- Leonid Kravchuk
"For hockey player see
Igor Kravchuk"Infobox_President|name=Leonid Kravchuk
President of Ukraine
December 5, 1991
July 19, 1994
Stanislav Gurenko(First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine) Vladimir Ivashko
Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
birth_date=Birth date and age|1934|1|10|mf=y
birth_place= Velykyi Zhytyn in
Poland, now Rivne Oblast, Ukraine
Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk ( _uk. Леонід Макарович Кравчук; born
10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. He was the first President of Ukrainefrom early December 1991 to July 1994.
Kravchuk was born in Velykyi Zhytyn (now
Rivne Oblast), which was part of Polandat the time of his birth, but became part of Ukraine after World War IIwhen he was a child. He joined the Communist Party of Ukraine in 1958 and rose through the ranks of the party and its " agitprop" department. He became a member of the Ukrainian Politburoin 1989 and the chairman of the Verkhovna Radain 1990. With the weakening of the Soviet Union, Kravchuk became the effective leader of the republic. He left the Soviet Communist Party ( CPSU) in August 1991 and began to support the Ukrainian independence movement. He officially declared his support for Ukrainian independence after the August 1991 Soviet coup attempt. Later that year, he was elected President of Ukrainein Ukraine's first presidential elections.
Kravchuk ran for a second term as President in 1994, but was defeated by his former
Prime Minister, Leonid Kuchma. He remains active in Ukrainian politics, serving as a member of Verkhovna Rada and the leader of SDPU's parliamentary group (from 2002 to 2006).
Leonid Kravchuk's political creed is avoiding conflicts and straightforward declaration of his position. He is widely considered to be cunning, diplomatic, and cautious. He describes himself as a man who refuses to take an umbrella because he hopes to "slip between the raindrops".
Such diplomacy helped Kravchuk to retain and strengthen his power over
Ukraineduring the transition from Soviet rule to independence. He was third in command in Ukraine's CPSUleadership before the fall of Soviet Unioneven though he didn't belong to the ruling Dnipropetrovs'kgroup. He avoided inflexible positions towards democratic changes and was a compromise figure for both party conservatives and reformists.
After becoming president of independent Ukraine, Kravchuk successfully attempted to achieve and strengthen formal
sovereigntyof the country and develop its relations with the West. He withstood the enormous pressure from Russiaand refused to retain the common Armed Forcesand currencyinside the CIS. Another of his stands has been refusal of nuclear weaponsbased on Ukrainian territory.
Kravchuk's economic policy has often been criticized. He failed to avoid corruption in the
privatizationof country's industry and promote effective financialdecisions. Ukrainian annual inflationrates from 1992 to 1994 reached the world's highest record of 10000%. Millions of loans given by semi-government banks defaulted. This led to delays of many years in salaries for industry workers, teachers etc. The collapse of the Black SeaSteamship Company became the saddest symbol of Kravchuk's era. This global merchant fleet, the largest in the world (based mostly in Odessa), was covertly sold out to foreign companies, mostly for fake debts. Hundreds of sailors who hadn't received their salaries were trapped for years on board their vessels throughout the world. Kravchuk's own son was later accused of taking part in this fraud.
Shocked by these developments and also by growing tensions with Russia, the voters of industrial and predominantly Russian-speaking southeastern Ukraine supported Kravchuk's main rival,
Leonid Kuchma, in the 1994 presidential elections. Kuchma won under the slogans of fighting corruption, reconstruction of the economy, and further integration with Russia. Kravchuk's reliance on bureaucratic pressure, support of pro-Western nationalists, and media biasdid not serve him well.
Soon after his defeat in 1994, Leonid Kravchuk joined the powerful business and political group known as Kiev Holding or the Dynamo Group. This group, led by
oligarchs Viktor Medvedchukand Hryhoriy Surkis, is formally organized as the United Social Democratic Party of Ukraineor SDPUo (Ukrainian: Соціал-демократична партія України (об’єднана), СДПУ (о). Despite formal centrist/ social-democraticslogans, the party is widely associated with big business, organized crime, corruption, and media bias in favor of President Leonid Kuchma. In 2004, Hryhoriy Surkiswas banned from visiting the United States, due to his alleged involvement in irregularities during the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004. The group also took a strongly pro-Russian and anti-Western stand. Analysts say that TV channels and other media controlled by the group have started a sharp anti-U.S./anti- NATOcampaign.
Kravchuk has been highly criticized for remaining one of the leaders of SDPUo, specializing in negotiations and
public relations, despite his declared pro-democratic and patriotic position. In November 2004, following the disputed Ukrainian presidential election, he told the media that he was afraid that the resulting crisis would cause the disintegration of the country, intensifying movements for certain regions of Ukraine to join other countries.
Kravchuk is the deputy secretary of the
International Parliament for Safety and Peace(see [http://www.internationalparliament.org/en/presidency_of_supreme_council.htm] )
Leonid Kravchuk is the author of books dealing with his career and
Politics of Ukraine(some of them were translated into English).
Kravchuk is married to Antonina, has a son Alexander and three grandchildren - Andrey, Maria and Ylena Kravchuk, Andrey's daughter.
History of Ukraine
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Look at other dictionaries:
Leonid Kravchuk — Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk Леонід Макарович Кравчук 1.er Presidente de Ucrania … Wikipedia Español
Leonid Kravchuk — Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (En ucraniano: Леонід Макарович Кравчук, nacido el 10 de Enero, 1934) es un político Ucranianio. Fue el 1er Presidente de Ucrania tras la disolución de la U.R.S.S … Enciclopedia Universal
Leonid — may refer to:*Leonids, a yearly prolific meteor shower associated with the comet Tempel Tuttle.People with the name Leonid: *Leonid Brezhnev (1906 1982), political leader of the USSR from 1964 to 1982. *Leonid Kravchuk, (b. 1934) a Ukrainian… … Wikipedia
Leonid Kravtchouk — Леонід Кравчук Leonid Kravtchouk à Kiev, août 1992. Mandats 1er Président de la République d Ukraine … Wikipédia en Français
Leonid — puede refererirse a: Contenido 1 Nombre 1.1 Personajes 2 Desambiguaciones 3 Véase también Nombre … Wikipedia Español
Leonid Krawtschuk — im August 1992 Leonid Makarowytsch Krawtschuk (ukrainisch Леонід Макарович Кравчук, wiss. Transliteration Leonid Makarovyč Kravčuk; * 10. Januar 1934 in Welykyj Schytyn in der Oblast Riwne) war von 1991 bis 1 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Leonid Kuchma — Existen desacuerdos sobre la neutralidad en el punto de vista de la versión actual de este artículo o sección. En la página de discusión puedes consultar el debate al respecto. Leonid Kuchma Леонід Кучма … Wikipedia Español
Leonid Kuchma — Infobox President|name=Leonid Kuchma Леонід Кýчма nationality = Ukrainian order = 2nd President of Ukraine term start = July 19, 1994 term end = January 23, 2005 predecessor = Leonid Kravchuk successor = Viktor Yushchenko birth date = Birth date… … Wikipedia
Kravchuk, Leonid — ▪ president of Ukraine in full Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk born Jan. 10, 1934, Velyky Zhytyn, Ukraine, U.S.S.R. president of Ukraine from 1991 to 1994. For 30 years a Communist Party functionary, he converted to nationalist politics after… … Universalium
Kravchuk — /ˈkravtʃʊk/ (say krahvchook) noun Leonid Makarovich, born 1934, Ukrainian politician; first president of Ukraine after independence, 1991–94 … Australian English dictionary