- Reading Works
The Reading Works in
Berks County, Pennsylvania, was a key player in manufacturing and delivering innovative integrated circuitand optoelectronicequipment for communication and computing in the United States and around the world. The work force grew to nearly 5,000 by 1985 making the Reading, Pennsylvania, facility one of Berks County's largest industrial employers. As a part of Western Electric and the Bell System, it changed it masthead many times during its life. The following is a chronology of how it all came about and where it went. [http://rhodyman.net/rerdgworks.html Reading Works History Database] ]
1952 - From Allentown to Laureldale
The origins can be traced back to 1876, when
Elisha Graylost his race to invent the telephone; Alexander Graham Bellput in a patent application just hours before Gray filed one. Gray nevertheless left his mark on the telephone industry in 1869 when he and Enos N Barton formed Gray and Barton, a small manufacturing firm in Cleveland, Ohio. Three years later, the firm, now based in Chicago, was renamed the Western Electric Manufacturing Co. By 1880 it was the largest electrical manufacturing company in the US. A year later when growth of the telephone network was outstripping the capacity of smaller suppliers, American Bellpurchased a controlling interest in Western Electric Companyand made it the exclusive manufacturer of equipment for the Bell telephone companies. Western Electric Companywas responsible for developing as well as manufacturing Bell equipment. In 1907, Theodore N. Vail combined the AT&T and Western Electric engineering departments into a single organization that became Bell Labs in 1925. Western Electricbecame the manufacturing "arm" of the Bell System(Ma Bell).
In 1951, just four years after the invention of the
transistorby Bell Laboratories, the Allentown Plant was opened to manufacture the first transistors.Prescott C. Mabon (1975). "Mission Communications: The Story of Bell Laboratories"; Murray Hill (NJ), US; Bell Laboratories. Page 181] Western Electric Co. (1983). "Western Electric Reading Works:"; Reading (PA), US; Page 3]
In 1952, operations in Reading began when
Western Electric Company(WECO) converted the old Rosedale knitting mill in Laureldaleinto a factory that produced electronic components for the U.S. government for use by the military and the space program. The Reading Eagle, 12/6/98, "Once a wee mill, Western Electric now dominant employer in Berks"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] On August 22, 1952, Western Electric Companyopened the doors of its new electronics manufacturing facility in Laureldale.Reading Eagle Company (1999). "Reading Towne: 1748-1998"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. Page 141] Growth was slow but steady.Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (1997)."Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age". New York: Norton. Page 204] By the end of 1952, there were 130 employees, and by the end of 1953, 253 employees. In 1958, a group of Bell Laboratoriesscientists moved to Reading, Pennsylvania, from other locations and started the Laureldale Laboratory in the Laureldale Western ElectricPlant. Bell Labswas a division of Western Electric. Initially the Laureldale Laboratory designed electron tubes ( vacuum tubes). Eventually, after becoming the Reading Laboratory, it designed semiconductor deviceswhich eventually included integrated circuits, light emitting diodes, and lasers.
1962 - From Laureldale to Reading
By the late 1950s, the increased demand for its products necessitated
Western Electricbuilding a larger facility, so plans were developed for a convert|200000|sqft|m2|-4|sing=on building at the North 11th Street site. The Greater Berks Development Fund built the Reading plant at the end of 11th street for $2 million to lease to Bell Labsand Western Electric.
Western Electricbought the convert|290000|sqft|m2|-3|sing=on building. By 1966 all facilities had moved from the Laureldaleplant to the Muhlenberg Township, Pennsylvania, site. The new facility was called the Reading Works and the branch of Bell Labswas called the Reading Labs. The Reading Eagle, 2/16/92, "AT&T Reading Works plans on growth"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
In 1967, when the Reading Works celebrated its 15th anniversary in
Berks County, it employed about 2,600 employees. Various additions since the-mid 1960s increased the manufacturing space to convert|1300000|sqft|m2. Construction on the convert|210000|sqft|m2|-3|sing=on office building (Building 20) began in 1980, and the building was first occupied in 1982.
