- Holden Statesman
name = Holden Statesman
aka = Buick Royaum
Buick Park Avenue
production = 1990–present
Elizabeth, South Australia, Australia
predecessor = Statesman
class = Full-size
body_style = 4-door sedan
platform = FR GM V (1990–2006)
FR GM Zeta (2006–present)
related = Bitter Vero
The Holden Statesman and Caprice are a series of full-size
luxury vehicles produced by the Australian General Motorsdivision of Holdensince 1990. Between 1971 and 1984, General Motors marketed their long-wheelbase sedans under the Statesman marque. The Statesman and Caprice are essentially long- wheelbasevariants of the Commodore range, and as of 2006, are the largest rear-wheel drivesedans offered by General Motors. Internationally, Statesmans and Caprices are sold as Buicks, Chevrolets and Daewoos.
The main difference between the Statesman and the Caprice lies within their equipment packages; Caprices are commonly powered by
V8 engines rather than V6s, and whilst they may be thought of as fully specified versions of their Statesman siblings, the two were separate Holden models by this period. Appearance wise, Caprices can be distinguished by their unique interior and exterior trim such as the grille. Traditionally, the Statesman along with the Caprice have been direct rivals to the Ford Fairlane and LTD correspondingly. However, the 2008 discontinuation of the Fairlane and LTD has ceased such traditions.
First generation (1990–1999)
In 1990, demand for a full-size luxury sedan in Australia saw Holden resurrect the Statesman and Caprice names on a long-wheelbase version of its
Holden VN Commodore, which in turn was a heavily revised and enlarged Opel OmegaA. Given the model designation VQ, the car was built on the chassisof the VN Commodore station wagon. [Robinson (2006), p. 26] It differed in length by approximately 110 millimetres in comparison to the short-wheelbase models. [cite web | url = http://www.redbookasiapacific.com/au/vehicle/comparespecs.php?id2=69016&id=68815 | title = Compare Two Vehicles: 1988 Holden Commodore Executive and 1990 Holden Statesman | publisher = Red Book | accessdate = 2007-12-19]
Holden made many efforts to distinguish the Statesman from the Commodore, with a formal
grilleand a very different glasshouse reminiscent of contemporary GM products such as the Oldsmobile Cutlass Supreme, all while incorporating the doors and lights from the lower models. Both Statesman and Caprice models were offered and were equipped with independent rear suspension, one year before its introduction on higher-end Commodores. [cite web | last = Morely | first = David | date = 2005-09-23| url = http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=10249 | title = Holden Statesman 1990-1994 | publisher = Fairfax Media| accessdate = 2007-12-19] Also in 1991, Holden introduced the Series II VQ models. The Caprice ushered the introduction of anti-lock brakes as standard, however it was optional on the Statesman. The Commodore's 127 kilowatt (170 hp) 3.8 litre "3800" V6 enginewas now standard on the Statesman, with the old 5.0 litre V8 reserved for the Caprice, becoming an option on the Statesman. [Davis, Kennedy, Kennedy (Part Two), p. 45] Both powerplants are mated with a four-speed "THM700R4" automatic transmission.cite web | last = Morely | first = David | date = 2007-09-29| url = http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=43958 | title = Holden Statesman | work = The Age| publisher = Fairfax Media| accessdate = 2008-04-30]
The VR followed in 1994, following the model change of the standard Commodore and incorporating their engineering improvements as well as sheet metal changes. The updated running gear included a new electronically controlled version of the "GM 4L60-E"
automatic transmission, and the latest revision of the Buick 3.8 litre V6 engine. [cite web | month = October | year = 1994 | url = http://www.mynrma.com.au/cps/rde/xchg/mynrma/hs.xsl/holden_statesman_1994_car_review.htm?cpssessionid=SID-3F5768EC-6F437253 | title = NRMA Car Review - Holden Statesman VR | publisher = NRMA| accessdate = 2007-12-19] The engine now featured rolling-element bearings in the valve rocker arms, increasing compression ratios from the VQ II series engine. [cite web | url = http://www.myholden.com.au/commodores/vr.php | title = Holden Commodore VR | publisher = MyHolden.com.au | accessdate = 2007-12-19] These changes combined to deliver an increase in power to 130 kilowatts (174 hp) and further improvement in Noise, Vibration, and Harshnesslevels. [cite web | last = Smith | first = Graham | date = 2002-09-06| url = http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,20384,5037260-26236,00.html | title = 1993 Holden VR Commodore | work = Herald Sun| publisher = News Limited| accessdate = 2007-12-19] In terms of equipment, a driver's air bagbecame standard on both the Statesman and Caprice.
