- Prevalence of circumcision
The prevalence of circumcision (or circumcision rate) refers to the proportion of males that are circumcised in a given population. It may also refer to the proportion of newborn males that are circumcised. Estimates of the proportion of males that are circumcised worldwide vary from 1⁄6 to 1⁄3. The World Health Organization has estimated that 664,500,000 males aged 15 and over are circumcised (30% global prevalence), with almost 70% of these being Muslim.
Circumcision is most prevalent in the Muslim world (near-universal), parts of Southeast Asia and of Africa, the United States, the Philippines, Israel, and South Korea. It is relatively rare in Europe, parts of Southern Africa, and most of Asia and Oceania. In Latin America, prevalence is universally low. The WHO states that "there is generally little non-religious circumcision in Asia, with the exceptions of the Republic of Korea and the Philippines". Estimates for individual countries include Spain, Colombia and Denmark less than 2%, Finland 0.006% and 7%, Brazil 7%, Taiwan 9%, Thailand 13%, and Australia 58.7%.
Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the United Kingdom have generally seen a decline in male circumcision while there are indications of increasing demand in Southern Africa. The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that circumcision rates were stable in the United States between 1979 and 1999.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Americas
- 3 Asia
- 4 Europe
- 5 Oceania
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Studies indicate that about 62% of African males are circumcised overall. However, these rates differ by region, ethnic and religious groups. Williams, B.G. et al. comment that "Most of the currently available data on the prevalence of [male circumcision] are several decades old, while several of the recent studies were carried out as adjuncts to demographic and health surveys and were not designed to determine the prevalence of [male circumcision]."
Circumcision prevalence in Africa Country Rate (Williams, B.G. et al.) Rate (WHO ) Angola 66 >80 Central African Republic 67 20–80 Chad 64 >80 Republic of the Congo 70 >80 Democratic Republic of the Congo 70 >80 Gabon 93 >80 Burundi 2 <20 Djibouti 94 >80 Eritrea 95 >80 Ethiopia 76 >80 Kenya 84 >80 Rwanda 10 <20 Somalia 93 >80 Sudan 47 20–80 Tanzania 70 20–80 Uganda 25 20–80 Botswana 25 <20 Lesotho 0 20–80 Malawi 17 <20 Mozambique 56 20–80 Namibia 15 <20 South Africa 35 20–80 Swaziland 50 <20 Zambia 12 <20 Zimbabwe 10 <20 Benin 84 >80 Burkina Faso 89 >80 Cameroon 93 >80 Equatorial Guinea 86 >80 Gambia 90 >80 Ghana 95 >80 Guinea 83 >80 Guinea-Bissau 91 >80 Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 93 20–80 Liberia 70 >80 Mali 95 >80 Mauritania 78 >80 Niger 92 >80 Nigeria 81 >80 Senegal 89 >80 Sierra Leone 90 >80 Togo 93 >80
Less than 20%
Between 20 and 80%
80% or more
Algeria, Morocco, Mauritania, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Angola, Mauritius, Madagascar. Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast).
Less than 20%
Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Cuba, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela.
The overall prevalence of circumcision is reported to be 6.9% in Colombia, and 7.4% in Brazil (13% in Rio de Janeiro).
The prevalence of circumcision in Mexico is estimated to be 10% to 31%.
Between 20 and 80%
Statistics from different sources give widely varying estimates of infant circumcision rates in the United States.
In 2005, about 56 percent of male newborns were circumcised prior to release from the hospital according to statistics from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Data from a national survey conducted from 1999 to 2002 found that the overall prevalence of male circumcision in the United States was 79%. 91% of men born in the 1970s, and 83% of boys born in the 1980s were circumcised. An earlier survey, conducted in 1992, found a circumcision prevalence of 77% in US-born men, born from 1932–1974, including 81% of non-Hispanic White men, 65% of Black men, and 54% of Hispanic men, vs. 42% of non U.S. born men who were circumcised.
A recent study, which used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (a sample of 5–7 million of the nation's total inpatient stays, and representing a 20% sample taken from 8 states in 1988 and 28 in 2000), stated that neonatal circumcisions rose from 48.3% of males in 1988 to 61.1% in 1997.