1984 - WE to AT&T Technologies-
In 1984 the
Bell Systembroke up into the various Baby Belloperating companies and AT&T. As a result of this Bell System divestiturein 1984, the Western Electricplant became an AT&T Technology Systems ( AT&T Technologies) location as part of AT&T, supplying devices of the highest reliability and technical sophistication for use in the former Bell System's network. By 1984, employment had reached what would be an all-time high of 4,900. The Reading Eagle, 12/31/06, "A time of CHANGE:"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] In 1988, microchipand fiber-opticcomponent manufacturing was combined into an AT&Torganization called AT&T Microelectronics. In 1989 the AT&T work force nationwide was 297,000 and while employment at the Reading Works was 3,200. The Reading Eagle, 12/14/89, "25 local jobs at risk in AT&T restructuring"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] In 1992 the Reading Works of AT&T Microelectronics had 3,300 workers and provided an annual payroll of $100 million. The product mix included lightwave components, linear bipolar integrated circuits, high voltage integrated circuits, high speed silicon integrated circuits, and gallium arsenide integrated circuits. A satellite manufacturing building, Building 10, was constructed on North 13th Street, just north of the General Mail Facility, in 1992. The same year the Falconer building across the street was also used. AT&T Reading Works was the No. 2 employer in Berks County in 1993 The Reading Eagle, 1/04/04] , but that was soon to end. In February 1994, AT&T Reading Works announced that it would be cutting 850 jobs over a 3-year period. Reading Eagle Company (2000). "A 20th Century Journey: 1990-1999"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. Page 10] In 1994 the Reading Works' work force was reduced from 2,929 to 2,700 with most of the cuts in the Lightwave unit. The Lightwave unit makes fiber-optic laser transmitters and receivers. The Reading Eagle, 11/09/94, "Reading Works to lay off 84 workers"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] In 1995 the Reading Works' work force stood at 2,400 including AT&T Microelectronics and Bell Labsas it prepared for the spin off from AT&T into Lucent Technologies. The Reading Eagle, 9/21/95, "Reading Works will be part of manufacturing company"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
1996 - AT&T to Lucent
Under the 1996 restructuring of
AT&T, AT&T Technology Systems (a division of AT&T Technologies) became Lucent Technologies. The LucentTechnologies Reading, Pennsylvania, facility became both a LucentMicroelectronics and a LucentOptoelectronics facility, designing and manufacturing optoelectronicand integrated circuitcomponents for applications in the telecommunicationsand computingindustries.
LucentReading Plant was unique in the semiconductorindustry because it manufactured both optoelectronicand integrated circuitcomponents. The facility received a $6 million renovation to boost its optoelectronicsmanufacturing capacity.
In addition to serving the traditional communications markets, the
Lucent Optoelectronicsportion of the facility provided a family of transmitters and receivers for use in network computingapplications. Lucentwas also a leading player in the cable TVand hybrid fiber coaxialmarkets. In addition to Reading, Pennsylvania, other Lucent Optoelectronicsfacilities were located in Breinigsville, Pennsylvania; Murray Hill, New Jersey; Alhambra, California; and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.
Lucent Microelectronicsportion of the facility produced linear bipolar, high voltage and gallium arsenide integrated circuits. These microchipswere used in tone ringers, data processing, voltage regulators, video distribution, and in the industrial, computer, communication and instrumental markets. In addition to Reading, other LucentMicroelectronics integrated circuit sites included Allentown, Pennsylvania; Orlando, Florida; Bangkok, Thailand; Tres Cantos, Spain; and Singapore.