For the VR series, Holden no longer used separate model designations for its Statesman and Caprice. Instead, they adopted the same two-letter title as the Commodore. This same principal applied for the VS models, but not for those succeeding it.
The 1995 VS saw the introduction of the updated
Ecotec(Emissions and Consumption Optimisation through TEChnology) version of the Buick V6 engine which coincided with the changes to the engine in the United States.cite web | month = October | year = 1995 | url = http://www.mynrma.com.au/cps/rde/xchg/mynrma/hs.xsl/holden_statesman_1995_car_review.htm?cpssessionid=SID-3F5768EC-B865B25F | title = NRMA Car Review - Holden Statesman VS | publisher = NRMA| accessdate = 2007-12-22] The Ecotec engine packed 13 percent more power, an increase of 17 kilowatts (23 hp) over the VR, and increased the compression ratiofrom 9.0:1 to 9.4:1. Holden mated the new engine with a modified version of the "GM 4L60-E" automatic transmission, bringing improved throttle response and smoother changes between gears. [cite web | url = http://www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au/car_info_holden_commodore_vs.htm | title = Holden Commodore VS | publisher = Unique Cars and Parts | accessdate = 2007-12-19] Series II and III revisions came in September 1996 and June 1998, mainly consisting of a more rounded rear treatment and new alloy wheeldesigns. The Series II also heralded the introduction of the "L67" Supercharged V6. This engine slotted in between the existing V6 and V8 engines in the lineup and was officially rated at 165 kilowatts (221 hp), just 3 kilowatts (4 hp) below the V8, [cite web | url = http://www.myholden.com.au/commodores/vs.php | title = Holden Commodore VS | publisher = MyHolden.com.au | accessdate = 2007-08-07] though a 185 kilowatt (248 hp) HSV option for the 5.0 litre V8 was available.Fact|date=August 2008 A special editionStatesman International was briefly offered in 1995, [cite web | url = http://www.users.on.net/~nweber/commodore/vs/vs-state.html | title = Holden Statesman / Caprice VS Series 1995 - June 1999 | publisher = The Unofficial Holden Commodore Archive | accessdate = 2007-12-19] with the Caprice becoming the donor car for the HSV Grange. [cite web | url = http://www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au/car_info_holden_hsv_commodore_vs.htm | title = HSV Commodore VS | publisher = Unique Cars and Parts | accessdate = 2008-02-03]
For the Statesman, Holden included the ten-stack
Compact Disc playerfrom the VR Caprice as standard, with a new two-stage door remote standard across the range. The remote, located on the key foballows for just the driver's door to be unlocked. Safety-wise, a passenger airbag was introduced as standard in the VS range, following the introduction of a driver's airbag on the VR series. The Used Car Safety Ratings, undertaken by the Monash UniversityAccident Research Centre, found that first generation Statesmans (VQ–VS) provide an "average level" of occupant safety protection in the event of an accident.cite web | url = http://www.atsb.gov.au/publications/2007/pdf/Car_Safety_Ratings07.pdf | format = PDF | title = Used Car Safety Ratings 2007 | publisher = Monash University| accessdate = 2007-08-09]
Second generation (1999–2006)
The next WH followed two years after the launch of the all-new VT Commodore in 1997.cite web | last = John | first = Wright | date =
2003-11-07| url = http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=8633 | title = Playing the long game | publisher = Fairfax Media| accessdate = 2007-12-22] With the release of the WH series in 1999 Holden returned to a standalone model designation, rather than adopting the same identity belonging to the short-wheelbase Commodore. Models followed much the same pattern as the previous car: a standard Statesman, a special edition Statesman International, and the Caprice. [cite web | date = 2000-05-26| url = http://www.autoweb.com.au/A_52522/cms/newsarticle.html | title = Limited Edition Statesman International Has Exclusive Appeal | work = AutoWeb | publisher = Web Publications | accessdate = 2007-12-22] The