Figures from the 2003 Nationwide Hospital Discharge Survey state that circumcision rates declined from 64.7% in 1980 to 59.0% in 1990, rose to 64.1% in 1995, and fell again to 55.9% in 2003. On page 52, it is shown that the western region of the United States has seen the most significant change, declining from 61.8% in 1980 to 31.4% in 2003. Part of the decline in the western region has been attributed by some experts to an increasing percentage of births to immigrants from Latin America, who have been shown to be less likely to circumcise than other parents in the U.S. A 2008 study of male infants born in the US state of Maryland found that the circumcision rate was 75.3% based on hospital discharge data files, and 82.3% based on maternal post-partum survey data.
There are various explanations for why the infant circumcision rate in the United States are different from comparable countries. Many parents’ decisions about circumcision are preconceived, and this may contribute to the high rate of elective circumcision.
Medicaid funding for infant circumcision used to be available in every state, but starting with California in 1982, some states have eliminated Medicaid coverage of routine (non-therapeutic) circumcision. One study in the Midwest of the U.S. found that this had no effect on the newborn circumcision rate but it did affect the demand for circumcision at a later time. Another study, published in early 2009, found a difference in the neonatal male circumcision rate of 24% between states with and without Medicaid coverage. The study was controlled for other factors such as the percentage of Hispanic patients. In 2006, Hawaii and Vermont introduced resolutions questioning the public funding of male circumcision.
Edgar Schoen states that the "80% to 85% US circumcision rate observed in practice contrasts with the 55% to 65% rate reported in statistics collected from birth centers across the nation". The explanation he offers is that "the published results of national statistical surveys represent only coded diagnoses obtained from birth centers; the reported figures do not include males who are circumcised at a later date for religious, medical, or personal reasons or who received newborn circumcision that was not coded."
The CDC reported in 2011 that, following an earlier increase in neonatal circumcision rates, rates decreased in the period 1999 to 2010. Citing three different data sources, most recent rates were 56.9% in 2008 (NHDS) 56.3% in 2008 (NIS), and 54.7% in 2010 (CDM).
A survey of Canadian maternity practices conducted in 2006/2007 by the national public health agency found a newborn circumcision rate of 31.9%. Rates varied markedly across the country, from close to zero in Newfoundland and Labrador to 44.3% in Alberta.
Percentage of mothers reporting having their male baby circumcised, by province and territory, Canada, 2006/2007 Newfoundland and Labrador * Prince Edward Island 39.2 Nova Scotia 6.8 New Brunswick 18.0 Quebec 12.3 Ontario 43.7 Manitoba 31.6 Saskatchewan 35.6 Alberta 44.3 British Columbia 30.2 Yukon * Northwest Territories 9.7 Nunavut * Canada 31.9 * Numerator too small for rate calculation Source: Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey
In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics reported that “in Canada, ~48% of males are circumcised”. However, this figure was questioned because the only citation provided for it was an Australian paper dating from 1970. The Canadian Paediatric Society cites an estimate of 48% for the prevalence of male circumcision in Canada in 1970.
Articles published in 2003 reported Canadian neonatal male circumcision rates of "10 to 30%" and "less than 17%". According to the Halifax Daily News, the infant circumcision rate in 2003 was "just 1.1 per cent" in Nova Scotia and nil in Newfoundland. In 1994/95, the newborn circumcision rate in Ontario was 299.1 per thousand or 29.9%. A 2006 article placed the (2003) rate at 13.9%.
Less than 20%
Russia, Mongolia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Japan, Papua New Guinea.
Between 20 and 80%
80% or more
Israel, South Korea, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Brunei, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Malaysia, Turkey, Philippines. Indonesia,
According to Dr. Inon Schenker of the Jerusalem AIDS Project, "about 100 percent of men have been circumcised" in Israel.
According to the World Health Organisation, 80% or more of males in South Korea are circumcised. A 2001 study of 20-year old South Korean men found that 78% were circumcised. The authors comment "South Korea has possibly the largest absolute number of teenage or adult circumcisions anywhere in the world. Because circumcision started through contact with the American military during the Korean War, South Korea has an unusual history of circumcision."
Less than 20%
The following countries have a circumcision rate of less than 20%: Iceland, United Kingdom, Ireland, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Portugal, Spain, France, Switzerland, Italy, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovakia, Germany, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, Austria, Belarus, Cyprus, Georgia.
