- Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix
Standard Modelof particle physics, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, sometimes also called KM matrix) is a unitary matrixwhich contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays. Technically, it specifies the mismatch of quantum statesof quarks when they propagate freely and when they take part in the weak interactions. It is important in the understanding of CP violations. A precise mathematical definition of this matrix is given in the article on the formulation of the standard model. This matrix was introduced for three generations of quarks by Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa, adding one generation to the matrix previously introduced by Nicola Cabibbo. This matrix is also an extension of the GIM mechanism, which only includes 2 of the 3 current families of quarks
On the left is the CKM Matrix along with a vector of mass eigenstates of the quarks, and on the right is the
weak forceeigenstates of the quarks. The CKM matrix describes the probability of a transition from one quark "q" to another quark "q' ". This transition is proportional to .
Experimentally, combining a large number of independent measurements, the magnitudes of the values in the matrix have been found to beW.-M. Yao et al., J. Phys. G 33, 1 (2006) and 2007 partial update for the 2008 edition available on the PDG WWW pages (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov/), [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/reviews/kmmixrpp.pdf Chapter 11. The CKM Quark-Mixing Matrix] ] (only central values presented here, uncertainties are excluded):
To proceed further, it is necessary to count the number of parameters in this matrix, V which appear in experiments, and therefore are physically important. If there are N generations of quarks (2N flavours) then
#An N×N complex matrix contains 2N2 real numbers.
#The constraint of unitarity is ∑k VikV*jk = δij. Therefore, for the diagonal terms (i=j) there are N constraints, and for the remaining terms, N(N−1). The number of independent real numbers in a unitary matrix is therefore N2.
#One phase can be absorbed into each quark field. An overall common phase is unobservable. Hence there are 2N−1 fewer independent numbers, giving the total number of free variables to be (N−1)2.
#Of these, N(N−1)/2 are rotation angles called quark mixing angles.
#The remaining (N−1)(N−2)/2 are complex phases, which cause
For the case N=2, there is only one parameter which is a mixing angle between two generations of quarks. Historically, this was the first version of CKM matrix when only two generations were known. It is called the Cabibbo angle after its inventor Nicola Cabibbo.
Standard Modelcase N=3, there are three mixing angles and one CP-violating complex phase.
Observations and predictions
Cabibbo's idea originated from a need to explain two observed phenomena:
#the transitions u↔d and e↔νe, μ↔νμ had similar amplitudes.
#the transitions with change in strangeness ΔS=1 had amplitudes equal to 1/4 of those with ΔS=0.Cabibbo's solution consisted of postulating weak universality to resolve issue 1, along with a mixing angle θc, now called the Cabibbo angle, between the d and s quarks to resolve issue 2.
For two generations of quarks, there are no CP violating phases, as shown by the counting of the previous section. Since CP violations were seen in neutral
kaondecays already in 1964, the emergence of the Standard Model soon after was a clear signal of the existence of a third generation of quarks, as pointed out in 1973by Kobayashi and Maskawa. The discovery of the bottom quarkat Fermilab(by Leon Lederman's group) in 1976therefore immediately started off the search for the missing third-generation quark, the top quark.
The constraints of unitarity of the CKM-matrix on the diagonal terms can be written as::
for all generations i. This implies that the sum of all couplings of any of the up-type quarks to all the down-type quarks is the same for all generations. This relation is called weak universality after
Nicola Cabibbo, who first pointed it out in 1967. Theoretically it is a consequence of the fact that all SU(2) doublets couple with the same strength to the vector bosons of weak interactions. It has been subjected to continuing experimental tests.
The unitarity triangles
The remaining constraints of unitarity of the CKM-matrix can be written in the form::For any fixed and different i and j, this is a constraint on three complex numbers, one for each k, which says that these numbers form the sides of a triangle in the
complex plane. There are six choices of i and j, and hence six such triangles, each of which is called an unitary triangle. Their shapes can be very different, but they all have the same area, which can be related to the CP violating phase. The area vanishes for the specific parameters in the standard model for which there would be no CP violation. The orientation of the triangles depend on the phases of the quark fields.