doors and front windscreenwere again shared with the mainstream Commodore. Engines were a 3.8 litre V6 Ecotec unit, a supercharged version of the same, and the 5.7 litre "Generation III" V8, rated at 220 kilowatts (295 hp). A Series II revision in 2001 brought a five kilowatt (7 hp) power increase for the Ecotec V6 bringing it up to 152 kilowatts (204 hp). [cite web | url = http://www.redbookasiapacific.com/au/vehicle/comparespecs.php?id2=65152&id=70306 | title = Compare Two Vehicles: 1999 Holden Statesman and 2001 Holden Statesman | publisher = Red Book | accessdate = 2008-02-03] Since the WH, which was engineered for right- and left-hand drive, the Statesman has been exported to the Middle Eastas the Chevrolet Caprice, following the same model changes as the Holden. [cite web | date = 1999-09-08| url = http://www.autoweb.com.au/A_51613/cms/newsarticle.html | title = Holden Announces Next Stage Of $1 Billion Export Drive | work = AutoWeb | publisher = Web Publications | accessdate = 2007-12-22]
Compared to the previous model, stability has been improved through the use of wider tracks and a longer wheelbase. The use of self-levelling rear suspension brings advantages when hauling heavy loads and improves
vehicle dynamicswhen towing. [cite web | month = August | year = 1999 | url = http://www.mynrma.com.au/cps/rde/xchg/mynrma/hs.xsl/holden_statesman_1999_car_review.htm?cpssessionid=SID-3F5768EC-C7C734BE | title = NRMA Car Review - Holden Statesman WH | publisher = NRMA| accessdate = 2007-12-22] Safety in the WH model was also enhanced, with the addition of side air bags and pyrotechnic seat beltpretensioners as standard. If the seat belt pretensioners trigger, the doors automatically unlock and both engine and fuel pumpshut down. [cite web | date = 2001-04-02| url = http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/RT/0E96B0312DAE2D60CA2569F2001AA476_Safety?OpenDocument | title = Car review - Holden Statesman V8 sedan | work = GoAuto | publisher = John Mellor | accessdate = 2008-02-02]
A revised WK series was launched in 2003, with a facelift. The curvaceous front and rear end styling of the WH was abandoned in favour of angular lines, starting with the headlights borrowed from the VY Calais. From the rear, the redesigned taillights were now separated by
sheet metal, rather than being joined with a horizontal strip of plastic.cite web | url = http://www.webwombat.com.au/motoring/news_reports/wkstater.htm | title = Holden launches new 2003 Statesman | publisher = WebWombat | accessdate = 2008-02-03] The redesign had the after effect of lowering the WK's drag coefficientto 0.30.citation | last = Bulmer | first = Ged | date = May 2003 | title = 245 kW Caprice | publisher = Australian Consolidated Press| journal = Wheels magazine| pages = 17] Other changes came in the form of revised bumpers, wheel trims, with the interior dashboardand centre console receiving a major overhaul. Powertrains carried over from the previous model, but the "Generation III" V8 engine was now rated at 235 kilowatts (315 hp) for the Statesman and 245 kilowatts (329 hp) for the Caprice. Other engineering changes were made to the structural integrity of the car. The reinforced front flooring and sills gives the upshot of a 70 percent reduction in lower limb injuries in offset frontal crash tests at 60 km/h (30 mph).
Feature wise, the Statesman now offered standard front
parking sensorsand optional satellite navigation, with the Caprice receiving the latter as standard along with a dual screen DVD entertainment system for the rear passengers. When reversing, the passenger wing mirrorfaces downwards the ground to assist the driver when parking, thus preventing the risk of damaging the wheels on the kerb. [cite web | date = 2003-08-01| last = Butler | first = Glenn | url = http://www.carpoint.com.au/car-review/2778542.aspx | title = Holden WK Statesman/Caprice (2003-2004) | work = CarPoint | publisher = ninemsn| accessdate = 2008-02-03] The Used Car Safety Ratings found that WH/WK Statesmans provide a "significantly better than average" level of occupant protection in the event of an accident.
