Ibn Tufail


Ibn Tufail

Infobox_Muslim scholars | notability = Muslim scholar| era = Islamic Golden Age | color = #cef2e0 |


| image_caption = |
| name = Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi | title= Ibn Tufail
Abubacer Aben Tofail
Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail | birth = 1105 | death = 1185 | Ethnicity = Arab
Region = Al-Andalus | Maddhab = Sufism
school tradition= Avicennism | main_interests = Early Islamic philosophy, Arabic literature, Kalam, Islamic medicine | notable idea= Wrote the first philosophical novel, which was also the first novel to depict desert island, feral child and coming of age plots, and introduced the concepts of autodidacticism and tabula rasa
works = "Hayy ibn Yaqdhan"
("Philosophus Autodidactus")
influences = Al-Farabi, Avicenna, Avicennism, Al-Ghazali, Ash'ari, Sufism, Ibn Tumart, Ibn Bajjah, Abu Yaqub Yusuf, Muhammad | influenced = Averroes, Alpetragius, Ibn al-Nafis, Pococke, Boyle, Hobbes, Locke, Molyneux, Hume, Berkeley, Spinoza, Leibniz, Sorbonne, Ockley, Defoe, Thévenot, Wallis, Huygens, Keith, Barclay, Quakers, Hartlib, Newton, Kant, Rousseau, Voltaire, Marx, Kipling, Burroughs |

Ibn Tufail (c. 1105, Guadix, Spain – 1185) (full Arabic name: Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al-Qaisi al-Andalusi _ar. أبو بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي) (Latinized form: Abubacer Aben Tofail; Anglicized form: Abu Jaafar Ebn Tophail) was an Andalusian-Arab Muslim polymath: [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9011411/Avempace Avempace] , "Encyclopædia Britannica", 2007.] an Arabic writer, novelist, Islamic philosopher, theologian, physician, vizier, and court official.

As a philosopher and novelist, he is most famous for writing the first philosophical novel, "Hayy ibn Yaqdhan", also known as "Philosophus Autodidactus" in the Western world. As a physician, he was an early supporter of dissection and autopsy, which was expressed in his novel.Jon Mcginnis, "Classical Arabic Philosophy: An Anthology of Sources", p. 284, Hackett Publishing Company, ISBN 0872208710.]

Life

Born in Guadix near Granada, he was educated by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace). He served as a secretary for the ruler of Granada, and later as vizier and physician for Abu Yaqub Yusuf, the Almohad ruler of Al-Andalus, to whom he recommended Averroës as his own future successor in 1169. Averroës later reports this event and describes how Ibn Tufail then inspired him to write his famous Aristotelian commentaries:

Averroës became Ibn Tufayl's successor after he retired in 1182. He died several years later in Morocco in 1185. The astronomer Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi was also a disciple of Ibn Tufail.

"Hayy ibn Yaqzan"

Ibn Tufail was the author of "unicode|Ḥayy ibn Yaqẓān" ( _ar. حي بن يقظان "Alive, son of Awake"), also known as "Philosophus Autodidactus" in the West, a philosophical romance and allegorical novel inspired by Avicennism and Sufism, and which tells the story of an autodidactic feral child, raised by a gazelle and living alone on a desert island, who, without contact with other human beings, discovers ultimate truth through a systematic process of reasoned inquiry. Hayy ultimately comes into contact with civilization and religion when he meets a castaway named Absal. He determines that certain trappings of religion, namely imagery and dependence on material goods, are necessary for the multitude in order that they might have decent lives. However, imagery and material goods are distractions from the truth and ought to be abandoned by those whose reason recognizes that they are distractions.

Ibn Tufail drew the name of the tale and most of its characters from an earlier work by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Ibn Tufail's book was neither a commentary on nor a mere retelling of Ibn Sina's work, however, but a new and innovative work in its own right. It reflects one of the main concerns of Muslim philosophers (later also of Christian thinkers), that of reconciling philosophy with revelation. At the same time, the narrative anticipates in some ways both Robinson Crusoe and Rousseau's "Émile". It tells of a child who is nurtured by a gazelle and grows up in total isolation from humans. In seven phases of seven years each, solely by the exercise of his faculties, Hayy goes through all the gradations of knowledge. The story of "Hayy Ibn Yaqzan" is similar to the later story of Mowgli in Rudyard Kipling's "The Jungle Book" in that a baby is abandoned on a deserted tropical island where he is take care of and fed by a mother wolf.

Ibn Tufail's "Philosophus Autodidactus" was written as a response to al-Ghazali's "The Incoherence of the Philosophers". In the 13th century, Ibn al-Nafis later wrote the "Al-Risalah al-Kamiliyyah fil Siera al-Nabawiyyah" (known as "Theologus Autodidactus" in the West) as a response to Ibn Tufail's "Philosophus Autodidactus".

