- Canadian Light Source Synchrotron
name = Canadian Light Source
established = 1999
director = Bill Thomlinson
city = Saskatoon, SK
type = Research
staff = 130
operating_agency = Canadian Light Source Inc.
website = [http://www.lightsource.ca/ www.lightsource.ca]
The Canadian Light Source (CLS) is a third-generation 2.9
GeV synchrotronlocated in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. It opened on October 22, 2004after three years of construction and cost C$173.5 million. One of forty-two such facilities in the world, it occupies a footprint the size of a football field on the grounds of the University of Saskatchewan. The CLS is operated by CLS Inc. a not-for-profit corporation owned by the University of Saskatchewan.
synchrotronis the most common high-energy particle accelerator, consisting of a toroidal vacuum tube surrounded by electromagnets. Charged particles are directed by the electromagnets to remain near the center of the vacuum tube, traveling in orbits around the ring. At points along the ring waveguidesinject radio energy into the cavity, creating regions of high electrical potential. The charged particles are accelerated in these regions, gaining energy with every pass around the ring. Since the particles vary in speed while they are accelerated, typical synchrotron installations consist of two or more such rings, a "booster ring" for acceleration over a range of speeds, and the "storage ring" for maintaining the particles are a fixed energy. Synchrotrons can be "tuned" to confine specific particles, common examples being electrons or protons.
In the case of electrons, the acceleration around the ring causes them to lose energy through a process known as
synchrotron radiation. The energy is lost in the form of photons, light, across the electromagnetic spectrumincluding infrared, ultravioletand X-rays. The light is separated into "interesting frequencies" to produce very bright almost monochromatic light, and shone down beamlines to endstations (small laboratories) where scientists can “see” the microscopic nature of matter, right down to the level of the atom.
Synchrotrons like the CLS can be used to probe the
structureof matterand analyze a host of physical, chemical, geological and biological processes. Information obtained by scientists can be used to help design new drugs, examine the structure of surfaces in order to develop more effective motor oils, medical imagingof tumours and other biological tissues, build more powerful computer chips, develop new materials for safer medical implants, and help with clean-up of mining wastes, to name just a few applications.
Before The CLS
The first accelerator research programs at the University of Saskatchewan was established in
1948, when Canada's first betatron(a 25 MeV machine) was constructed in the Physics Building. Based on this early success in 1951 the world's first non-commercial cobalt-60therapy unit for the treatment of cancer was constructed on campus and then in 1961construction of the Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory(SAL) started and was completed in 1964. In 1999SAL operations were discontinued and the accelerator used as an injector for the CLS. In addition to the CLS the University continues to operate a small Tokamakas part of the Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Prior to the CLS, Canada (through the
University of Western Ontario) operated several beamlines at the similar Synchrotron Radiation Center(SRC), at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, in Stoughton, Wisconsin.
The CLS Project
On March 31 1999 The
Canada Foundation for Innovationprovided partial funding for the construction of the CLS facility. The remaining matching funds from Saskatchewan, Ontario, Alberta, Saskatoon and industry would follow between 1999 and 2001. The CLS is one of the largest science project in Canadian history, and represents an unprecedented level of cooperation between the Government of Canada, the governments of Saskatchewan, Ontarioand Alberta, the City of Saskatoon, universities across Canadaand industry.
On 21 September 1999 The CLS project was officially launched. On 21 February 2001 the CLS building expansion was completed. The SAL linac was refurbished and placed back into service on 13 September while the Booster Ring (BR1) and Storage Ring (SR1) were still under construction. First turn was achieved in the BR1 ring in July 2002 with BR1 fully commissioned by September 2002. First turn in the SR1 ring was achieved on September 2003, with first light in December. In April 2004 SR1 achieved 100 mA.
In 2002 the CLS Project was awarded the National Award for Exceptional Engineering Achievement by the
Canadian Council of Professional Engineers.
The CLS Project was officially completed June 30, 2005.
On 15 July 2004 CLS received regulatory approval from the CNSC for normal operation. The grand opening occurred in October 2004. On May 19 2005 Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (
Queen of Canada) and His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh visited the CLS. A few days later on May 27 the first experiment by an outside user was conducted.
