- Peace camp
Peace camps are a form of physical
protest campthat is focused on anti-waractivity. They are set up outside militarybases by members of the peace movementwho oppose either the existence of the military bases themselves, the armaments held there, or the politics of those who control the bases. They began in the 1920s and then became world famous in 1982due to the tremendous worldwide publicity generated by the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp. They were particularly a phenomenon of the United Kingdomin the 1980swhere they were associated with sentiment against American imperialismbut Peace Camps have existed at other times and places.
Alternate usages of the term
peace campis primarily used for a form of anti-war protest campparticularly prevalent in the UKin the 1980s, however, it is also sometimes used to describe political factions before or during wartime that are opposed to a particular war. These are not a physical camps but political alliances. Currently, there is an Israeli peace camp.
In addition, the term is sometimes used for
summer camps that bring together youth from different groups in conflict (e.g., Palestinianand Israeliyouth) to work towards transformation and improvement of mutual relations. While the organizers of such camps clearly support peaceful solutions, participants may not do so or at least not to the same extent. In addition, these camps are not intended as a "protest camp", but rather to constructively work towards their goals and bring about change in the participants, which are intended to serve as disseminators of peaceful attitudes in their home communities.
In the early 19th Century, "Apaches de Paz" or
Apachepeace camps were established for the purpose of religious conversion. They were established near presidios in the early 1800s by the Spanish in what is now Mexicoand the southwestern United States. These were administrated by the Roman Catholic Churchto convert the Apaches to Roman Catholicismand - in the eyes of the Spanish - gaining the salvation of the Apaches. Rations and farming supplies were also given out at the camps in an attempt to turn the Apaches into farmers.
Reasoning behind the protest
United Kingdom, people came to live outside military bases at protest camps in order to witness their opposition to and nonviolently protest against the presence of nuclear weaponsin Europethat were directed against the then Soviet Unionby the United States, calling for nuclear disarmament. The women at Greenham Common Peace Campwere particularly against the placing of US cruise missilesthere, something they claimed made the area a direct target of Soviet Union aggression. During the 1980s the United States Air Forcehad land-based cruise missiles at several of the above locations, not only Greenham Common; they have since been moved back to the USA, though there remains a US militarypresence in the UK, and the UK continues to possess and develop nuclear weapons itself. Due to these factors the concept of the peace camp remains alive today; and because of the presence of Faslane Peace campthere has continuously been at least one peace camp outside a military base in the UK since 1982.
History of peace camps
The first peace camps are known to have originated in the 1920s.
The first modern peace camps were the various women-only peace camps at the military base at
Greenham Common, England, set up in 1981. Greenham Common Women's Peace Campmaintained a presence at the camp until 2000. Other, mixed-sex, peace camps sprang up at the military bases of Upper Heyford, Daws Hillin High Wycombe, Molesworth common, Lakenheath, Naphilland Faslane. Faslane Peace Camp, which was established in 1982, is still in existence today.
bunkerwas constructed for Strike Commandon National Trust land ( Bradenham Village) near High Wycombe, Englandbetween 1982 and 1985. Naphill Peace camp was set up to witness and oppose this construction. The Angry Pacifistmagazine was produced out of Naphill Peace camp.
Brambles Farm, Waterlooville, Hampshire
Set up in 1982 on the site of a research and development facility for the production of the
Spearfish7525 torpedo for the Royal Navy. This camp, although anti-war and anti-nuclear in its beliefs, was also supported and attended by local people demonstrating against the loss of green space and the lack of public consultation. The protesters held up the construction work for a number of months and was visited by some 3,000 people from this country and abroad. A Torpedo Townfestival was held in the area for a number of years afterwards, the largest in 1991 at Liphookin Hampshire when some 25,000 people danced to the Spiral Tribesound system. These festivals fell foul of the rave partyand free festivalcrackdown in the early 1990s by the Tory Govt.
eneca County, New York
feminists established the Seneca Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justicein Romulus, New York, the site of the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, to demand the abolition of nuclear weapons.cite book
title =The World Split Open: How the Modern Women's Movement Changed America
location =New York
isbn = 0-670-81462-8]
Brian Hawset up a peace camp outside the Houses of Parliament in London. In August 2007 others who had joined him were evicted but he was allowed to stay [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6950868.stm BBC NEWS | Politics | Parliament peace campers evicted ] ] .
There is also currently a women's peace camp at Aldermaston for one weekend a month. A peace camp was set up at Fairford on
17 February 2003. On May 13, 2005protesters set up a peace camp on Drake's Island, just off Plymouth.
In February 2005, peace activists and residents began a peace camp at the village of
Daechuri, South Korea, in opposition to the expansion of Camp Humphreys, which declared autonomy from Korea on February 7, 2006. As of October 2006, resisting residents remain on-site, despite demolition of homes owned by residents who have accepted compensation.
In August 2005
Cindy Sheehanset up Camp Casey, a peace camp named after her son, outside the Texasranch of United StatesPresident George W. Bush, through which she has attracted considerable media attention.
* [http://www.greenhamwpc.org.uk/ Greenham Women's Peace Camp]
* [http://www.hull.ac.uk/php/ggsdah/faslane/Fashome.htm Faslane peace camp website]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/428126.stm BBC news - Peace caravan becomes museum piece (Faslane)]
* [http://www.aldermaston.net/ Aldermaston peace camp]
* [http://www.cynatech.co.uk/gwi/peace-camp.htm Fairford peace camp]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2901121.stm BBC news - Fairford protesters move to new site]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/2909337.stm BBC news - Police move 'petty' say protesters (Fairford)]
* [http://video.indymedia.org/download/%5BIndymedia%5D_(2005-01-19)_greenhamfin.wmv Indymedia - video on Greenham] (
* [http://www.tridentploughshares.org/coulport/ Trident Ploughshares - Coulport peace camp]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/devon/4545133.stm BBC article on Drake's island]
* [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2092-2309812,00.html Wimmin at War]
* [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,2078565,00.html Eviction threat at Faslane as locals go to war]
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См. также в других словарях:
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