"Hayy ibn Yaqdhan" had a significant influence on both Arabic literature and European literature, and it went on to become an influential best-seller throughout Western Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.G. A. Russell (1994), "The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England", p. 228, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.] The work also had a "profound influence" on both classical Islamic philosophy and modern Western philosophy.G. J. Toomer (1996), "Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England", p. 218, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198202911.] It became "one of the most important books that heralded the Scientific Revolution" and European Enlightenment, and the thoughts expressed in the novel can be found "in different variations and to different degrees in the books of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Isaac Newton, and Immanuel Kant."Samar Attar, "The Vital Roots of European Enlightenment: Ibn Tufayl's Influence on Modern Western Thought", Lexington Books, ISBN 0739119893.]

A Latin translation of the work, entitled "Philosophus Autodidactus", first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke the Younger. The first English translation (by Simon Ockley) was published in 1708. These translations later inspired Daniel Defoe to write "Robinson Crusoe", which also featured a desert island narrative and was the first novel in English. [Nawal Muhammad Hassan (1980), "Hayy bin Yaqzan and Robinson Crusoe: A study of an early Arabic impact on English literature", Al-Rashid House for Publication.] [Cyril Glasse (2001), "New Encyclopedia of Islam", p. 202, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 0759101906.] Amber Haque (2004), "Psychology from Islamic Perspective: Contributions of Early Muslim Scholars and Challenges to Contemporary Muslim Psychologists", "Journal of Religion and Health" 43 (4): 357-377 [369] .] The novel also inspired the concept of "tabula rasa" developed in "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690) by John Locke, who was a student of Pococke. [G. A. Russell (1994), "The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England", pp. 224-239, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.] His "Essay" went on to become one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern Western philosophy, and influenced many enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley. Hayy's ideas on materialism in the novel also have some similarities to Karl Marx's historical materialism.Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), "The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān", pp. 38-46, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004093001.] It also foreshadowed Molyneux's Problem, proposed by William Molyneux to Locke, who included it in the second book of "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding". [Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl and Léon Gauthier (1981), "Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan", p. 5, Editions de la Méditerranée: [http://limitedinc.blogspot.com/2007/04/things-about-arabick-influence-on-john.html] quote|"If you want a comparison that will make you clearly grasp the difference between the perception, such as it is understood by that sect [the Sufis] and the perception as others understand it, imagine a person born blind, endowed however with a happy natural temperament, with a lively and firm intelligence, a sure memory, a straight sprite, who grew up from the time he was an infant in a city where he never stopped learning, by means of the senses he did dispose of, to know the inhabitants individually, the numerous species of beings, living as well as non-living, there, the streets and sidestreets, the houses, the steps, in such a manner as to be able to cross the city without a guide, and to recognize immediately those he met; the colors alone would not be known to him except by the names they bore, and by certain definitions that designated them. Suppose that he had arrived at this point and suddenly, his eyes were opened, he recovered his view, and he crosses the entire city, making a tour of it. He would find no object different from the idea he had made of it; he would encounter nothing he didn’t recognize, he would find the colors conformable to the descriptions of them that had been given to him; and in this there would only be two new important things for him, one the consequence of the other: a clarity, a greater brightness, and a great voluptuousness."] [Diana Lobel (2006), "A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Baḥya Ibn Paqūda's Duties of the Heart", p. 24, University of Pennsylvania Press, ISBN 0812239539.] Other European writers influenced by "Philosophus Autodidactus" included Gottfried Leibniz,Martin Wainwright, [http://books.guardian.co.uk/review/story/0,12084,918454,00.html Desert island scripts] , "The Guardian", 22 March 2003.] Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens, [G. A. Russell (1994), "The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England", p. 227, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.] George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers, [G. A. Russell (1994), "The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England", p. 247, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.] Samuel Hartlib,G. J. Toomer (1996), "Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England", p. 222, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198202911.] and Voltaire.Tor Eigeland, [http://www.millersville.edu/~columbus/data/art/EIGELA05.ART The Ripening Years] , "Saudi Aramco World", September-October 1976.]