A national survey on sexual attitudes in 2000 found that 15.8% of men or boys in the United Kingdom (ages 16–44) were circumcised. 11.7% of 16–19 year olds, and 19.6% of 40–44 year olds said they had been circumcised. It also found that, apart from black Caribbeans, men born overseas were more likely to be circumcised. Rickwood et al. reported that the proportion of English boys circumcised for medical reasons had fallen from 35% in the early 1930s to 6.5% by the mid-1980s. An estimated 3.8% of male children in the UK in 2000 were being circumcised by the age of 15. The researchers stated that too many boys, especially under the age of 5, were still being circumcised because of a misdiagnosis of phimosis. They called for a target to reduce the percentage to 2%.
Denniston reported in 1996 that the neonatal circumcision rate in Finland is zero and that the rate of later circumcision is 1 in 16,667. Similarly, Wallerstein estimated in 1980 that the Finnish rate of adult circumcision for health reasons is six per 100,000. Schoen et al., however, reported in 2006 that data from 1996–1998 indicate a circumcision rate of about 7.1%; Houle reported the same figure in 2007. Finland's Ministry of Social Affairs and Health reported in 2004 that, "some 500-1000 circumcisions are performed as a therapeutic measure annually in Finnish hospitals", amounting to 710 nationwide cases in 2002.
In Germany, the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents found that 10.9% of boys aged 0-17 had been circumcised.
In France, according to a telephone survey (TNS Sofres Institute, 2008), 14% of men are circumcised.
The overall prevalence of circumcision in Spain is reported to be 1.8%.
In 1986, only 511 out of approximately 478,000 Danish boys aged 0–14 years were circumcised. This corresponds to a cumulative national circumcision rate of around 1.6% by the age of 15 years.
Between 20 and 80%
Less than 20%
According to the World Health Organisation, fewer than 20% of males are circumcised in New Zealand. In a study of men born in 1972–1973 in Dunedin, 40.2% were circumcised. In a study of men born in 1977 in Christchurch, 26.1% were circumcised. A 1991 survey conducted in Waikato found that 7% of male infants were circumcised. Circumcision for cultural reasons is routine in Pacific Island countries.
Between 20 and 80%
A survey of Australian men, conducted in 2001–2002, reported that 58.7% were circumcised.
According to the Sydney Morning Herald, the infant circumcision rate in Australia was 12.9% as of 2003. However, rates in the states varied, with highest rates in Queensland (19.3%), New South Wales (16.3%) and South Australia (14.3%), and the lowest in Tasmania (1.6%). In New South Wales, rates have risen from 13% in 1999 to 18% in 2009. In Victoria, according to the Herald Sun, the prevalence of 2010 circumcisions indicated that rates have risen but no information was provided about the rates prior to the rise. Non-therapeutic infant circumcision is no longer provided in public hospitals in New South Wales, Tasmania, Western Australia, Victoria, and South Australia.
- ^ Demographic and Health Surveys
- ^ The Global Prevalence of Male Circumcision
- ^ Williams, N; L. Kapila (October 1993). "Complications of circumcision". British Journal of Surgery 80 (10): 1231–1236. doi:10.1002/bjs.1800801005. PMID 8242285. http://www.cirp.org/library/complications/williams-kapila/. Retrieved 2006-07-11.
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- ^ a b c "Male circumcision: Global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2007. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241596169_eng.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- ^ Drain PK, Halperin DT, Hughes JP, Klausner JD, Bailey RC (2006). "Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries". BMC Infectious Diseases 6: 172. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-172. PMC 1764746. PMID 17137513. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1764746.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Castellsagué X, Bosch FX, Muñoz N, et al. (April 2002). "Male circumcision, penile human papillomavirus infection, and cervical cancer in female partners". The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (15): 1105–12. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa011688. PMID 11948269.
- ^ Frisch M, Friis S, Kjaer SK, Melbye M (December 1995). "Falling incidence of penis cancer in an uncircumcised population (Denmark 1943-90)". BMJ 311 (7018): 1471. PMC 2543732. PMID 8520335. http://bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8520335.