In 1996 the Reading Works' work force stood at 2,450 including AT&T Microelectronics and
Bell Labsas it made the transition from AT&T into Lucent Technologies. The Reading Eagle, 2/6/96, "Reading Works to be Lucent Technologies"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] The spin off of AT&T manufacturing units as Lucent Technologies became necessary as these units increasingly found that their prospective customers were AT&T competitors. The divestiture of the manufacturing units made them suppliers rather than competitors, opening up new markets to Lucent and to the Reading Works. At the same time it caused the anxiety that comes with change. The Reading Eagle, 6/23/96, "Lucent Technologies to focus on the future"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] On October 1, 1996, Lucent Technologies became independent of AT&T. The Reading Works became Lucent Technologies Reading Facility. It employed 2,177 people, down considerably from 4,900 in 1985. The Reading Eagle, 10/1/96, "Lucent is cut loose by parent AT&T"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] By the end of 1997, the Reading Facility workforce had declined and remained stable at 2,000. The Reading Eagle, 12/7/97, "Reading Hospital again has largest local work force"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] By the end of 1997, the Reading Facility workforce had declined and remained stable at 2,000. By the end of 1998, the Reading Facility workforce had rebounded to 2,177. In 1999 a pickup in Lightwave business caused expansion of both the Reading Facility and the Breinigsville plant. The Reading Eagle, 4/22/99, "Lucent adding 100 jobs at Muhlenberg plant"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
2000 - Lucent to Agere
The Reading Plant's heritage, combined with constant innovation and product quality, positioned the facility as one of the largest
semiconductorcompanies in the world. In 2000, LucentMicroelectronics and Optoelectronics were reorganized as AgereSystems with the intention of spinning it off as an independent company. Agere SystemsInc. produced high-tech components such as opto-electronicsproducts, which use light-wave technologies to transmit information, and integrated circuits, which are miniaturized chips used in computers and communications. The opto-electronicsparts were used in systems such as submarine communication cables, cable transmitters, cable receivers, laser components, and network computing devices. The integrated circuitswere found in a wide array of electronic products from modems and computers to cell phones and telephone offices to video equipment and digital television. After becoming Agere Systems, by the end of 2000, the Reading Facility became the Muhlenberg plant and had grown its workforce by 800 to 3,000 as the anticipated lightwave business materialized. The Reading Eagle, 12/17/00, "Berks County's top 20 employers"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] In 2001, Agere's stock went public in late March. The spin-off was completed on June 1, 2002. By mid 2001, Agere cut 508 jobs at the Reading Works. The Reading Eagle, 5/9/01, "Agere boosts job cuts in Berks"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] These layoffs continued in waves as conditions in the semiconductor market deteriorated and by the end of the year only had a workforce of 1,546. The Reading Eagle, 12/16/01, "Berks County's top employers"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
2003 - From Agere to Closure
On January 24, 2002,
Agereannounced that it would be closing the convert|1300000|sqft|m2 Reading Works in 12 to 18 months. The planned changes involved closing the Breinigsville, Pennsylvaniaplant in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania, which was opened in 1988; The Reading Eagle, 12/8/04, "TriQuint cutting jobs in Lehigh"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] selling the Orlando plant in Florida; and consolidating several locations in New Jersey. All operations were consolidated at the Allentown, Pennsylvania, headquarters location and the New Jersey locations. About 1,500 workers were transferred from Reading to Allentown where 3,200 workers were employed prior to the relocation. As Agere was leaving, Legerity, Inc., assumed some of the operations formerly done by the Muhlenberg plant in the old Building 10 on North 13th Street. In this facility Legerity assembled 40 former Agere circuit-design, physical-design, application-design and process development engineers to support the analog line card integrated circuit business it purchased from Agere. Legerity is a design facility that uses other companies foundries to manufacture its products. The Reading Eagle, 2/23/03, "New Berks chip operation has a familiar ring"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] In May 2003, Agere Systems Inc. ended all manufacturing and began decommissioning its Muhlenberg Township plant. The last 346 manufacturing employees were laid off. About 50 employees — mostly maintenance — remained at the plant until a buyer was found. The Reading Eagle, 5/55/03, "Agere shuts down Muhlenberg plant"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
Agere built a $165 million World Headquarters building in
Hanover Township, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. This building was started in 2001 and completed in 2003. It brought together research and development facilities from Breinigsville and Muhlenberg Township. It absorbed about 2,000 workers from these two facilities. The Reading Eagle, 4/7/02, "Agere Moves Up; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] Ageretried unsuccessfully to sell its Union Boulevard plant in Allentown, where the first commercial production line for transistors was set up in 1951. Ageredemolished the manufacturing part of the Union Boulevard facility. The company continues to use the offices and wet labs in the remaining part of the building. Its headquarters building is nearby in Hanover Township, Pennsylvania. In 2003, Ageresold the chip plant and research center in Breinigsville to TriQuint Semiconductor, which also bought the company's fiber-opticcomponents division. The facility, now under different ownership, is a multi-tenant technology park.
