- Boeing 727
subtemplate=Infobox Boeing Aircraft
name = Boeing 727
Syrian AirBoeing 727-269/Adv
type = Airliner
national origin =
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
first flight =
February 9 1963
February 1 1964with United Airlines
produced = 1963–1984
primary user =
more users =
number built = 1,832
unit cost =
variants with their own articles =
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial
jet airliner. The 727's fuselage has an outer diameter of convert|148|in|m. This allows six-abreast seating (three per side) and a single central access walkway when coach-class (18 inch width) seats are installed.
The first Boeing 727 flew in 1963 and for over a decade it was the most produced commercial jet airliner in the world. A total of 1,831 727s were delivered. The 727's sales record for the most jet airliners ever sold was broken in the early 1990s by its younger stablemate, the
Boeing 737. In August 2008, there were a total of 81 Boeing 727-100 aircraft and 419 727-200 aircraft in airline service."World Airliner Census", " Flight International", 19-25 August 2008.]
Design and development
The 727 design arose as a compromise between
United Airlines, American Airlines, and Eastern Air Linesrequirements over the configuration of a jet airliner to service smaller cities which often had shorter runways and correspondingly smaller passenger demand. United Airlines wanted a four-engined aircraft for its flights to high-altitude airports, especially its hub at Stapleton International Airportat Denver, Colorado. American, which was operating the four-engined Boeing 707and 720, wanted a twin-engined aircraft for efficiency reasons. Eastern wanted a third engine for its overwater flights to the Caribbean, since at that time twin-engined commercial flights were limited by regulations to routes with 60-minute maximum flying time to an airport (see ETOPS/LROPS). Eventually, the three airlines agreed on a trijet, and thus the 727 was born. The third JT8D engine, which is located at the very rear of the fuselage (called engine 2), is supplied with air from an inlet at the front of the vertical fin through an S-shaped duct to the engine's inlet." [http://home.swipnet.se/~w-65189/transport_aircraft/b727/boeing_727_series.htm Boeing 727 series] . Aircraft & Powerplant Corner."] The 727 featured high-lift devices on its wing, thus being one of the first jets able to operate from relatively short runways. Later models of the 727 were stretched to accommodate more passengers and they ended up replacing earlier jet airliners, such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8, on domestic routes.
The 727 proved to be a reliable and versatile airliner so that came to form the core of many start-up airlines' fleets, it is sometimes described as the "DC-3 of the Jet Age".Fact|date=October 2007 The 727 was successful with airlines worldwide partly because of its capability to use smaller runways while still flying medium range routes. This effectively allowed airlines to attract passengers from cities with large populations but smaller airports to worldwide tourist destinations. One of the features that gave the 727 its ability to land on shorter runways was its unique wing design. Due to the absence of wing-mounted engines, leading-edge lift enhancement equipment (Krueger, or hinged, flaps on the inner portion of the leading edge, and extendable leading-edge
slats on the remainder of the leading edge), and trailing-edge lift enhancement equipment (triple-slotted [Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/727family/index.html] , aft-moving flaps) could be used on the entire wing. The combination of these high-lift devices produced a maximum wing lift coefficient of 3.6 (based on the flap-retracted wing area). Thus the 727 could fly with great stability at very low speeds compared to other early jets. The 727 also had nosegear brakes fitted in the beginning to further decrease braking distanceupon landing. However, these were soon removed from service, as they provided little useful reduction in braking distances, while adding weight and increasing maintenance requirements.
The 727 was designed to be used at smaller, regional airports, so independence from ground facilities was an important requirement. This gave rise to one of the 727's most distinctive features: the built-in
airstairthat opens from the rear underbelly of the fuselage. D. B. Cooper, the hijacker, parachuted from the back of a 727 as it was flying over the Pacific Northwest. Boeing subsequently modified the design with the Cooper vaneso that the airstair could not be lowered in flight. Another innovation was the inclusion of an APU (auxiliary power unit), which allowed electrical and air-conditioning systems to run independent of a ground-based power supply, without having to start one of the main engines. The 727 can also back itself up, thus not requiring the push tractor needed for most other jet airliners to leave an airport gate. The 727 is equipped with a retractable tail skid which is designed to protect the aircraft in the event of an over-rotation on takeoff.
