Gana


Gana

The word IAST|Gaṇa (Devanagari: _sa. गण), in Sanskrit, means "flock, troop, multitude, number, tribe, series, class" (Monier Williams's dictionary). It can also be used to refer to a "body of attendants" and can refer to "a company, any assemblage or association of men formed for the attainment of the same aims". [ [http://students.washington.edu/prem/mw/g.html Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary] ]

In Hinduism, the IAST|Gaṇas (Devanagari: _sa. गण) are attendants of Shiva and live in Kailasa. Ganesha was chosen as their leader by Shiva, hence Ganesha's title "IAST|gaṇa-īśa" or "IAST|gaṇa-pati", "lord of the IAST|gaṇas". [Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend (ISBN 0-500-51088-1) by Anna L. Dallapiccola]

The word "gana" can also refer to councils or assemblies convened to discuss matters of religion or other topics.

Ganas as Shiva's attendants

In Hinduism, the gana or bhutagana are attendants of Shiva that reside in chthonic and liminal locations such as cemeteries and charnel grounds. The bhutagana also attend to Shiva on Mount Kailash. The story of creation of Virabhadra from the Shiva’s lock and destruction of Daksha by Virabhadra and his ganas is a popular myth.

Thakur Deshraj has claimed that the story arose from a clan of Jats named Shivi who had a republic ruled by democratic system of administration known as ganatantra. Kshudrakas had formed a sangha with Malavas. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88. ] This view is not mainstream [Ganas: "Enclyclopedia of Religion", Oxford University Press]

Ganas as assemblies

Many books of Sanskrit literature have used ganas and sanghas frequently. The famous Sanskrit scholar Panini of 900 BCE has mentioned in his Sanskrit grammar known as unicode|Aṣṭādhyāyī in the form of shloka as जट झट संघाते or "Jat Jhat Sanghate". This means that the terms 'Jat' and 'democratic federation' are synonymous. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88. ]

Panini in his sanskrit grammar used gana as:

संघोद्घौ गण प्रशंसयो "Sanghoddhau unicode|gaṇa praśansayo"

Narada smriti in sanskrit mentions as:

आदि शब्दों गण संघादि समूह विपक्षया "Ādi śabdon unicode|gaṇa sanghadi samūh vipakshayā"

It shows that the ganatantra (republic) system of rule was prevalent in India since ancient period.

Ganas in Shanti Parva

A detailed analysis has been done about ganas in chapter 108 of Shanti Parva in which Yudhisthira asks Bhisma about the ganas that how ganas increase, how they defend themselves from the dividing-policy of enemies, what are the techniques to conquer enemies and making the ganas friends, how they hide their secret mantras being in majority. The Bhisma’s answers to these questions have been recorded in the form of shlokas (verses) from 16 – 32 in Shanti Parva. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88. ] , [ [http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/mbs/mbs12108.htm Mahabharata in Sanskrit, Book-12, Ch,108] ]

Ganas in Vedas

Ganas have been narrated in Vedas in the form of assemblies of warriors as is clear from the following "sutras" of Rigveda (RV 3-26-6): Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88. ]

व्रातं व्रातं गणम् गणम् "Vrātam Vrātam unicode|gaṇam unicode|gaṇam"

Gana in brief means an assembly. Ganatantra (republic) means a state run by assemblies.

The representative members of clans were known as ganas and their assembly as sanghas, there chief as ganadhipati or Ganesha and Ganapati.

Ganas in Buddhist literature

The Buddhist literature Mahabagga mentions that:

गण पूरकोवा भविस्सामीति "unicode|Gaṇa pūrkovā bhavissāmīti"

It indicates that there was an officer who used to see the number of ganas and their koram in the Rajasabha (state assembly). Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992 page 87-88. ]

During Buddhist period, the Buddhist books like ‘Pali-pitaka’, Majjhamnikaya, mahabagga, Avadana shataka have mentioned ganas and sanghas many times. During Buddhas period there were 116 republics or ganasanghas in India.

In Buddhist times, "unicode|Gaṇa"s were assemblies of the Sanghas, early democratic republics known as "unicode|Gaṇa-rājya"s, literally "rule of the assembly", a term paralleling "demo-kratia" or "soviet republic". The term was revived in "unicode|Bhārata Gaṇarājya", the official name of the Republic of India.

See also

* Ganachakra

References

External links

* [http://www.philhine.org.uk/writings/tt_gannas.html The Ganas: Hooligans of Heaven]
* [http://students.washington.edu/prem/mw/g.html Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary]


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  • gana — ganà adv. 1. pakanka, užtenka: Gana skelbti neapykantą ir raginti kariauti! sp. Gana jums žmonių kraujas lakti! Žem. Ganà jum rietenos! Kp. Gana, gana – nemušk! Jrb. Ganà jau, pavalgei! Dkš. Ganà, daugiau nebenoriu Krkl. Galgi yr kada ganà?… …   Dictionary of the Lithuanian Language

  • gana — 1. ‘Deseo’: «Yo ya no tengo gana ninguna de emprender otra historia» (Gala Petra [Esp. 1980]). Se usa más comúnmente en plural expresivo, con el mismo sentido que en singular: «A veces me entran ganas de casarme de nuevo» (Sepúlveda Viejo [Chile… …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • gana — (De or. inc.). f. Deseo, apetito, voluntad de algo. U. t. en pl. con el mismo significado que en sing. Ganas de [m6]comer, de [m6]dormir. mala gana. f. desus. Indisposición, desazón, molestia. abrir, o abrirse, las ganas de comer. frs. Excitar el …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • gana — sustantivo femenino 1. (preferentemente en plural) Deseo de hacer una cosa, de disfrutarla o de que ocurra: ¡Qué ganas tengo de que llegue el domingo! 2. (preferentemente en plural) Buena disposición, voluntad o agrado con que se hace una cosa:… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • gana — gana, con ganas expr. mucho, muy, con avidez. ❙ «La casa por dentro es hortera con ganas...» C. Rico Godoy, Cómo ser infeliz y disfrutarlo. ❙ «...los muerden con ganas.» Eduardo Galeano, Días y noches de amor y de guerra, 1978, RAE CREA. ❙… …   Diccionario del Argot "El Sohez"

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  • Gana — Gȁna ž DEFINICIJA geogr. država na S obali Gvinejskog zaljeva, Z Afrika, 238.535 km2, 13.754.000 stan., glavni grad Accra …   Hrvatski jezični portal

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  • gana- — *gana , *ganam germ.?, stark. Neutrum (a): nhd. Gähnen; ne. yawn (Neutrum); Hinweis: s. *ganōn; Etymologie: s. ing. *g̑ʰan , Verb, gähnen, klaffen, Pokorny 411; …   Germanisches Wörterbuch


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