- ^ Denniston, G (April 1996). "Circumcision and the Code of Ethics". Humane Health Care International 12: 78–80.
- ^ Schoen EJ, Colby CJ, To TT (March 2006). "Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization". The Journal of Urology 175 (3 Pt 1): 1111–5. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X. PMID 16469634.
- ^ Ko MC, Liu CK, Lee WK, Jeng HS, Chiang HS, Li CY (April 2007). "Age-specific prevalence rates of phimosis and circumcision in Taiwanese boys". Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan Yi Zhi 106 (4): 302–7. doi:10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60256-4. PMID 17475607. "…the prevalence of circumcision slightly increased with age from 7.2% (95% CI, 5.3-10.8%) for boys aged 7 years to 8.7% (95% CI, 6.5-13.3%) for boys aged 13 years."
- ^ Richters, J; et al. (2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS 17 (8): 547–554. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903. http://www.cirp.org/library/general/richters1/. "Neonatal circumcision was routine in Australia until the 1970s … In the last generation, Australia has changed from a country where most newborn boys are circumcised to one where circumcision is the minority experience."
- ^ "Demand for male circumcision rises in a bid to prevent HIV" (PDF). Bulletin of the World Health Organization 84 (7): 505–588. 2006. PMID 16878217. http://www.scielosp.org/pdf/bwho/v84n7/v84n7a05.pdf. "As a result, there are already indications of increasing demand for male circumcision in traditionally non-circumcising societies in Southern Africa."
- ^ The Centers For Disease Control and Prevention. Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission and Other Health Conditions: Implications for the United States. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/circumcision.htm.
- ^ "Questions and answers: NIAID-sponsored adult male circumcision trials in Kenya and Uganda". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. December 2006. http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/QA/AMC12_QA.htm.
- ^ a b Williams, B G; et al. (2006). "The potential impact of male circumcision on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa". PLos Med 3 (7): e262. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0030262. PMC 1489185. PMID 16822094. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1489185.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg "Information package on male circumcision and HIV prevention: insert 2" (PDF). World Health Organisation. pp. 2. http://www.who.int/entity/hiv/mediacentre/infopack_en_2.pdf.
- ^ Lajous, M; et al. (2006). "Human papillomavirus link to circumcision is misleading (author's reply)". Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15 (2): 405–6. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0818. PMID 16492939. "Circumcision is not usually performed by public sector health care providers in Mexico and we estimate the prevalence to be 10% to 31%, depending on the population."
- ^ "Circumcisions Performed in U.S. Community Hospitals, 2005". Statistical Brief #45. Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). January, 2008. http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb45.jsp. Retrieved 2010-08-29. "In 2005, about 56 percent of newborn boys were circumcised before their release from the hospital, resulting in over 1.2 million circumcisions performed at U.S. community hospitals."
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- ^ Nelson, CP.; R. Dunn, J. Wan, JT. Wei (March 2005). "The increasing incidence of newborn circumcision: data from the nationwide inpatient sample" (Abstract). Journal of Urology 173 (3): 978–981. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000145758.80937.7d. PMID 15711354. http://www.jurology.com/article/PIIS0022534705604193/abstract.
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- ^ "Trends in circumcisions among newborns". Health E-Stats. National Center for Health Statistics. January 11, 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/circumcisions/circumcisions.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-30. "However, the most notable change occurred in the West where newborn male circumcisions dropped from 62 percent in 1980 to 37 percent in 1999. This latest available figure for the West represents over a two-fold difference when compared with circumcision estimates for the Midwest. Part of this decline, appears to reflect the increasing percentage of boys born to immigrant Hispanics, who have been shown in several other studies to be significantly less likely to receive circumcisions than other infant males."
- ^ Cheng, D.; L. Hurt and I.L. Horon (August 6, 2008). "Neonatal circumcision in Maryland: A comparison of hospital discharge and maternal postpartum survey data". Journal of Pediatric Urology (e-pub ahead of print) (6): 448–51. doi:10.1016/j.jpurol.2008.06.007. PMID 18691938.
- ^ "Report 10 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (I-99):Neonatal Circumcision". 1999 AMA Interim Meeting: Summaries and Recommendations of Council on Scientific Affairs Reports. American Medical Association. December 1999. pp. 17. http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/13585.html. Retrieved 2006-06-13.