The 727 is a stage II aircraft, making it one of the world's loudest commercial jetliners (the US Noise Control Act of 1972, 42USC 4901-4918, mandated the gradual introduction of quieter stages of aircraft, with the first introduction to be called Stage 3 airplanes. Aircraft which did not meet the ground-perceived noise levels specified for Stage 3 would be called Stage 2). The 727's JT8D jet engines use older
low-bypass turbofantechnology while Stage 3 aircraft utilize the more efficient and quieter high-bypass turbofandesign. When the Stage 3 requirement was being proposed, Boeing engineers analyzed the possibility of incorporating quieter engines on the 727. They determined that the JT8D-200 engine could be used on the two side-mounted pylons, but the structural work required to fit the larger-diameter engine (49.2 inch fan diameter in the JT8D-200 vs. 39.9 inches in the JT8D-7) into the fuselage structure at the engine 2 location would be too great to be justifiable. Since the quieter engine could not be used in all three sites, the 727 could not be made into a Stage 3 aircraft.Fact|date=August 2008
At the turn of the 21st century, the 727 was still in service with a few airline fleets. However, because in the meantime the U.S. FAA and the ICAO had changed their requirements for overwater operations, most major airlines had already begun to switch to
twinjets, aircraft with only two engines, which are more fuel-efficient and quieter than the three-engined 727. Also, the 727 was one of the last airliners in service to have a three-person flight crew, including a flight engineer, a crew member whose job is performed by computerized systems on newer planes.
If a 727 is used in commercial service at present, it must be retrofitted with
hush kits to reduce engine noise to Stage 3 level. One such hushkit is offered by Fedex, [ [http://www.fedex.com/us/hushkit/helpdecide/?link=4#Installation Fedex Hushkit webpage] ] and this kit has been purchased by over 50 customers. [ [http://www.fedex.com/us/hushkit/helpdecide/customers.html?link=4 Fedex Hushkit Customer List] ] After market winglets have been installed on many 727s as a means of noise reduction as part of so called "Quiet Wing" Kits and for added fuel economy. Kelowna Flightcraft's maintenance division in Canada has installed winglets on Donald Trump's private 727-100. He owns one example of the aircraft.
In addition to domestic flights of medium range, the 727 was popular with international passenger airlines. The range of flights it could cover (and the additional safety added by the third engine) meant that the 727 proved efficient for short to medium range international flights in areas around the world. Prior to its introduction, four-engined jets or propeller-driven airliners were required for transoceanic service.
The 727 also proved popular with cargo airlines and charter airlines. FedEx introduced 727s in 1978. 727s were the backbone of its fleet until recently, but FedEx is now phasing them out in favor of the
Boeing 757. Many cargo airlines worldwide now employ the 727 as a workhorse, since as it is being phased out of U.S. domestic service due to noise regulations, it becomes available to overseas users in areas where such noise regulations have not yet been instituted. Charter airlines Sun Country, Champion Air, and Ryan International Airlineswere all started with 727 aircraft.
Other companies use the 727 as a way to transport passengers to their resorts or
cruise ships. Such was the example of Carnival Cruise Lines, which used both the 727 and 737 to fly both regular flights and flights to transport their passengers to cities that harbored their ships. Carnival used the jets on its airline division, Carnival Air Lines.
Faced with higher fuel costs (although all major
United Statesairlines phased them out immediately prior to the oil price increases since 2003), lower passenger volumes due to the post-9/11 economic climate, increasing restrictions on airport noise, and the extra expenses of maintaining older planes and paying flight engineers' salaries, most major airlines have phased 727s out of their fleets. Delta Air Lines, the last major U.S. carrier to do so, retired its last 727 in March,2003. However, the 727 is still flying for smaller start-up airlines, cargo airlines, and charter airlines, and it is also sometimes used as a private means of transportation. The official replacement for the 727 in Boeing's lineup was the Boeing 757. However, the smallest 757 variant, the 757-200, is significantly larger than the 727-200, so many airlines replaced their 727s with either the 737-800 or EADS' Airbus A320, both of which are closer in size to the 727-200.
There are two variants of the 727. The 727-100 was launched in 1960 and placed into service in February 1964. The 727-200 was launched in 1965 and placed into service in December 1967.
The first production model.
