China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology


China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology
A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.

China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina (1975) caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1062 mm/41.81 inches fell in Henan Province during a 24 hour period, which is the record for Mainland China. Since 1957, there has been a downward trend in tropical cyclone rainfall for the country.[1]

Contents

Mainland

Most of the rain China experiences during the year occurs during the summer months. Typhoons cause the many of the intense rains seen within the country. The heavy rains occur over a large area, typically 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi).[2] Across China between the years of 1983 and 2006, an average of 2.9 tropical cyclones move into Guangdong province, making it the most affected province within mainland China. Hainan averages 1.3 tropical cyclones annually, while Fujian experiences 1.2 tropical cyclones annually, and Zhejiang witnessed 0.9 tropical cyclones annually. The wettest tropical cyclone on record for the mainland was Typhoon Nina (1975), which produced the highest areal average rainfall amounts between August 4 and August 8 for the Hongru river basin for most time durations.[2] The risk of tropical cyclones across Guangxi, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Liaoning provinces is significantly lower, with these provinces averaging between 0.1 and 0.4 tropical cyclones annually.[3]

Typhoon Chanchu/Caloy
Wettest tropical cyclones in Mainland China
Highest known recorded totals
Precipitation Storm Location
Rank (mm) (in)
1 1062.0 41.81 Nina 1975
2 831.1 32.72 Fitow 2001 [4]
3 703.5 27.70 Rananim 2004 [5]
4 555.0 21.85 Chanchu 2006 [6]
5 360.6 14.20 Bilis 2006 Guangdong[7]
6 355.6 14.00 Tasha 1990 [8]
7 343.0 13.50 Imbudo 2003 Hepu[9]
8 309.7 12.19 Jelawat 2006 Haikou[10]
9 250.8 9.87 Haima 2004 Pingtan/Fuzhou City[11]
10 190.5 7.50 Hope 1989 [12]

Hong Kong

Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the area since records began in 1884, breaking a 73 year old record. A total of 23.98 inches/609 mm of rainfall fell between August 22 and August 25.[13]

Typhoon Sam
Wettest tropical cyclones in Hong Kong, 1884-2005 (1940-1946 missing)
Highest recorded totals
Precipitation Storm Location
Rank (mm) (in)
1 616.5 24.27 Sam 1999 [14]
2 597.0 23.50 July 1926 Typhoon [14]
3 562.0 22.13 June 1916 Typhoon [14]
4 530.7 20.89 Agnes 1965 [14]
5 519.0 20.43 Agnes 1978 [14]
6 516.1 20.32 Ellen 1976 [14]
7 497.5 19.59 Dot 1993 [14]
8 491.7 19.36 Dot 1982 [14]
9 480.9 18.93 Helen 1995 [14]
10 473.2 18.63 August 1904 Typhoon [14]

Lantau Island

Wettest tropical cyclones in Lantau Island
Highest known recorded totals
Precipitation Storm Location
Rank (mm) (in)
1 700 mm 27.56 inches Ira 1993 [15]

Taiwan/Taipei

The mountainous island of Taiwan province experiences an average of 1.8 tropical cyclone landfalls each year.[3] Due to its rugged topography, Taiwan sees extreme rains from tropical cyclones, particularly in its central mountain range.

Typhoon Herb
Wettest tropical cyclones in Taiwan
Highest known recorded totals
Precipitation Storm Location
Rank (mm) (in)
1 3060 120.5 Morakot 2009 Alishan, Chiayi[16]
2 2319 91.3 Nari 2001 Wulai, New Taipei[17]
3 2162 85.1 Flossie 1969 Beitou, Taipei[16]
4 1987 78.2 Herb 1996 Alishan, Chiayi[18]
5 1672 65.8 Carla 1967 Dongshan, Yilan[19]
6 1611 63.4 Sinlaku 2008 Heping, Taichung[20]
7 1561 61.5 Haitang 2005 Sandimen, Pingtung[21]
8 1546 60.9 Aere 2004 Miaoli County[22]
9 1500 59.1 Parma 2009 Yilan County[23]
10 1497 59.0 Lynn 1987 Beitou, Taipei[16]

