- Burgundian Wars
Infobox Military Conflict
place=Lorraine and northwest
Duchy of Burgundy
notes=The Burgundian Wars were a conflict between the Dukes of Burgundy and the Kings of France, later involving the
Old Swiss Confederacy, which would play a decisive role. Open war broke out in 1474, and in the following years, the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, was defeated thrice on the battlefield and killed in the Battle of Nancy. The Duchy of Burgundyand several other Burgundian lands then became part of France, while the Burgundian Netherlandsand the Franche Comtéwere inherited by Charles's daughter, and eventually passed to the House of Habsburg.
The general situation
The dukes of Burgundy had succeeded, over a period of about 100 years, in establishing their rule as a strong force between the
Holy Roman Empireand France. Their possessions included, besides their homelands of the Franche-Comtéand the Duchy of Burgundy, the economically strong regions of Flandersand Brabant, and also Luxembourg.
The dukes of Burgundy generally pursued an aggressive expansionist politics, especially in
Alsaceand Lorraine, seeking to geographically unite their northern and southern possessions. Having already been in conflict with the French king (Burgundy had sided with the English in the Hundred Years' War), Charles' advances along the Rhine brought him in conflict with the Habsburgs and especially emperor Frederick III.
Initially in 1469, Duke Sigismund of Habsburg of Austria assigned his possessions in the
Alsaceas a fiefdom to the Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, to have them protected better against the expansion of the "Eidgenossen". Charles' involvement west of the Rhine gave him no reason to attack the confederates as Sigismund had wanted, but his embargo politics against the cities of Basel, Strasbourg, and Mulhouse, directed by his reeve Peter von Hagenbach, prompted these to turn to Bernefor help. Charles' expansionist strategy suffered a first setback in his politics when his attack on the Archbishopric of Colognefailed after the unsuccessful Siege of Neuss(1473–1474).
In a second phase, Sigismund sought to achieve a peace agreement with the Swiss confederates, which eventually was concluded in
Konstanzin 1474 (later called the "Ewige Richtung"). He wanted to buy back his Alsace possessions from Charles, which the latter refused. Shortly afterwards, von Hagenbach was captured and executed by decapitation in Alsace, and the Swiss, united with the Alsace cities and Sigismund of Habsburg in an "anti-Burgundian league", conquered part of the Burgundian Jura ( Franche-Comté) when they won the Battle of Héricourtin November 1474. The next year, Bernese forces conquered and ravaged Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, which was allied with Charles the Bold. In the Valais, the independent republics of the "Sieben Zenden", with the help of Bernese and other confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower Valais after a victory in the Battle on the Plantain November 1475. In 1476, Charles retaliated and marched to Grandson, which belonged to Pierre de Romont of Savoy, but which had recently been taken by the Swiss, where he had the garrison hanged or drowned in the lake despite their capitulation. When the Swiss confederate forces arrived a few days later, his army suffered a devastating defeat in the Battle of Grandson, and he was forced to flee the battlefield, leaving behind his artillery and many provisions and valuables. Having rallied a new army, he was again defeated by the confederates in the Battle of Morat. Charles the Bold fell in the Battle of Nancyin 1477, where the Swiss fought alongside an army of René II, Duke of Lorraine.
With the death of Charles the Bold, the dynasty of the dukes of Burgundy died out. The Flemish territories of the Dukes of Burgundy subsequently became a possession of the Habsburgs, when Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who would later become
Holy Roman Emperor, married Charles' only daughter Mary of Burgundy. The duchy of Burgundyreverted to the crown of Franceunder king Louis XI. The Franche-Comté initially also became French, but was ceded to Maximilian's son Philip in 1493 by the French king Charles VIII in the treaty of Senlis, in an attempt to bribe the Emperor to remain neutral during Charles's planned invasion of Italy. The victories of the "Eidgenossen" (Swiss Confederation) over one of the most powerful military forces in Europe at the time gained them a reputation of near invincibility, and the Burgundian Wars marked the beginning of the rise of Swiss mercenarieson the battlefields of Europe.
* Richard Vaughan, "Charles the Bold: The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy." London, Longman Group Ltd., 1973. ISBN
*Florens Deuchler, "Die Burgunderbeute: Inventar der Beutestücke aus den Schlachten von Grandson, Murten und Nancy 1476/1477", Verlag Stämpfli & Cie, Bern 1963.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
См. также в других словарях:
Burgundian Regime — (1430 1477) In 1390, Joan, duchess of Brabant, acknowledged the right of her sister s daughter, Margaret of Male, and the latter s sons to inherit her domains. She did so in gratitude for assistance given her by Marguerite s husband, Philip… … Historical Dictionary of Brussels
List of wars 1000–1499 — 1000 ndash; 1099= *1010 Second Goryeo Khitan War *1014 The Battle of Clontarf, Ireland leading to the expulsion of the Vikings by Irish forces under King Brian Boru. * 1015 ndash;1016 Canute the Great s conquest of England *1018 Kiev Expedition… … Wikipedia
Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War — Armagnac Burgundian Civil War Part of the Hundred Years War Date 1407 1435 Location France Result Armagnacs r … Wikipedia
Armagnac-Burgundian Civil War — Infobox Military Conflict conflict =Armagnac Burgundian Civil War partof =the Hundred Years War caption = date =1407 1435 place =France casus = territory = result =Armagnacs recognise Burgundian independence (Treaty of Arras); Anglo Burgundian… … Wikipedia
List of civil wars — Warfare Military history Eras Prehistoric Ancient Medieval Gunpowder Industrial … Wikipedia
English Economy and the Wars of the Roses — Although the WARS OF THE ROSES caused political instability and, at least among the governing classes, some social disruption, the conflict had little direct effect on the English economy. Military campaigns were brief, and incidents of… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Roses, Wars of the — (1455–85) Series of dynastic civil wars between the houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne. The wars were named for the emblems of the two houses, the white rose of York and the red of Lancaster. Both claimed the throne through… … Universalium
Guelderian Wars — The Guelderian Wars ( nl. Gelderse oorlogen) were a series of conflicts in the Low Countries between the Duke of Burgundy, who controlled Holland, Flanders, Brabant and Hainaut, and Charles, Duke of Guelders, who controlled Guelders, Groningen… … Wikipedia
Chronology: Wars of the Roses — ♦1399 29 September. Deposition of Richard II; accession of Henry of Bolingbroke as Henry IV, first king of the house of Lancaster. ♦1411 22 September. Birth of Richard Plantagenet, future duke of York. ♦1413 20 March. Death of Henry IV;… … Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Roses
Baussenque Wars — The Baussenque Wars (from French Guerres Baussenques , meaning wars of Baux ) were a series of armed conflicts (1144 ndash; 1162) between the House of Barcelona, then ruling in Provence, and the House of Baux. They are held up in Provence as the… … Wikipedia