- Zero field splitting
Zero field splitting describes various interactions of the energy levels of an electron spin (S>1/2) even in the absence of an applied magnetic field. It is important in the
electron spin resonanceof biological molecules.
The value of the ZFS parameter is usually defined as D. Values of D have been obtained for a wide number of organic biradicals by EPR/ESR measurements. This value may be measured by other magnetometry techniques such as SQUID, however EPR measurements provide more accurate data in most cases.
For an S = 1 spin system, the value of D is the energy separation between the lowest-lying triplet and singlet states in the absence of an applied field. Therefore, when D is sufficently large triplets may absorp microwave radiation. One example of this is the microwave spectrum of oxygen.
A description of the origins of this effect may be found at: [http://www.ncsu.edu/chemistry/das/zero-field_splitting.pdf] (Notice, Kramers doublets cannot be split by ZFS, only magnetic field (i.e. Zeeman effects) can do that! I would recommend reading regular scientific journals for complete and adequate description of ZFS.
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