Released in 2004, the WL brought with it an all-new 3.6 litre "Alloytec" V6 engine, succeeding the old Ecotec unit. Power and
torquefigures were rated at 190 kilowatts (255 hp) and 340 newton metres (251 ft·lbf), respectively, while the Statesman's optional V8 was the 245 kilowatt (329 hp) version from the WK Caprice, with the WL Caprice's engine obtaining a further 5 kilowatts (7 hp). The V8 retains the four-speed "GM 4L60-E" automatic transmission, while the "Alloytec" V6 versions receive a new five-speed "GM 5L40-E" automatic. Several new safety features were added to the WL lineup. Such include brake assist, electronic brakeforce distribution, Electronic Stability Program and LED tail lamps. The new LED lamps give an additional five metres of warning to following motorists travelling at 110 km/h (68 mph) because they illuminate in 60 nanoseconds, compared to 1000 for conventional incandescent light bulbs. [cite journal | last = Hawley | first = Jonathan | month = September | year = 2004 | title = WL Statesman & Caprice | journal = Wheels magazine| pages = 61–62 | publisher = ACP Magazines]
In 2005, General Motors began exporting the Statesman to China, where it was badged as the Buick Royaum. The Royaum was initially equipped with the 3.6 litre "Alloytec" engine fitted to the Statesman, however a 155 kilowatt (208 hp) 2.8 litre version of the same followed later in the year. [cite web | last = Newton | first =Bruce | date =
2004-12-20| url = http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/story2/62D009E7F704D25BCA256F70000261F7 | title = Holden’s China deal confirmed | |work = GoAuto | publisher = John Mellor | accessdate = 2008-02-03] During 2005, Holden exported almost 2,000 units to South Korea.cite web | last = Mathioudakis | first = Bryon | date = 2008-09-05| url = http://www.goauto.com.au/mellor/mellor.nsf/story2/33C93160FDBC876FCA2574BB000FD46F | title = First look: Veritas a veritable Statesman | work = GoAuto | publisher = John Mellor | accessdate = 2008-09-05] With an identical powertrainto the Buick, the South Korean export model was sold through the GM Daewoonetwork and marketed as the Daewoo Statesman. [cite web | date = 2005-06-01| url = http://www.holden.com.au/www-holden/action/news?categoryID=6&articleID=1343&navCategoryId=6 | title = Minister introduces flagship Holden to South Korea | publisher = GM Holden | accessdate = 2008-02-03]
Third generation (2006–present)
The third generation WM was launched alongside the VE Commodore on 16 July 2006 at the
Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre. With the Statesman's export plans, it was decided that its launch should be simultaneous with that of the Commodore, rather than months later, as had been the convention. [Robinson (2006), p. 13] The WM development programme reportedly cost General Motors AU$190 million with another $1.04 billion devoted to the VE Commodore model which the Statesman is based upon. [McCarthy, McKay, Newton, Robinson (2006), p. 117] The WM series utilises the GM Zeta platformdeveloped by Holden. Unlike previous models, the WM no longer shares its architecture with an Opelsedan, [Robinson (2006), p. 34–35] and has rear doors different to those found on the Commodore. [McCarthy, McKay, Newton, Robinson (2006), p. 118] Previously, it had to share the doors, or at least the lower parts, with the lesser Commodore. This is just one of the ways Holden has tried to create greater differentiation between the Statesman and the Commodore on which it is based. [cite web | last = Alina | first = Simona | date = 2006-09-04| url = http://www.topspeed.com/cars/holden/holden-wm-statesman-ar13092.html | title = 2007 Holden WM Statesman | publisher = TopSpeed | accessdate = 2007-10-05]
Like the second generation model, the WM is exported to the Middle East as the Chevrolet Caprice. In China since 2007,
complete knock downkits have been exported and assembled there as the Buick Park Avenue, using some locally sourced parts. [cite web | date = 2007-04-18| url = http://www.webwombat.com.au/motoring/news_reports/holden-gm-exports.htm | title = Holden Secures Chinese Export Deal: Local Large Car Industry Fights On | publisher = WebWombat | accessdate = 2008-02-25] Holden recommenced Caprice exports to South Korea in 2008 as the Daewoo Veritas after showcasing a pre-production Daewoo L4X in 2007. Compared to the Australian-specification model, the Veritas is V6-powered only and has a modified rear floorpanto accommodate the electrically adjustable rear seats incorporating a massage function. The headrests are also electrically adjustable, with the Caprice's dual headrest-mounted LCD screens orphaned in favour of a single, ceiling-mounted unit. [cite web | last = Twomey | first = David | date = 2008-09-05| url = http://www.caradvice.com.au/16233/holden-exports-to-korea-gm-daewoo-veritas/ | title = Holden exports to Korea GM-Daewoo Veritas | publisher = Australian Car Advice | accessdate = 2008-09-05]
* [http://www.holden.com.au/statesman Australia] • [http://www.holden.co.nz/vehicle/statesman/ New Zealand]
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См. также в других словарях:
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