- Soul dualism
"Soul dualism" or a "dualistic soul" concept is a range of beliefs that a person has two (or more) kinds of
souls. In many cases, the one of the souls is associated with body functions “body soul”, and the other one can leave the body “free soul”.Hoppál, Mihály: [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol4/hoppal.htm Nature worship in Siberian shamanism] ] Great Basin Indian. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 28, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-57681 Online] ] [Hoppál 1975:225] [Hoppál 1994:13] [Diószegi 1962:27] Sometimes the plethora of soul types can be even more complex.Merkur 1985] [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol4/hing.htm Conceptions of soul in old-Estonian religion (Vol. 4)] written by [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/authors/kulmart.htm Tarmo Kulmar] ] Grasping soul dualism can help to understand many shamanistic beliefs better.
Eskimogroups believe that a person has more than one types of souls. One is associated with respiration, the other can accompany the body as a shadow. Soul concept of Eskimo groups is diverse and not alike. [Kleivan & Sonne 1985:17–18] In some cases, it is connected to shamanistic beliefs among the various Eskimo groups. [Merkur 1985:61, 222–223, 226, 240] Also Caribou Inuitgroups believed in several types of souls. [Gabus 1970:211] .
The concept of more kinds of souls can be found also at several
Finno-Ugric peoples. [Hoppál 1975:225] Fodor 2005: 16–17] See notion of shadow-soul (being able to depart freely the body), e.g. “íz” in Hungarian folk beliefs. [Dienes 1975:83] The Estonian soul concept has been approached by several authors, some of them using rather complex frameworks (online ).
* The title means: “Uralic peoples / Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives”; the chapter means “The Hungarians at the time of entering the Carpathian Basin, and their ancient beliefs”.
* The chapter means: “About the ancient Hungarian religion”; the book title means: “Miracle deer. Ancient history, religion and folklore tradition”.
* Translation of the original: cite book |last=Gabus |first=Jean |title=Vie et coutumes des Esquimaux Caribous |publisher=Libraire Payot Lausanne |year=1944 It desribes the life of Caribou Eskimo and Padlermiut groups.
* The title means: “Uralic peoples / Culture and traditions of our linguistic relatives”; the chapter means “The belief system of Uralic peoples and the shamanism”.
* Title mans: “Shamans / Souls and symbols”.
* The chapter means: “Shamanic philosophy: soul concepts in Tuva, changing in time”; the book title means: “Miracle deer. Ancient history, religion and folklore tradition”.
* [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol4/hing.htm Conceptions of soul in old-Estonian religion (Vol. 4)] written by [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/authors/kulmart.htm Tarmo Kulmar]
* [http://www.tjatsi.fo/?side=491b24523f05ea96689d93e856f99618 Sami examples]
* Hoppál, Mihály: [http://www.folklore.ee/folklore/vol4/hoppal.htm Nature worship in Siberian shamanism]
* Great Basin Indian. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved March 28, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica: [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-57681 Online]
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