At the end of 1999 shares of
Lucentstock hit a high of nearly $80. After spinning off Agere, Lucentshares dropped to around $4.50 and later dropped to $0.55 in October 2002. After being spun off, Agereshares were about $4 and dropped to a low of $0.50 in October 2002. Agerestarted 2000 with 18,000 employees. By the end of the year it had only 10,000 employees. By the end of 2001 the number of employees had dropped to about 7,000. The last wafer starts at the Reading Works were scheduled for April, 2003 and the last shipments were scheduled for May, 2003. The doors locked on May 16, 2003. Starting May 17, the Reading work force consisted of 100 employees who cleaned up the facility and disposed of equipment. In July the work force was down to 50 maintenance employees who manned the convert|1300000|sqft|m2|sing=on facility while an attempts were made to sell it or at least rent or lease it. On December 13, 2005, it was announced that Agere had signed a sales agreement with a Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, developer to sell the convert|133|acre|km2|1|sing=on Agere SystemsInc. property in Muhlenberg Township, Pennsylvania, and projects the return of 1,000 jobs to the site within 18 months, with more jobs to follow.
2005 - From the USA
The last USA based
Ageremanufacturing plant in Orlando, Florida, which once employed 1,800, was closed on September 30, 2005, after 20 years of semiconductorsmanufacture The Orlando Sentinel 1/10/05, Orlando (FL), US] and sold in 2007. The company has plants in Singaporeand Thailand, and operated 22 sales offices and 16 research and development facilities throughout the world. Its key centers are in Ascot, U.K.; Bangalore, India; San Jose, CA, U.S.; Shanghai, China; and Singaporeas well as the world headquarters in Lehigh Valley, PA. Agerestill maintained its position as a key chip supplier for cell phonesand hard diskdrives. However, the chips it supplied were purchased from outside chip foundries or made offshore rather than made locally. In 2003, 3,000 of the best jobs in town disappeared when Agere Systemsclosed the Reading Works. But the jobs won't come back when the economy does; like many other high-tech companies, Ageremoved production overseas. Outsourcingis a new name for a long-standing phenomenon: the movement of jobs from the USA to countries where wages, benefits and the cost of living are much lower. In the 1970s and 1980s, heavy manufacturing jobs went to other countries by the tens of thousands. The result was cheaper goods for U.S. consumers and less pollution in many of the nation's industrial cities. Economists who backed the trend envisioned a new "knowledge economy" in which well-trained Americans would become the world's designers, innovators and administrators. The dirty work would be sent overseas.
Not to take advantage of those countries' pools of highly educated, relatively low-wage workers would be foolish,
Agereofficials said. "Our customers are very demanding," says John Harris, an engineer and marketing manager at Agere's Allentown, Pennsylvania, headquarters. "They're under intense pressure to deliver extremely high quality at extremely low cost. That pressure comes right back on us."
