Low-carbon emission

Low-carbon emission

The main components of automobile exhaust are carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O). Carbon dioxide is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) and the most significant Greenhouse Gas emitted in the U.S. (with 82-84% of all U.S. emissions). [ [http://www.greenbuilder.com/sbc/newsletters/99july.html July 1999 SBC Newsletter ] ] Increases in carbon dioxide concentration are due primarily to fossil fuel use and land-use change. [ IPCC, "PDF| [http://www.20minutos.es/data/adj/2007/02/02/456.pdf Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis] |2.20 MiB " .]

The CO2 emission standards can be referred to the fuel or to the vehicle :

*The European Union is moving towards fuel mandatory CO2 standards and USA has reflected it in the Greenhouse Gas Score.

*There are information, but no mandatory, standards for CO2 limits in vehicle (engine) emissions, excepting some state regulations (i.e. California). See hybrid vehicles.

CO2 mass emission in vehicles is measured in g/km (g/mi * 0.621371192 = g/km).

Low Carbon Fuel Standard

Transportation accounts for forty percent of California's annual greenhouse gas emissions, and California relies on petroleum-based fuels for 96 percent of its transportation needs.

The Californian Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger announced an Executive Order that California adopt so-called Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS). [ [http://gov.ca.gov/index.php?/press-release/5074 Gov. Schwarzenegger Issues Directive to Establish World's First Low Carbon Standard for Transportation Fuels - Press Release by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger ] ] The LCFS requires fuel providers to ensure that the mix of fuel they sell in the California Market meets, on average, a declining target for greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2-equivalent grams per unit of fuel energy sold. By 2020, the LCFS will produce a 10 % reduction in GHG emissions from production and use of fuel in passenger vehicles in California.

See also

* Emission standard
* Low-carbon economy
* No-carbon renewable energy economy (NCREE).
* Sustainable mobility technology


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