- 47th (Lancashire) Regiment of Foot
Infobox Military Unit
unit_name= 47th (The Lancashire) Regiment of Foot
Great Britain(later United Kingdom)
nickname= "The Cauliflowers", "The Lancashire Lads", "Wolfe's Own"
battle_honours= Louisburg, Quebec 1759, Tarifa, Vittoria, San Sebastian, Nive, Peninsula, Ava, Alma, Inkerman, Sevastopol
The 47th (Lancashire) Regiment of Foot was a
regimentof the British Army.
The regiment was first raised in
1741as Sir John Mordaunt's Regiment of Foot in Scotland. The regiment ranked as the 58th of the line and was later renumbered as the 47th. [http://regiments.org/regiments/uk/inf/047-751.htm] The regiment first saw war service, paradoxically, at home during the 1745 Jacobite Risingagainst rebels who had risen in support of Bonnie Prince Charliewho claimed the thrones of the Kingdom of Great Britainand Ireland. The regiment under Sir John Cope marched north into the Scottish Highlandsbut, as he thought the rebel force to be stronger than it really was, avoided engaging the Jacobites then sailed from Aberdeendown to Dunbarto meet the Jacobite forces to the east of Edinburghat the Battle of Prestonpanswhich saw the Government forces routed by the Jacobites. The regiment subsequently took part in the defence of Edinburgh Castlewhich never capitulated to the Jacobite rebels during Bonnie Prince Charlie's control of the city of Edinburgh. The Jacobite Rebellion was eventually crushed by Government forces in 1746and Charles was forced to escape to France.
For information on the 4th Marines, also known as the 47th Foot between 1739 and 1748 please see separate article
4th Regiment of Marines (British Army).
1750the regiment deployed to Nova Scotia, Canadaand the following year it was numbered the 47th Regiment of Foot. The regiment took part in the Seven Years' Warwhile in Canada, seeing action against the French-held Fortress Louisbourgduring the 48-day Siege of Louisburg, a siege that culminated in a French surrender. The following year the 47th took part in the legendary Battle of Quebecwhich saw British forces, under the command of General James Wolfe, prevail again French forces in a battle that concluded a 3-month siege of Quebec. Wolfe was well-respected by his men, to such an extent that to commemorate the death of Wolfe in the battle the 47th began wearing a black line in their lace and also gained the nickname "Wolfe's Own". In 1760the 47th took part in the Battle of Sainte-Foy, a British defeat against the French during the British defence of Quebec though despite the defeat the British held onto it.
1763the regiment returned home from its long deployment in North America with the conclusion of Britain's war with France.
It arrived in
North Americain 1773in New Jersey, a colonyof the Great Britain and which would be one of the " Thirteen Colonies" that would soon revolt against British rule. In late 1774the regiment was deployed to Bostonand the following year the regiment saw action against rebels at Lexington and Concord and in the Battle of Bunker Hillwhich saw a British victory but at heavy cost.
1776the regiment returned to Quebec to assist in its defence against American rebels. In 1777the regiment was part of the disastrous expedition to Saratoga where it took part in a number of major engagements. The 47th became internees after the surrender of British forces on 17 October. It did not return home from its enforced stay until 1783and the conclusion of the American War of Independence.
1782the regiment was given a county distinction when it was given the title the 47th (The Lancashire) Regiment of Foot. In 1790the regiment returned to the Western Hemisphereonce again where it garrisoned a number of islands in the West Indiesduring the French Revolutionary War. In 1794the 2nd Battalion was raised in Norfolk but was disbanded soon afterwards.
1803the 2nd Battalion was raised again and the following year deployed to Ireland.
1806the 1st Battalion arrived in the Cape of Good Hopeto undertake garrison duties in the territory captured from the Dutch. That year an unsuccessful, and unauthorised, expedition to the French allies Spainagainst its South American possessions, led by Sir Home Riggs Popham, took place. The following year the 1st Battalion was part of the second-invasion force, led by Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, who was unaware of the failure of the first-invasion. The 1st Battalion took part in the siege and subsequent storming of Montevideo(now capital of Uruguay), which culminated in the capture of the city on 3 February. It also saw action in July during the mis-managed attempt to capture Buenos Aires(now capital of Argentina) from the Spanish. The attempt to capture the city failed and the British force was soon surrendered.