Phase II Beamlines
On March 8 2004 CLS received partial funding ($18M) from the Canadian Foundation for Innovation for the phase II beamline expansion project. [http://www.lightsource.ca/media/CFI.php] The phase II beamlines include:
* Biomedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT), $17M;
* Soft X-Ray Beamline for Microcharacterization of Materials, $4M;
* Very Sensitive Elemental and Structural Probe Employing Radiation from a Synchrotron (VESPERS), $4.5M;
* Resonant Elastic and Inelastic Soft X-Ray Scattering, $8.3M; and
* High-Throughput Macromolecular Crystallography, $10.4M.
* A sixth project, the Synchrotron Laboratory for Micro and Nano Devices (SyLMAND) was funded independently of CFI.
Phase III Beamlines
On November 27 2006, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation awarded a further $25.8 million for the initial funding of a phase III expansion project, consisting of five new beamlines. Phase III will include:
* The Brockhouse X-ray Diffraction and Scattering Sector (BXDS), 2 beamlines;
* BioXAS: Life Science Beamline for X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (BioXAS), 2 beamlines;
* The Quantum Materials Spectroscopy Centre (QMSC), 1 beamline.
Originally part of the SAL facility, the
linear acceleratorwas refurbished and modified in 1999-2000 to become the injector for the CLS. Originally intended to operate at 180 Hz, the linac was modified for 1 Hz operation. The linac is followed by an Energy Compression System and then a 70 m transfer line (LTB1) that delivers the beam to the booster ring (BR1).
Booster Ring (BR1)
Beam is delivered to the booster at 200-250 MeV where it is accelerated to a final energy of 2.9 GeV. The Booster ring was manufactured by Danfysik with final installation and assembly done at the CLSI. The booster ring uses an RF frequency of 500 MHz. The beam is extracted from the booster and transferred through the BTS line and into the SR1 ring.
torage Ring (SR1)
The SR1 ring was designed and assembled by CLSI. The storage ring uses a 12-fold periodic layout of cells consisting of dipole, quadrupole and sextupole magnets to create a stable operating region for the beam. For high quality light sources, insertion devices (wigglers or undulators) are placed in the straight sections between the magnets. To accommodate a large number of users at the same time, nine straight sections are available for insertion devices. The synchrotron light from any of the dipole magnets in the lattice is also available to users.
Initially, the stored current will be only 200 mA due to the RF power constraints. Based on the anticipated lifetime of the stored beam, the storage ring will be re-filled at intervals of 4 to 12 hours.
*Dennis Skopik - Acting Director (May 1999 - Sept. 1999) [http://www.usask.ca/events/news/articles/19990528-1.html]
*Michael Bancroft - Interim Director (Sept. 1999 - Oct. 2001) [http://www.lightsource.ca/enews/newsletter_October2001.php]
*Mark de Jong - Acting Director (Oct. 2001 - Nov. 2002) [http://www.lightsource.ca/enews/newsletter_june2002.php]
*Bill Thomlinson - Executive Director (Nov. 2002- Aug 2008)
*Josef Hormes - Executive Director (Aug 2008 - )
List of synchrotron radiation facilities
Plasma Physics Laboratory (Saskatchewan)
Saskatchewan Accelerator Laboratory
Innovation Place Research Park
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization
EPICS(Used for Accelerator and Beamline Control Systems)
Canadian government scientific research organizations
Canadian university scientific research organizations
Canadian industrial research and development organizations
* [http://www.lightsource.ca Canadian Light Source Website]
* [http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/synchrotron CLSS FAQ (CBC)]
* [http://www.lightsources.org Lightsources.org]
* [http://www.pch.gc.ca/royalvisit2005/day03_e.cfm Queen of Canada's Day in Saskatoon]
* [http://www.lightsource.ca/media/media_release_20050322.php Queen Visits Canadian Light Source (2005)]
* [http://www.usask.ca/research/communications/videos.php University of Saskatchewan Research Communications Videos] (includes several about the Canadian Light Source)
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