- ^ "Male Circumcision and Risk for HIV Transmission and Other Health Conditions: Implications for the United States". Centers for Disease Control. 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/circumcision.htm. Retrieved 11 Jan 2011.
- ^ "Medicaid Bulletin". South Carolina Department of Health and Human Services. December 14, 2010. http://www.dhhs.state.sc.us/Internet/pdf/MedicaidReductionsBULLETIN.pdf. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
- ^ a b Quayle, SS.; DE. Coplen, PF. Austin (October 2003). "The effect of health care coverage on circumcision rates among newborns". Journal of Urology 170 (4 Pt 2): 1533–1536. doi:10.1097/01.ju.0000091215.99513.0f. PMID 14501653.
- ^ Leibowitz, Arleen A.; Katherine Desmond, Thomas Belin (January 2009). "Determinants and Policy Implications of Male Circumcision in the United States". American Journal of Public Health 99 (1): 138–145. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2008.134403. PMC 2636604. PMID 19008503. http://www.ajph.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/1/138. "The mean neonatal male circumcision rate was 55.9%. When we controlled for other factors, hospitals in states in which Medicaid covers routine male circumcision had circumcision rates that were 24 percentage points higher than did hospitals in states without such coverage (P < .001)."
- ^ Schoen, Edgar J. (July 2006). "Ignoring evidence of circumcision benefits". Pediatrics 118 (1): 385–7. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2881. PMID 16818586. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/extract/118/1/385.
- ^ "Trends in In-Hospital Newborn Male Circumcision --- United States, 1999--2010". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 60(34);1167-1168. September, 2011. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6034a4.htm?s_cid=mm6034a4_w. Retrieved 2011-09-14. "Incidence of NMC decreased from 62.5% in 1999 to 56.9% in 2008 in NHDS (AAPC = -1.4%; p<0.001), from 63.5% in 1999 to 56.3% in 2008 in NIS (AAPC = -1.2%; p<0.001), and from 58.4% in 2001 to 54.7% in 2010 in CDM (AAPC = -0.75%; p<0.001)"
- ^ a b "Data Tables — The Maternity Experiences Survey (MES) 2006–2007 Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey". Public Health Agency of Canada. pp. 267. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/rhs-ssg/pdf/tab-eng.pdf.
- ^ "American Academy of Pediatrics: circumcision policy statement". Pediatrics 103 (3): 686–693. 1999. doi:10.1542/peds.103.3.686. PMID 10049981. http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics%3b103/3/686.
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- ^ Waldeck S (2003). "Using Male Circumcision to Understand Social Norms as Multipliers". University of Cincinnati Law Review 72: 455. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1024777.
- ^ MacDonald, Andrea (March 2006). "N.S. circumcisions continue to drop". Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada: The Daily News (reprint: CIRP.org). http://www.cirp.org/news/halifaxdailynews2006-03-25/.
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- ^ LALIBERTÉ, JENNIFER. "Canada cuts back on circumcision". VOLUME 3 NO. 4. National Review of Medicine. http://www.nationalreviewofmedicine.com/issue/2006/02_28/3_patients_practice02_04.html. Retrieved FEBRUARY 28, 2006.
- ^ "Cultural Male Circumcision Report of Committee 2004/2005" (PDF). (Irish) Department of Health and Children. http://www.dohc.ie/publications/pdf/circumcision.pdf.
- ^ a b "Israel teaches WHO about circumcision". ynet news. November 2006. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3333564,00.html.
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- ^ a b Dave, SS; et al. (2003). "Male circumcision in Britain: findings from a national probability sample survey". Sex Transm Infect 79 (6): 499–500. doi:10.1136/sti.79.6.499. PMC 1744763. PMID 14663134. http://sti.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/79/6/499.
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- ^ Rickwood, AMK; Kenny, SE; Donnell, SC (2000). "Towards evidence based circumcision of English boys: survey of trends in practice". BMJ 321 (7264): 792–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.321.7264.792. PMC 27490. PMID 11009516. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/321/7264/792.
- ^ Denniston, G (April 1996). "Circumcision and the Code of Ethics". Humane Health Care International 12: 78–80.
- ^ Wallerstein, E., Circumcision: an American Health Fallacy, New York, Springer, 1980.