;727-100C Convertible passenger cargo version. Additional freight door and strengthened floor and floor beams. Three alternate fits:
*94 mixed-class passengers
*52 mixed class passengers and four cargo pallets (22,700lb (10297kg))
*Eight cargo pallets (38,000lb (17237kg))
;727-100QCQC stands for Quick Change. This is similar to the Convertible version with a roller-bearing floor for palletised galley and seating and/or cargo to allow much faster changeover time (30 minutes).
;727-100QFQF stands for Quiet Freighter. A cargo conversion for
United Parcel Service, re-engined with Stage III-compliant Rolls-Royce Tay turbofans.
Stretched version of the 727-100. The -200 is convert|20|ft|m longer (153 feet, 2 inches) than the -100 (133 feet, 2 inches). A ten foot fuselage section was added in front of the wings and another ten foot fuselage section was added behind them. The wing span and height remain the same on both the -100 and -200 (108 feet and convert|34|ft|m, respectively). The gross weight was increased from 169,000 to 209,500 pounds.
The dorsal intake of the number 2 engine was also redesigned to be round in shape, as opposed to oval as it was on the 100 series.
;Advanced 727-200MTOW and range increased. Also, Cabin improvements
;Advanced 727-200FAll freight version of the 727-200.
;Super 27Speed increased by convert|50|mi/h|km/h|abbr=on, due to replacement of the two side engines with the JT8D-217, which are also found on many MD-80s, and addition of hush kits to the center engine. These aftermarket modifications were performed by companies independent of Boeing, such as Valsan and Dee Howard.
Major airlines that have flown the jet include
Aerocontinente, AeroGal, AeroSur, Aerolíneas Argentinas, Aerolíneas Internacionales, Aeroperu, Air Algerie, Air Canada, Air France, Air Jamaica, Air Panama, ANA, Air Vanuatu, Alaska Airlines, Alitalia, American, Ansett, ASTAR, ATA Airlines, Avensa, Avianca, Aviacsa, Braniff International, China Airlines, Continental Airlines, Continental Micronesia, Copa, CP Air, Dan-Air Services, Delta Air Lines, Dominicana, Eastern Air Lines, FedEx, First Air, Iberia, Iran Air, Japan Airlines, JAT, Kiwi International Air Lines, Korean Air, Lloyd Aereo Boliviano, Lufthansa, Mexicana, LACSA, LaNica Nicaraguan Airlines, Northeast Airlines, Northwest Airlines, Olympic Airways, Pacific Southwest Airlines, Paramountjet, Pan Am, People Express, Philippine Airlines, Pride Air, Republic Airlines (1979-1986), Royal Air Maroc, Sabena,Sabre, Singapore Airlines, South African Airways,Sterling, TAA, TAP Portugal Transbrasil, Tunisair, United Airlines,UPS, US Airways, Varig, VASP, Viasa, and Western Airlines. Also the 727 has been operated by charter airlines such as Carnival Air Lines, Tameand Hapag-Lloyd.
In August 2008, a total of 500 Boeing 727 aircraft (all variants) were in airline service. Operators with more than nine aircraft are:
FedEx(86), Astar Air Cargo(25), Champion Air(16), Kitty Hawk Aircargo(16), Capital Cargo International Airlines(13), Cargojet Airways(12), Kelowna Flightcraft Air Charter(13), Libyan Arab Airlines(10), and Transmile Air Services(5). Zero-Gravity Corporationuses a modified Boeing 727 to give paying customers a brief experience of weightlessness, similar to NASA's Vomit Cometthat is used to train astronauts.
The 727 carries the distinction of being one of the two planes used by all six US
legacy carriers, the other being the Boeing 757.
Government Agencies and Military Operators
In addition, the 727 has seen sporadic government use, having flown for the Belgian,
Yugoslavian, Mexican, New Zealandand Panama air forces, among the small group of government agencies that have used it. The United States military used the 727 as a military transport, designated as the C-22. The 727 that carried New Zealand Prime Minister Jim Bolgerwas known as Spud One. The New ZealandAir Force 727s have since been replaced by 757s.