On December 4, 2006,
Agere's President and CEO, Rick Clemmer, announced that it would be bought by LSI LogicCorporation of Milpitas, Californiain an all-stock transaction. On March 29, 2007, this merger was approved by shareholders of both companies, making it official. The Morning Call 3/30/07, Allentown (PA), US] The companies together own a patent portfolio consisting of more than 10,000 issued and pending U.S. patents. The Reading Eagle, 12/5/06, "California firm buying Agere"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] Spun off by Lucent Technologiesin 2001, Agerewas the creation of a corporate behemoth, while LSI was born 25 years ago as a tiny startup. LSI Logicalready has decided to dump the Agerename, which once symbolized the Lehigh Valley's aspirations to become a technology hub. Compared to Agere, LSI Logichas run a tight ship. It generates roughly 20 percent more revenue — $2 billion — with fewer employees worldwide: 3,900, compared to Agere's 5,300. LSI Logicwill use the Agerefacilities as the center of its research operations, but the combined company's headquarters will be in Milpitas, California. LSI Logichas come a long way since 1981, when Wilfred Corriganfounded the company with $6 million of venture capital. Corrigan, a native of Liverpool, England, moved to the United States to pursue a career in electronics. He climbed the ladder at Motorolain Phoenix, Arizona, before becoming CEO of Fairchild Semiconductorin Mountain View, California, in the mid-1970s. The launch of LSI Logicmarked his transition to entrepreneur. The company went public in 1983. By the mid-1990s, LSI Logicwas selling chips to Sonyfor its PlayStation video game machine. And in 2001, it made its first major acquisition, C-Cube Microsystems, in a stock deal valued at $851 million.
In recent times,
LSI Logichas followed a strategy similar to Agere. This year, the company sold an Oregon semiconductor manufacturing facility and acquired two smaller companies, in Israel and India. Now it's swallowing up Agere, which is nearly its equal, in terms of revenue but not productivity. Hence ends the saga of the semiconductorplant that was built in Reading in 1952.
2006 - Greater Reading Expo Center
Audubon Land Development of Oaks,
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, bought the old Reading Works in December 2005 for an undisclosed amount. Agerespokesman Glen Haley confirmed the deal. Agerehad been asking for $8 million for the property, but Haley and Call declined to disclose the purchase price. The assessment of the property was lowered to $9.5 million from $26.3 million after Agereappealed. On Tuesday, March 14, 2006, Urban Expositions, a Georgia-based trade show company, announced it would hold the 10th annual Philadelphia Gift Show at the Reading center July 23-26, 2006. The facility is being called the Greater Reading Expo Center. A company press release calls the event, with an expected 1,400 booths, the largest regional gift show in the country. Gene Call, an Audubon spokesman, said Audubon's subsidiary, Stonepoint Management Corp., which is leasing the convert|1000000|sqft|m2|-3|sing=on Agerebuilding, would run the exposition center. Stonepoint would use convert|350000|sqft|m2|-3, he said. Stonepoint is exploring other uses but has not made firm plans, he said.
Crystal Seitz, president of the Greater Reading Convention & Visitors Bureau, said a typical convention center with a steady stream of shows generates about $150 million for a local economy, including money spent for lodging and meals. Jon C. Scott, president of the Berks Economic Partnership, said he has met several times with Audubon officials and is excited about the prospects for the center. “It opens up the type of exhibits that would never have been available before,” Scott said. “It leads to other intriguing possibilities.” Some of the shows scheduled for the facility included: Philadelphia Gift Show which includes Birdwatch America-Philadelphia, Great Train Expo, Bead Fest Philadelphia, Greater Philadelphia Pet Expo, Great American Guitar Show, Sports Card & Memorabilia Show, The Reading Eagle, 3/01/07, "Sports memorabilia show at expo center"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] Home & Garden Show, The Reading Eagle, 3/8/07, "Making value judgments"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] and The Greater Reading Sport, Travel & Outdoors Show.