Works

* [http://ar.wikisource.org/wiki/%D8%A7%D8%A8%D9%86_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B7%D9%81%D9%8A%D9%84_-_%D8%AD%D9%8A_%D8%A8%D9%86_%D9%8A%D9%82%D8%B8%D8%A7%D9%86 Arabic text of "Hayy bin Yaqzan"] from Wikisource
*English translations of "Hayy bin Yaqzan" (in chronological order)
**"The improvement of human reason, exhibited in the life of Hai ebn Yokdhan", written in Arabick above 500 years ago, by Abu Jaafar ebn Tophail, newly translated from the original Arabick, by Simon Ockley. With an appendix, in which the possibility of man's attaining the true knowledg of God, and things necessary to salvation, without instruction, is briefly consider'd. London: Printed and sold by E. Powell, 1708.
**Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail, "The history of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan", translated from the Arabic by Simon Ockley, revised, with an introdroduction by A.S. Fulton. London: Chapman and Hall, 1929. [http://umcc.ais.org/~maftab/ip/pdf/bktxt/hayy.pdf available online] (omits the introductory section)
**"Ibn Tufayl's Hayy ibn Yaqzān: a philosophical tale", translated with introduction and notes by Lenn Evan Goodman. New York: Twayne, 1972.
**"The journey of the soul: the story of Hai bin Yaqzan", as told by Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Tufail, a new translation by Riad Kocache. London: Octagon, 1982.
**"Two Andalusian philosophers", translated from the Arabic with an introduction and notes by Jim Colville. London: Kegan Paul, 1999.
**"Medieval Islamic Philosophical Writings", ed. Muhammad Ali Khalidi. Cambridge University Press, 2005. (omits the introductory section; omits the conclusion beginning with the protagonist's acquaintance with Asal; includes §§1-98 of 121 as numbered in the Ockley-Fulton version)

ee also

*List of Arab scientists and scholars
*Early Islamic philosophy
*Arabic literature

Notes

References

*P. Brönnle, "The Awakening of the Soul" (London, 1905)
*1911|article=Ibn Tufail|url=http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Ibn_Tufail

External links

* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/isl/hpi/hpi23.htm Ibn Tofail in "History of Philosophy in Islam", by T.J. de Boer, 1904, at sacred-texts.com]
* [http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ip/rep/H030.htm About Ibn Tufail]
* [http://english.webislam.com/?idt=1335# About Ibn Tufayl's view of education implicit in his work "Hayy Ibn Yaqzan", by Silvio Sergio Scatolini Apostolo, at "Webislam" http://english.webislam.com]


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  • Ibn Tufail — (* 1110 in Wadi Asch (Guadix) bei Granada; † 1185 in Marrakesch), mit vollem Namen Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al Qaisi al Andalusi (arabisch ‏أبو بكر محمد بن عبدالملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي‎, DMG Abū …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ibn Tufail — Ibn Tufayl Mohammed ben Abd el Malik ben Tufayl el Qaïci dit Ibn Tufail (arabe : ابن طفيل), ou Ibn Tufayl (né en 1110 à Wadi Asch (aujourd hui Guadix, dans la province de Grenade, et mort en 1185 à Marrakech), latinisé en Abubacer, était un… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ibn Tufail — Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abd al Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al Qaisi al Andalusi (بكر محمد بن عبد الملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي ), también conocido como Aben Thofail, Abentofail, Ibn Tufayl o Ibn Tufail, nacido bajo el Imperio Almohade en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ibn Tufail — Ịbn Tufail,   Abu Bakr, latinisiert Abubạcer, arabischer Arzt und Philosoph, * Guadix (Spanien) um 1115, ✝ Marrakesch 1185 oder 1186; Neuplatoniker mystischer Prägung, Schüler des Ibn Badjdja, Freund von Ibn Ruschd; Ibn Tufail war auch Dichter …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Malik Muhammad Ibn Tufail al-Qaisi — Ibn Tufail (* 1110 in Wadi Asch (Guadix) bei Granada; † 1185 in Marrakesch), mit vollem Namen Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al Qaisi al Andalusi (arabisch ‏أبو بكر محمد بن عبدالملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي‎,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tufail — Ibn Tufail (* 1110 in Wadi Asch (Guadix) bei Granada; † 1185 in Marrakesch), mit vollem Namen Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al Qaisi al Andalusi (arabisch ‏أبو بكر محمد بن عبدالملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي‎,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ibn Tufayl — Ibn Tufail (* 1110 in Wadi Asch (Guadix) bei Granada; † 1185 in Marrakesch), mit vollem Namen Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn ʿAbd al Malik ibn Muhammad ibn Tufail al Qaisi al Andalusi (arabisch ‏أبو بكر محمد بن عبدالملك بن محمد بن طفيل القيسي الأندلسي‎,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Ibn Ruschd — Averroës (Ausschnitt eines Gemäldes von Andrea Bonaiuto; 14. Jhd.) Averroës, Detailansicht aus der Schule von Athen ( …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ibn Rushd — Averroës (Ausschnitt eines Gemäldes von Andrea Bonaiuto; 14. Jhd.) Averroës, Detailansicht aus der Schule von Athen ( …   Deutsch Wikipedia


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