- Politics of Ecuador
Politics of Ecuador takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic
republic, whereby the President of Ecuadoris both head of stateand head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive poweris exercised by the government. Legislative poweris vested in both the governmentand the Congress. The Judiciaryis independent of the executive and the legislature.The constitutionof Ecuadorprovides for concurrent four-year terms of office for the president, vice president, and members of Congress. Presidents may be re-elected after an intervening term, while legislators may be re-elected immediately. Citizens must be at least 18 years of age to vote. Suffrage is universal and compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65 and optional for other eligible voters.
Ecuador's political parties have historically been small, loose organizations that depended more on populist, often charismatic, leaders to retain support than on programs or ideology. Frequent internal splits have produced extreme factionalism. However, a pattern has emerged in which administrations from the center-left alternate with those from the center-right. Although Ecuador's political
eliteis highly factionalized along regional, ideological, and personal lines, a strong desire for consensus on major issues often leads to compromise. Opposition forces in Congress are loosely organized, but historically they often unite to block the administration's initiatives and to remove cabinet ministers.
Constitutional changes enacted by a specially elected National Constitutional Assembly in 1998 took effect on
August 10, 1998. The new constitution strengthens the executive branch by eliminating mid-term congressional elections and by circumscribing Congress' power to challenge cabinet ministers. Party discipline is traditionally weak, and routinely many deputies switch allegiance during each Congress. However, after the new Constitution took effect, the Congress passed a code of ethics which imposes penalties on members who defy their party leadership on key votes.
Beginning with the 1996 election, the indigenous population abandoned its traditional policy of shunning the official political system and participated actively. The indigenous population has established itself as a significant force in Ecuadorian politics, as shown by the selection of indigenous representative Nina Pacari, who led the indigenous political party, Pachakutik, as second vice president of the 1998 Congress.
A presidential election was held on
15 October 2006and November 26, 2006. Rafael Correadefeated Alvaro Noboain a run-off election, or second and final round. Correa won with 56.8% of the vote. ["Ecuador Exit Polls Show Correa Wins Presidential Vote (Update2)" Bloomberg ]
New justices of the Supreme Court are elected by the sitting members of the court. A bare majority of Congress, acting in a special session called by former President
Lucio Gutiérrezin December, 2004, ousted 27 of the 31 justices and replaced them with new members chosen by Congress, notwithstanding the lack of any provisions permitting impeachment of Supreme Court justices by Congress and the specific provisions giving the Court the power to select new members. Earlier, in November 2004, Congress replaced the majority of judges on the country’s Electoral Court and Constitutional Court by a similar process.
Rafael Correa Alianza País January 15 2007
Lenín Moreno Alianza País January 15 2007The president and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year term (no reelection); Lucio Gutiérrez was dramatically removed by an act of Congress on 20 April 2005; election last held 20 October 2002; runoff election held 24 November 2002(next to be held 2006)
The executive branch includes 15 ministries. Provincial governors and councilors, like mayors and aldermen and parish boards, are directly elected. Congress meets throughout the year except for recess in July and December. There are 20 seven-member congressional committees.
Former Vice President
Alfredo Palacioassumed the presidency on April 20 2005after Congress removed Lucio Gutiérrezamid escalating street protests precipitated by growing criticism of Gutiérrez Supreme Court appointments.
Ecuador has a unicameral National Congress or "Congreso Nacional". There are 100 members, who are elected by popular vote by province to serve four-year terms, so in fact multi-seat constituencies. On November 29, 2007 the
Ecuadorian Constituent Assemblydismissed Congress on charges of corruption and then assumed legislative powers for itself.
Political parties and elections
Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces: Azuay, Bolívar, Cañar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas,
Galápagos Islands, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Ríos, Manabí, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas, Sucumbíos, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe
Ecuador's legal system is based on the civil law system. Ecuador has not accepted compulsory
International Court of Justicejurisdiction.
International organization participation:
Ecuador or Ecuadorian organizations participate in the following international organizations: the
Andean Community of Nations(CAN), Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean(ECLAC), Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO), Group of Eleven (G-11), Group of 77 (G-77), Inter-American Development Bank(IADB), International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA), International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( World Bank), International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO), ICC, ICC, International Red Cross, International Development Association(IDA), International Fund for Agricultural Development(IFAD), International Finance Corporation(IFC), International Hydrographic Organization(IHO), International Labour Organization(ILO), IMF, International Maritime Organization(IMO), International Telecommunications Satellite Organization(Intelsat), Interpol, IOC, International Organization for Migration(IOM), International Organization for Standardization(ISO), International Telecommunication Union(ITU), International Trade Union Confederation(ITUC), Latin American Economic System(LAES), Latin American Integration Association(LAIA), Non-Aligned Movement(NAM), OAS, Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean(OPANAL), Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(OPCW), Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA), RG, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development(UNCTAD), United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO), Universal Postal Union(UPU), World Federation of Trade Unions(WFTU), World Health Organization(WHO), World Intellectual Property Organization(WIPO), World Meteorological Organization(WMO), World Tourism Organization(WToO), World Trade Organization(WTO)
List of heads of state of Ecuador
* [http://www.presidencia.gov.ec/ Presidencia de Ecuador]
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