Success of the Expo Center is in part due to the closing of the Fort Washington Exposition Center in Montgomery County and the Pennsylvania Expo Center in Lehigh County and in part due to the convert|250000|sqft|m2|-3 of inside space, several auditoriums, numerous meeting rooms, 13 loading docks, ample parking and a full-service cafeteria among its amenities, the expo center. The Reading Eagle, 10/29/06, "Two closed expo centers give renovated local site a big boost."; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] Muhlenberg Township waived the 10% amusement tax on admission to the expo center from January through September 2007. This was an attempt to allow the Expo Center to become better established. The township estimates future revenues at $50,000 per year. The Reading Eagle, 12/19/06, "Expo center granted break on taxes"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
The Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development included the StonePointe Center, the former Agere complex in Muhlenberg Township, which includes the Greater Reading Expo Center, as part of the Greater Reading Keystone Innovation Zone and invested $235,000 to fund its operations. Also included in this zone is TEK Park, the former home of Lucent/Agere Optoelectronics in Breinigsville, Lehigh County, which houses a number of industrial tenants and the Kutztown University Innovation Center. The Reading Eagle, 11/15/06, "State creates local job-growth area"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ] Building 30 is now called the "Flex Building" and building 20 is the "Office Building". They are keeping their options open. Here is what they say: "Imagine a state of the art business center, with more than one million square feet of available space for office, manufacturing and distribution; a facility with high-tech infrastructure and easy access to transportation. Imagine a convenient location near
Reading, Pennsylvania, with professional on-site management to support your business. Imagine your business at StonePointe Center." The Expo Center is the latest in venues that mark a renaissance in Reading. It started with the opening of the Sovereign Center and its sister the Sovereign Performing Arts Center. Now it includes the Goggle-Works Center for the Arts, and the Greater Reading Expo Center. The Reading Eagle, 9/24/06, "Sovereign Center, Sovereign Performing Arts Center spark area renaissance"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press. ]
Berks County on the Rebound
In a community like
Reading, Pennsylvania, the pain is far more apparent than the progress. Back when the big telecom factory was owned by Western Electric, Sally Quick became its third female technician. "I loved that job," she says. She worked on switching systems for transoceanic phone calls. She knows how to weld with a laser. But today, Quick is training for a job in tourism because she can't find one in telecommunications.In Muhlenberg Township, Pennsylvania, where the Agereplant was, the average annual salary dropped from $42,000 to $31,000 during the two years after the Reading Works closed, township manager Randall Boone said. The local school board, which faced the loss of nearly $500,000 a year in property taxes, sued to keep Agerefrom having the mothballed plant reassessed. "I'm not the one who caused the value to go down," says school board president Mark Nelson, a former Agereengineer. The current assessment for the buildings and convert|133.57|acre|m2 is $9,500,000. The selling price registered with the recorder of deeds was $1,700,000. The Berks County Parcel Identity Number is 66531813241892.County of Berks Recorder of Deeds [http://www.co.berks.pa.us/gis/cwp/view.asp?a=2141&q=485376 Parcel Search] ]
Reading's civic leaders did everything they could to nurture their piece of the high-tech economy. In 2001,
Agere's production lines were so stressed that three community colleges won a $250,000 state grant and developed a special curriculum just to train people for Agerejobs. Today, Reading is trying to recover. In 2002, Cabela's, an outdoors outfitter, put a convert|250000|sqft|m2|-3|sing=on store in Hamburg, Pennsylvania, near Reading, that employs nearly 650. And there are home-grown examples of companies that have innovated their way out of obsolescence: Arrow International, a medical-equipment manufacturer that employs 700 in Reading, grew out of a textile company that began refining its needles for surgical use.The Reading Eagle 1/14/07, "The Top 25 Berks Employers"]
The most successful company in
Berks County, Pennsylvania, is East Penn Manufacturing Company, known by locals as Deka Battery. In 1946, DeLight Breidegam Jr., a young Air Force veteran, started the battery business with his father. The war made materials for new batteries scarce, but there was a great demand for rebuilt batteries to allow the returning GIs to get all those mothballed cars and trucks started. DeLight and his dad filled that need collecting old batteries and rebuilding them into new. The company began to build new batteries as materials became available, and a new plant was built in Lyons, Pennsylvania. By 1971 the company had grown to 350 employees, a number that would double in the next five years. The company is now the largest manufacturing employer in Berks County. Currently, East Penn has a 490+ acre plant site, the largest in its industry, and over two million square feet under roof. [http://www.eastpenn-deka.com/default.aspx?pageid=347 East Penn Manufacturing Company History] ] Today, Deka is the counties largest employer with over 4,000 employees. [http://www.gobep.com/pages/data/iedc/default.aspx?tbl=03 Berks County's Leading Employers] ] In 2006, East Penn Manufacturing was selected on of the best employers in the USA. It ranked 79th of all companies in the USA and the 31st of all midsized companies. What makes it so great? Fortune Magazineconcluded it's a company of lifers. This maker of Deka batteries is still run by its founder, DeLight Breidegam. The top ten senior employees have 419 years of combined service; the staff includes 246 married couples. They have about 200 applicants for every opening. Their engineers make about $57,000 and their line workers average $40,000. They recently celebrated their 60th anniversary.Fortune Magazine 1/23/06 [http://www.eastpenn-deka.com/default.aspx?pageid=104 Fortune 100 Best Companies To Work For 2006] ]
*Prescott C. Mabon (1975). "Mission Communications: The Story of Bell Laboratories"; Murray Hill (NJ), US; Bell Laboratories.
