . Protest against the bombing school was summed up by Lewis when he wrote that the UK government was intent upon turning one of the 'essential homes of Welsh culture, idiom, and literature' into a place for promoting a barbaric method of warfare. [Davies, "op cit", page 592] Construction of the bombing school building began exactly 400 years after the first Act of Union annexing Wales into England. [Davies, "op cit", page 592]
On 8 September 1936 the bombing school building was set on fire and in the investigations which followed Saunders Lewis, Lewis Valentine, and D.J. Williams claimed responsibility. [Davies, "op cit", page 592] The trial at Caernarfon failed to agree on a verdict and the case was sent to the
Old Baileyin London. The "Three" were sentenced to nine months imprisonment in Wormwood Scrubs, and on their release they were greeted as heroes by fifteen thousand Welsh at the Pavilion Caernarfon. [Davies, "op cit", page 592]
Many Welsh were angered by the Judge's scornful treatment of the Welsh language, by the decision to move the trial to London, and by the decision of University College, Swansea, to dismiss Lewis from his post before he had been found guilty. [Davies, "op cit", page 593]
Dafydd Glyn Joneswrote of the fire that it was "the first time in five centuries that Wales struck back at England with a measure of violence... To the Welsh people, who had long ceased to believe that they had it in them, it was a profound shock." [Davies, "op cit", page 593]
However, despite the acclaim the events of "Tân yn Llŷn" generated, by 1938 Lewis' concept of "perchentyaeth" was firmly rejected as "not" a fundamental tenet of the party. In 1939 Lewis resigned as "Plaid Genedleathol Cymru" president citing that Wales was not ready to accept the leadership of a Roman Catholic. [Davies, "op cit", page 593]
econd World War
"Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru" members were free to choose for themselves their level of support for the
war effort. "Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru" was officially neutral regarding involvement the Second World War, which Valentine, Lewis and other leaders considered a continuation of the First World War. Central to the neutrality policy was the idea that Wales, as a nation, had the right to decide independently on its attitude towards war [Davies, "op cit", page 598] , and the rejection of other nations to force Welshmen to serve in their armed forces [Davies, "op cit", page 598] . With this challenging and revolutionary policy party leaders hoped a significant number of Welshmen would refuse to join the British Army [Davies, "op cit", page 599] .
Lewis and other party members were attempting to strengthen loyalty to the Welsh
nation"over the loyalty to the British State[Davies, "op cit", page 598] ." Lewis argued "The only proof that the Welsh nation exists is that there are some who act as if it did exist [Davies, "op cit", page 599] ."
However, most party members who claimed
conscientious objectionstatus did so in the context of their moral and religious beliefs, rather than on political policy [Davies, "op cit", page 599] . Of these almost all were exempt from military service. About 24 party members made politics their sole grounds for exemption, of which twelve received prison sentences [Davies, "op cit", page 599] . For Lewis, those who objected proved that the assimilation of Wales was "being withstood, even under the most extreme pressures [Davies, "op cit", page 599] ."
Pastor, author, and editor
As a pastor he served church in north Wales and edited the Baptist quarterly magazine, "
Seren Gomer", from 1951 to 1975. He also wrote of his experience in the war in "Dyddiadur milwr" (=A soldier's diary), 1988.
Valentine is also famed as the writer of the hymn
"Gweddi dros Gymru"(=A prayer for Wales), usually sung to the tune of Jean Sibelius's Finlandia Hymn, and generally thought of as the second Welsh national anthem.
Valentine's immortal words. Also recorded and sung by
Dafydd Iwana popular Welsh folk singer and Nationalist Politician.
:"Dros Gymru'n gwlad, O Dad, dyrchafwn gri,":"y winllan wen a roed i'n gofal ni;":"d'amddiffyn cryf a'i cadwo'n ffyddlon byth,":"a boed i'r gwir a'r glân gael ynddi nyth;":"er mwyn dy Fab a'i prynodd iddo'i hun,":"O crea hi yn Gymru ar dy lun."
:"O deued dydd pan fo awelon Duw":"yn chwythu eto dros ein herwau gwyw,":"a'r crindir cras dan ras cawodydd nef":"yn erddi Crist, yn ffrwythlon iddo ef,":"a'n heniaith fwyn â gorfoleddus hoen":"yn seinio fry haeddiannau'r addfwyn Oen"
*Valentine, Lewis (1893-1986). In Meic Stephens (Ed.) (1998), "The new companion to the literature of Wales". Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1383-3.
*Vittle, Arwel. Valentine: cofiant Lewis Valentine. (2006). Tal-y-bont: Y Lolfa. ISBN 0-8624-3929-9.
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