- Low-carbon emission
The main components of automobile exhaust are
carbon dioxide(CO2) and water vapor (H2O). Carbon dioxide is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas(GHG) and the most significant Greenhouse Gasemitted in the U.S. (with 82-84% of all U.S. emissions). [ [http://www.greenbuilder.com/sbc/newsletters/99july.html July 1999 SBC Newsletter ] ] Increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due primarily to fossil fueluse and land-usechange. [ IPCC, "PDF| [http://www.20minutos.es/data/adj/2007/02/02/456.pdf Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis] |2.20 MiB " .]
The CO2 emission standards can be referred to the
fuelor to the vehicle:
European Unionis moving towards fuel mandatory CO2 standards and USA has reflected it in the Greenhouse Gas Score.
*There are information, but no mandatory, standards for CO2 limits in vehicle (engine) emissions, excepting some state regulations (i.e. California). See
CO2 mass emission in vehicles is measured in g/km (g/mi * 0.621371192 = g/km).
Low Carbon Fuel Standard
Transportation accounts for forty percent of California's annual
greenhouse gas emissions, and California relies on petroleum-based fuels for 96 percent of its transportation needs.
Californian Governor Arnold Schwarzeneggerannounced an Executive Order that California adopt so-called Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). [ [http://gov.ca.gov/index.php?/press-release/5074 Gov. Schwarzenegger Issues Directive to Establish World's First Low Carbon Standard for Transportation Fuels - Press Release by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger ] ] The LCFS requires fuel providers to ensure that the mix of fuel they sell in the California Market meets, on average, a declining target for greenhouse gasemissions measured in CO2-equivalentgrams per unit of fuel energy sold. By 2020, the LCFS will produce a 10 % reduction in GHG emissions from production and use of fuel in passenger vehicles in California.
* No-carbon renewable energy economy (
Sustainable mobility technology
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