Belgian Air Force(Two operated from 1975) (Replaced by two Airbus A310);MEX
Mexican Air Force
Federal Preventive Police;NZL
Royal New Zealand Air Force
No. 40 Squadron RNZAF;PAN
*Panama Air Force;YUG
SFR Yugoslav Air Force
Accidents and incidents
As of 2007, a total of 282 incidents involving 727s had occurred, including 106 hull-loss accidents [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type.php?type=102 "Boeing 727 Accident summary"] , Aviation-Safety.net,
5 May 2007. Retrieved: 13 July 2008.] resulting in a total of 3,703 fatalities. The 727 has also been in 178 hijackings involving 256 fatalities. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type-stat.php?type=102 "Boeing 727 Accident Statistics"] , Aviation-Safety.net, 3 December 2007. Retrieved: 13 July 2008.]
November 11 1965a United AirlinesBoeing 727-100 departed New York-LaGuardia for a flight to San Francisco via Cleveland, Chicago, Denver, and Salt Lake City. Flight 227 crashed on landing at Salt Lake International Airport, causing the deaths of 43 of the 91 people on board.
* In 1971, an
Alaska AirlinesBoeing 727-100 operating as flight 1866 crashed into a mountain while on approach to Juneau, Alaska. The cause included the crew's receiving misleading navigational information. All seven crew members and 104 passengers were killed.
* In 1971, passenger
D. B. Cooperhijacked Northwest Airlines Flight 305while it was en route from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington. After receiving a payment of $200,000 and 4 parachutes when he was in Seattle, he told the pilots to fly to Mexico, and jumped out of the aircraft from the aft airstairs over Washington or Oregon. Cooper's fate is unknown as of 2008.
* In 1972, during an attempted
coup d'état, jets from the Royal Moroccan Air Forcefired upon the Boeing 727 of King Hassan II of Morocco while he was traveling to Rabat. After the aircraft survived the attack, the king awarded the plane a medal of honor.Fact|date=July 2008
* In 1973, on
February 21, a Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114Boeing 727-200 flying over the Sinai Desertwas shot by Israeli air forces that suspected it of being an enemy military plane. Of 113 people on board, 108 died.
* In 1975,
Eastern Air Lines Flight 66crashed on approach for John F. Kennedy International Airport. 112 people died.It was the worst air disaster in the United Statesat the time.The cause was a microburst.
December 1, 1974, a TWABoeing 727-200 (registration N54328), operating as Flight 514, crashed on Mount Weatherwhile flying from Indianapolis, Indiana, and Columbus, Ohio, to Washington Dulles International Airportin turbulent weather. All 85 passengers and 7 crewmembers aboard were killed.
* On September 25, 1978,
PSA Flight 182, a Pacific Southwest Airlines Boeing 727, crashed after colliding with a Cessna 172 aircraft in San Diego, killing 144 people.
* In 1980, a
Dan-AirBoeing 727-46 crashed in Tenerife. All on board were killed when the aircraft hit terrain while circling. [ [http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19800425-0&lang=en aviation-safety.net report on fatal accident to Dan-Air G-BDAN] ]
* In 1982,
VASP Flight 168, a Boeing 727-200A, a scheduled passenger flight from Rio de Janeiro, Brazilto Fortalezacrashed into a hillside on final approach to Fortaleza, killing all 137 people on board.
* In 1985, an Iberia Boeing 727 crashed after striking a television antenna while landing in Bilbao, killing 148 people.Fact|date=July 2008
* In 1996, 143 people were killed when an ADC Boeing 727 went down near Ejirin, Nigeria, losing control after taking evasive action to avoid a midair collision.Fact|date=July 2008
May 25, 2003, a 727 registration number N844AA, formerly used by American Airlines, was stolen from Luanda's international airport in Angola.Fact|date=July 2008 The mechanic who was on the plane, Ben Charles Padilla, has never been heard from again.Fact|date=July 2008
Hawker Siddeley Trident
McDonnell Douglas MD-80
McDonnell Douglas MD-90
List of airliners
* [http://www.boeing.com/commercial/727family/ Boeing.com 727 Family]
* [http://rbogash.com/727history.html 727 Prototype]
* [http://www.727datacenter.com/ 727 Datacenter - Brazilian site]
* [http://www.boeing-727.com/ Boeing-727.com]
* [http://www.aircraft-info.net/aircraft/jet_aircraft/boeing/727-100/ Aircraft-Info.net - Boeing 727-100]
* [http://www.aircraft-info.net/aircraft/jet_aircraft/boeing/727-200/ Aircraft-Info.net - Boeing 727-200]
* [http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/b727.htm Airsafe.com Fatal Boeing 727 Events]
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