Tukaram


Tukaram

Tukārām was a prominent Marathi Sant and religious poet in the Hindu tradition in India.

He was born and lived most of his life in "Dehu", a town close to Pune city in Mahārāshtra, India. He was born to a couple with the family name "Moray" - the descendent of the Mourya Clan (Āmbile) and first names "Bolhobā" and "Kanakāi". Through a tradition in India in bygone days, Tukaram's family name is rarely used in identifying him. Rather, in accord with another tradition in India of assigning the epithet "sant" (संत) to persons regarded as thoroughly saintly, Tukaram is commonly known in Maharashtra as Sant Tukaram (संत तुकाराम). He is also believed to be spiritual guru of Shivaji.Fact|date=October 2008

Scholars assign various birth years to Tukaram: 1577, 1598, 1608 and (the most likely) 1609 CE. The year of Tukaram's death —1650 CE— is much more certain.Fact|date=October 2008

Tukaram's first wife, "Rakhumābāi", had died in her early youth. Tukaram and his second wife, "Jijābāi" (also known as "Āvali"), had three sons: "Santu" or "Mahādev", "Vithobā", and Nārāyan.Fact|date=October 2008

Religious life and poetry

Tukaram was a devotee of Lord Vittala (or Vithobā) --an incarnation of Lord Krishna, who in turn, considered to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu-- in Hinduism. Tukaram is considered as the climactic point of the so-called "Bhāgawat" Hindu tradition, which is thought to have begun in Maharashtra with Nāmdev. Dnyāneshwar, Nāmdev, Janābai, Eknāth, and Tukaram are revered especially in the "wārakari" ("वारकरी") sect in Maharashtra. He has received guru-mantra containing names of Krishna, Rama and Hari. This was at the hands or by the media of a dream, of one Babaji Chaitanya — a possible indication that Tukaram had some connexion with prominent saint Chaitanya, [*cite book
author= Hastings, James Rodney
authorlink=James Hastings
others=John A Selbie
title=Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics
publisher=Kessinger Publishing, LLC
location=Edinburgh
year=2nd edition 1925-1940, reprint 1955, 2003
origyear=1908-26
pages=467
quote=
isbn=0-7661-3673-6
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Kaz58z--NtUC&pg=PA540&vq=Krishna&source=gbs_search_r&cad=1_1&sig=lo3NqA31k8hJZw7qNc9QDEAYyYA
accessdate=03-05-2008
] and Gaudiya Vaishnavas believe that he was initiated and was a disciple of Chaitanya. [Durga Chaitanya Bharati "Sri Gouranga: The Man", (1933) pp.107-108] Whatever information about the lives of the above saints of Maharashtra comes mostly from the works "Bhakti-Wijay" and "Bhakti-Leelāmrut" of Mahipati. Mahipati was born 65 years after the death of Tukaram, (Tukaram having died 50 years, 300 years, and 353 years after the deaths of Ekanath, Namdev, and Dnyaneshwar, respectively.) Thus, Mahipati undoubtedly based his life sketches of all above "sants" primarily on hearsays.

Tukaram's public religious discourses ("कीर्तने") used to be mixed, by tradition, with poetry, which included some of his own compositions. His discourses focussed on day-to-day behavior of human beings, and he emphasized that the true expression of religion was in a person's love for his fellow human beings rather than in ritualistic observance of religious orthodoxy, including mechanical study of the Vedās. His teachings encompassed a wide array of issues, including the importance of the ecosystem. Tukaram worked for his society's enlightenment in the "warakari" tradition, which emphasizes community service and musical group worship.

Like Namdev, Janabai, and Eknath, Tukaram wrote in archaic Marathi a large number of devotional poems identified in Marathi as "abhang" ("अभंग"). A collection of 4,500 "abhang" known as the "Gāthā" is attributed to Tukaram. "Mantra Geetā", a Marathi translation in "abhang" form of the Sanskrit Bhagavad Geetā, is also attributed to him. It is an interpretation of Geeta from a "Bhakti" ("भक्ती") --devotional-- perspective.

See also

* Hindu reform movements
* Sant Mat

Notes

References

* cite book | title=Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology |last = Ayyappapanicker|first=K. |coauthors= Akademi, Sahitya
publisher=Sahitya Akademi|year=1997|id=ISBN 8-126-00365-0

*
*
* Multiple Essays on Tukaram and his work in books of M. V. Dhond
* "Shakti Saushthava शक्ती सौष्ठव" by D. G. Godse
* "Vinoba Saraswat" by Vinoba Bhave (edited by Ram Shewalkar)
* "Tryambak Shankar Shejwalkar Nivadak Lekhsangrah" by T S Shejwalkar (collection- H V Mote, Introduction- G D Khanolkar)

External links

* [http://tukaram.com/ Tukaram Online]
* [http://mr.wikibooks.org/wiki/%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%81%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%AE_%E0%A4%97%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%A5%E0%A4%BE Tukaram Gatha in Marathi]


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