*Bell Telephone Laboratories Incorporated (1977). "Engineering and Operations in the Bell System"; Murray Hill (NJ), US; Bell Telephone Laboratories LCCN 77-84418.
* [http://rhodyman.net/ReadingWorksPamphlet.pdf "Western Electric Pamphlet (1983) " "Reading Works"] ; 20 Pages, Public Relations Department, Western Electric Reading Works; Reading (PA), US
* [http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/ice/cd/PROF96/NORTHAM.PDF North American Company Profiles 1996] Pages 189-194
* [http://smithsonianchips.si.edu/ice/cd/PROF97/NORTHAM.PDF North American Company Profiles 1997] Pages 205-210
*William F. Brinkman, William W. Troutman (1997). "Key Steps to the Integrated Circuit"; Bell Labs Technical Journal, Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages 15 - 28.
*Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (1997)."Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age". New York: Norton. ISBN 0-393-31851-6
*Melliar-Smith, C.M.; Borrus, M.G.; Haggan, D.E.; Lowrey, T.; Vincentelli, A.S.G.; Troutman, W.W. (1998) "The transistor: an invention becomes a big business"; Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume 86, Issue 1, Jan 1998 Page(s):86-110.
*Reading Eagle Company (1999). "Reading Towne: 1748-1998"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press.
*Stephen B. Adams and Orville R. Butler (1999). "Manufacturing the Future: A History of Western Electric"; Cambridge, UK; Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-65118-2.
*Reading Eagle Company (2000). "A 20th Century Journey: 1990-1999"; Reading (PA), US; Reading Eagle Press.
*T. R. Reid (2001). "The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution"; New York; Random House ISBN 0-375-75828-3.
*Lillian Hoddeson and Vicki Daitch (2002). "True Genius: The life and Science of John Bardeen"; Washington, DC; Joseph Henry Press ISBN 0-309-08408-3.
* [http://www.gobep.com/pages/data/iedc/ International Economic Development Council]
* [http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=0000005907&owner=include&count=40 SEC filings of AT&T Corp.]
* [http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=0001006240&owner=include&count=40 SEC filings of Lucent Technologies Inc.]
* [http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?company=Agere&CIK=&filenum=&State=&SIC=&owner=include&action=getcompany SEC filings of Agere Systems Inc.]
* [http://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=0000703360&owner=include&count=40 SEC filings of LSI Logic Corp.]
*The Reading Eagle 12/31/06 [http://www.redorbit.com/news/business/784761/a_time_of_change_2006_the_year_in_business/index.html A Time of CHANGE: 2006 the Year in Business by the Reading Eagle]
* [http://www.eastpenn-deka.com/default.aspx?pageid=347 East Penn Manufacturing Company]
* [http://www.porticus.org/bell/bell.htm Bell System Memorial Home Page]
* [http://rhodyman.net/rdgworks.html Reading Works History Database]
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