- ^ Schoen, E J; Colby, C J; Trinh, T To (2006). "Cost analysis of neonatal circumcision in a large health maintenance organization". J Urol 175 (3 Pt 1): 1111–5. doi:10.1016/S0022-5347(05)00399-X. PMID 16469634.
- ^ Houle, AM (2007). "Circumcision for all: the pro side". Canadian Urological Association Journal 1 (4): 398–400. PMC 2422990. PMID 18542826. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2422990.
- ^ "Circumcision of boys: A study on international and Finnish practices" (PDF). Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, Finland. 12 February 2004. pp. 8. http://www.stm.fi/Resource.phx/publishing/store/2004/02/pr1075361153807/passthru.pdf.
- ^ Ibid., p. 39.
- ^ Telephone survey of the TNS Sofres Institute (commissioned by Manix), 2008.
- ^ Frisch, M; et al. (2 December 1995). "Falling incidence of penis cancer in an uncircumcised population (Denmark 1943–90)". BMJ 311 (7018): 1471. PMC 2543732. PMID 8520335. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/311/7018/1471.
- ^ Dickson, N; et al. (2005). "Herpes simplex virus type 2 status at age 26 is not related to early circumcision in a birth cohort". Sex Transm Dis 32 (8): 517–9. doi:10.1097/01.olq.0000161296.58095.ab. PMID 16041257.
- ^ Fergusson, DM; et al. (2007). "Circumcision status and risk of sexually transmitted infection in young adult males: an analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort". Pediatrics 118 (5): 1971–7. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1175. PMID 17079568.
- ^ Lawrenson RA (1991). "Current practice of neonatal circumcision in the Waikato". N Z Med J 104 (911): 184–5. PMID 1898442.
- ^ Afsari M, Beasley SW, Maoate K, Heckert K (March 2002). "Attitudes of Pacific parents to circumcision of boys". Pac Health Dialog 9 (1): 29–33. PMID 12737414. "Circumcision for cultural reasons is routine in Pacific Island countries."
- ^ a b Richters, J; et al. (2006). "Circumcision in Australia: prevalence and effects on sexual health". Int J STD AIDS 17 (8): 547–554. doi:10.1258/095646206778145730. PMID 16925903.
- ^ Skatssoon, Judy (July 2004). "Circumcision rates rise for some". Sydney, New South Wales, Australia: Sydney Morning Herald (reprint: CIRP.org). http://www.cirp.org/news/smh07-01-04/.
- ^ Teutsch, Danielle (2010-02-21). "More boys go under knife as parents opt for kind cut". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/national/more-boys-go-under-knife-as-parents-opt-for-kind-cut-20100220-omqn.html.
- ^ White, Alex (2010-08-28). "Once routine, banned in 2007, now it's back". Herald Sun. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/ipad/once-routine-banned-in-2007-now-its-back/story-fn6bfmgc-1226123498756.
- ^ "Victoria to scrap public hospital circumcision". Melbourne: The Age. 2007-08-12. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/victoria-to-scrap-public-hospital-circumcision/2007/08/12/1186857323447.html. Retrieved 2007-08-12.
- ^ Pengelley, Jill (2007-11-12). "Cosmetic circumcision banned". The Advertiser. http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/story/0,22606,22741626-2682,00.html. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- Drain, PK, Halperin, DT, Hughes, JP, Klausner, JD, Bailey, RC. (November 2006). "Male circumcision, religion, and infectious diseases: an ecologic analysis of 118 developing countries". BMC Infect Dis 6 (1): 172. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-172. PMC 1764746. PMID 17137513. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2334/6/172.
Male circumcision seriesFor female "circumcision", see Female genital mutilation
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Circumcision — This article is about male circumcision. For female circumcision, see Female genital mutilation. Circumcision Intervention Circumcision being performed in central Asia, possibly Turkmenistan c. 1865–1872. Restored albumen … Wikipedia
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Circumcision and law — This article is about laws concerning male circumcision. For the legal status of female genital mutilation, see female genital mutilation. There exist laws restricting or regulating circumcision, some dating back to ancient times. In a number of… … Wikipedia
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Female genital cutting — (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), female circumcision or female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), refers to all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female… … Wikipedia