Since the three sides of the triangles are open to direct experiment, as are the three angles, a class of tests of the standard model is to check that the triangle closes. This is the purpose of a modern series of experiments under way at the Japanese BELLE and the Californian
Four independent parameters are required to fully define the CKM matrix. Many parameterizations have been proposed, and three of the most common ones are shown below.
The original parameterization of Kobayashi and Maskawa used three angles (θ1, θ2, θ3) and a CP-violating phase (δ). [M. Kobayashi and T. Maskawa, Progress in Theoretical Physics 49 652 (1973).] Cosines and sines of the angles are denoted ci and si, respectively. θ1 is the Cabibbo angle.
A "standard" parameterization of the CKM matrix uses three Euler angles (θ12, θ23, θ13) and one CP-violating phase (δ13). [L. L. Chau and W.-Y. Keung, Physical Review Letters 53 1802 (1984).] Couplings between quark generation i and j vanish if θij = 0. Cosines and sines of the angles are denoted cij and sij, respectively. θ12 is the Cabibbo angle.
A third parameterization of the CKM matrix was introduced by
Lincoln Wolfensteinwith four variables (λ, A, ρ, η) all of order one. [L. Wolfenstein, Physical Review Letters 51 1945 (1983).] The four Wolfenstein variables are related to the "standard" parameterization:
λ = s12
Aλ2 = s23
Aλ3(ρ-iη) = s13e-iδ
The Wolfenstein parameterization of the CKM matrix, to order λ3, is
2008, Kobayashi and Maskawa shared one half of the Nobel Prize in Physics"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature". [cite web| url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2008/press.html|title=The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008|date=07 October 2008|publisher=nobelprize.org] Some physicists, especially Italian, had bitter feelings that the Nobel Prize committee failed to reward the work of Cabibbo, on which the work of the other two was based. [cite web| url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14885-physics-nobel-snubs-key-researcher.html?DCMP=ILC-hmts&nsref=news8_head_dn14885|title=Physics Nobel snubs key researcher|date=07 October 2008
publisher=New Scientist] Asked for a reaction on the prize, Cabibbo preferred to give no comment. According to sources close to him, he was very embittered. [cite web| url=http://www.corriere.it/scienze_e_tecnologie/08_ottobre_07/nobel_fisica_italiani_traditi_d9993120-946d-11dd-a0d8-00144f02aabc.shtml|title=Nobel, l'amarezza dei fisici italiani|date=07 October 2008
publisher=Corriere della Sera]
*Formulation of the standard model and
Quantum chromodynamics, flavour and strong CP problem.
MNS matrix, the equivalent mixing matrix for neutrinos.
*cite book | author=Griffiths, David J. | title=Introduction to Elementary Particles | publisher=Wiley, John & Sons, Inc | year=1987 | id=ISBN 0-471-60386-4
*Povh, Bogdan et al., (1995). "Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts". New York: Springer. ISBN 3-540-20168-8
*CP violation, by I.I. Bigi and A.I. Sanda (Cambridge University Press, 2000) [ISBN 0-521-44349-0]
* [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/reviews/kmmixrpp.pdf Particle Data Group: the CKM matrix]
* [http://pdg.lbl.gov/2007/reviews/cpviolrpp.pdf Particle Data Group: CP violation in meson decays]
*The [http://www-public.slac.stanford.edu/babar/ Babar] experiment at
SLACand the [http://belle.kek.jp BELLE] experiment at KEKJapan
* [http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v10/i12/p531_1 N. Cabibbo, "Phys. Rev. Lett." 10 (1963) 531.]
* [http://www.slac.stanford.edu/spires/find/hep/www?j=PTPKA,49,652 M. Kobayashi and K. Maskawa, "Prog. Theor. Phys." 49 (1973) 652.]
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