The 1st Battalion eventually arrived in
Indiain 1808and the following year its flank companies took part in an expedition to the Persian Gulfagainst notorious Arab Piratesin their base of Ras-al-Khaima.
Also that year the 2nd Battalion deployed to
Gibraltarand in 1811commenced its participation in the Peninsular War, a war which saw the UK, Portugaland Spain fighting the French. The regiment's flank companies took part in the Battle Barossaand in December took part in the Battle of Tarifawhere they helped repulse an assault by French forces to take the town of Tarifa.
1812the British were forced to withdraw back into Portugal though the following year British forces moved back into Spain to launch a concerted effort to remove the French from Spain. The 2nd Battalion in the British victory at the Battle of Vittoriaas-well as, on 31 August, the siege and subsequent storming of San Sebastian during which the 2nd Battalion, one of the battalions that led the assault, and the rest of the British and Allied forces sustained significant causalities in the attempt to storm the breaches in the walls of the town of San Sebastian. The French surrendered on 8 Septemberafter the town, which the French had fled too, was subjected to a sustained bombardment by artillery.
The 2nd Battalion crossed the
Bidasoa River, finally into France itself. The battalion took part in the Battle of Niveand ended its war while taking part in the siege of Bayonne, France in 1814when the war with France finally concluded, with the UK victorious. The 2nd Battalion, having battled so determinedly in that bitter war, returned home and was disbanded at Portsmouth.
The Wars of Empire
1817the "47th" took part in the 3rd Mahratta War, the last war between the British and the Mahratta Empire, and which ensured that Britain was effectively in control of much of present-day India.
1819the "regiment" was back in the Persian Gulf in a brief expedition that saw the Pirate base of Ras-al-Khaima captured.
1824the "47th" took part in the First Burmese War. They were involved in a number of heavy fighting with the Burmese forces, and the "regiment" was awarded the Battle Honour "Ava". The war cane to an end in 1826and the "47th" returned to India. The "regiment" finally returned home in 1829.
1850the "regiment" arrived in the Mediterraneanwhere they were based in the Ionian Islands, then a British territory. In 1853the "regiment" arrived in Maltaand the following year was to take part in the Crimean Waragainst Russia.
The "47th" landed with the rest of the British at the ominous sounding
Calamity Bay. The British and their French allies then began the journey to the important Russian naval base of Sevastopol. On the 30 September the "regiment", as part of the 2nd Division, was involved in the Battle of Alma, a battle that was bloody, especially at the 'Great Redoubt', a Russian earthwork.
On 5 November the "regiment" took part in the Inkerman. The numerically superior Russians had attempted to break the
Siege of Sevastopol, besieged since 19 September, and attacked British and French forces on the heights of Mount Inkerman. The battle was brutal, chaotic hand-to-hand fighting prevalent during parts of the battle. The Russians were repelled but at a heavy price. Over 8,000 casualties were sustained by the British and the Russians over 11,000. The "regiment" was part of the force besieging Sevastopol, a long siege that lasted from September 1854 to September 1855when it was captured by the British.
The "regiment" returned to Malta in
1856upon the war ending with the Treaty of Paris, and, eventually, came home.
After the inception of the
Victoria Cross(VC) in 1856Private John McDermondwas awarded the first, and only, VC of the "regiment" for his actions in saving a wounded Colonel during the Battle of Inkerman.
Garrison Duties to Amalgamations
1861the "regiment" returned to Nova Scotia, Canada once more, this time to reinforce Canada's defences during tense times with the USAas a consequence of the Trent Crisisduring the American Civil War. In 1866during the so-called Fenian Raidsby Irish-Americanex-soldiers who invaded Canadian territory, the "47th" assisted in the defence of Canadian territory against the Fenians. In 1868the "47th" arrived in Barbadosin the West Indiesand would return soon afterwards. The "regiment" remained based in the UK for the duration of the 1870s.
1881the "regiment" amalgamated with the 81st (Loyal Lincoln Volunteers) Regiment of Footto form the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment in consequence of Childers Reformsof the armed forces, a continuation of the Cardwell Reforms.
2004), the regiment of which the "47th's" lineage is maintained is the Queen's Lancashire Regiment.
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