Chloric acid


Chloric acid
Chloric acid
Identifiers
CAS number 7790-93-4
ChemSpider 18513
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula HClO3
Molar mass 84.45914 g mol−1
Appearance colourless solution
Density 1 g/mL, solution (approximate)
Solubility in water >40 g/100 ml (20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) ca. −1
Structure
Molecular shape pyramidal
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
Main hazards Oxidant, Corrosive
Related compounds
Other anions bromic acid
iodic acid
Other cations ammonium chlorate
sodium chlorate
potassium chlorate
Related compounds hydrochloric acid
hypochlorous acid
chlorous acid
perchloric acid
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts. It is a strong acid (pKa ≈ −1) and oxidizing agent.

It is prepared by the reaction of sulfuric acid with barium chlorate, the insoluble barium sulfate being removed by precipitation:

Ba(ClO3)2 + H2SO4 → 2HClO3 + BaSO4

Another method is the heating of hypochlorous acid, of which productions include chloric acid and hydrogen chloride:

3HClO → HClO3 + 2 HCl

It is also produced by the reaction of sulfuric acid with potassium chlorate in the combustion of sugar using potassium chlorate, sulfuric acid, and sugar.

It is stable in cold aqueous solution up to a concentration of approximately 30%, and solution of up to 40% can be prepared by careful evaporation under reduced pressure. Above these concentrations, and on warming, chloric acid solutions decompose to give a variety of products, for example:

8HClO3 → 4HClO4 + 2H2O + 2Cl2 + 3 O2
3HClO3 → HClO4 + H2O + 2 ClO2

The decomposition is controlled by kinetic factors: indeed, chloric acid is never thermodynamically stable with respect to disproportionation.

Chloric acid is a dangerously powerful oxidizing agent and will cause most organics and flammables to deflagrate on contact. For example a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar will burn when concentrated sulfuric acid is added due to chloric acid production. Because sulfur tends to contain acidic impurities, it will form highly unstable mixtures with potassium chlorate due to chloric acid being produced.

Chloric Acid produced from the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid can decompose explosively producing a variety of products such as oxygen, chlorine, and chlorine oxides

See also

References

  • Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419. 
  • R. Bruce King, ed (1994). "Chloric acid". Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry. 2. Chichester: Wiley. p. 658. ISBN 0-471-93620-0. 

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • chloric acid — An acid of pentavalent chlorine, HClO3, existing only in solution and as chlorates. * * * chloric acid n a strong acid HClO3 like nitric acid in oxidizing properties but far less stable that is obtained from its salts (as the chlorate of sodium)… …   Medical dictionary

  • chloric acid — chlorato rūgštis statusas T sritis chemija formulė HClO₃ atitikmenys: angl. chloric acid rus. хлорноватая кислота ryšiai: sinonimas – vandenilio trioksochloratas (1–) …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • chloric acid — a hypothetical acid, HClO3, known only in solution or in the form of its salts. [1860 65] * * * …   Universalium

  • chloric acid — noun a strong acid, HClO, known only in solution and as its chlorate salts; a powerful oxidizing agent …   Wiktionary

  • chloric acid — colorless acid which occurs in a water solution …   English contemporary dictionary

  • chloric acid — [ klɔ:rɪk] noun Chemistry a colourless liquid acid with strong oxidizing properties. [HClO3.] …   English new terms dictionary

  • chloric acid — /klɔrɪk ˈæsəd/ (say klawrik asuhd) noun an acid, HClO3 …   Australian English dictionary

  • chloric acid — n. Chem. a colourless liquid acid with strong oxidizing properties. Etymology: CHLORO + IC …   Useful english dictionary

  • Chloric acid (data page) — This page provides supplementary chemical data on chloric acid. Contents 1 Material Safety Data Sheet 2 Structure and properties 3 Thermodynamic properties 4 Spectral data …   Wikipedia

  • Chloric — Chlo ric, a. [From {Chlorine}.] Pertaining to, or obtained from, chlorine; said of those compounds of chlorine in which this element has a valence of five, or the next to its highest; as, chloric acid, {HClO3}. [1913 Webster] {Chloric ether}… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English


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