Tibet Autonomous Region

An early October 2004 tropical depression brought moisture into the highlands of Tibet, leading to daily precipitation of 60 mm/2.4 inches liquid equivalent to Che-Ku County all in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ Co2 Science. Forty-Eight Years of Tropical Cyclone Activity Over China. Retrieved on 2007-07-01.
  2. ^ a b Pukh Raj Rakhecha and Vijay P. Singh (2009). Applied Hydrometeorology. Springer. p. 187. ISBN 9781402098437. http://books.google.com/?id=8GXrw53MaTEC&pg=PA187&dq=where+most+typhoons+form+northwest+Pacific#v=onepage&q=where%20most%20typhoons%20form%20northwest%20Pacific&f=false. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  3. ^ a b Qiang Zhang, Liguang Wu, and Qiufeng Liu (April 2009). "Tropical Cyclone Damages in China: 1983-2006". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (American Meteorological Society) 90 (4): 490. Bibcode 2009BAMS...90..489Z. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2631.1. 
  4. ^ Padgett, Gary (2006-12-27). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2001". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2002/summ0108.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  5. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle, John Wallace, Huang Chunliang, Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2005/summ0408.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  6. ^ AIRcurrents. "AIR Post-Disaster Survey for Typhoon Chanchu Documents the Vulnerability of the Chinese Building Stock to Wind and Flood". http://www.air-worldwide.com/_public/html/air_currentsitem.asp?ID=992. Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  7. ^ "Bilis brings heavy rains to Fujian, Guangdong, and other places". China Meteorological Administration. 2006-07-15. http://www.nmc.gov.cn/news/viewArticle.do?method=viewArticle&id=ff8080810c669adb010c717746f20017. 
  8. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1991). "Northwest Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones of 1990". United States Navy. https://metocph.nmci.navy.mil/jtwc/atcr/1990atcr/pdf/chapter3.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-12. 
  9. ^ Gary Padgett (July 2003). "Gary Padgett's Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary". David Michael V. Padua. http://www.typhoon2000.ph/garyp_mgtcs/jul03sum.txt. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  10. ^ Gary Padgett (June 2006). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary". David Michael V. Padua. http://www.typhoon2000.ph/garyp_mgtcs/jun06sum.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  11. ^ Gary Padgett (September 2004). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary". David Michael V. Padua. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2005/summ0409.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1990). "1989 Northwest Pacific and North Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclones". United States Navy. https://metocph.nmci.navy.mil/jtwc/atcr/1989atcr/pdf/chapter3.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-14. 
  13. ^ Gary Padgett. MONTHLY GLOBAL TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARY: SEPTEMBER, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Hong Kong Observatory. Tropical Cyclones in 2005. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  15. ^ C. M. Tam and C. M. Cheng. A late-season tropical cyclone related rainstorm in Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  16. ^ a b c Central Weather Bureau (2010). "侵台颱風資料庫". http://photino.cwb.gov.tw/tyweb/hazards/r-top10-total.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-19. 
  17. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. http://bime.ntu.edu.tw/jcshieh/88pdf/A8801RAIN.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  18. ^ Unattributed (2009-09-09). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析". Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. http://bime.ntu.edu.tw/jcshieh/88pdf/A8801RAIN.pdf. Retrieved 2011-07-17. 
  19. ^ Chen Lianshou. FIFTH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON TROPICAL CYCLONES. Retrieved on 2007-01-27.
  20. ^ "Typhoon Sinlaku Central emergency operation center No.12". Central emergency operation center. 2008-09-16. http://www.nfa.gov.tw/en/DownLoader.aspx?FN=2008%5c20080917%5c200891716357531.pdf&TYPE=4. Retrieved 2009-01-13. 
  21. ^ Chiu Yu-Tzu (July 20, 2005). "Haitang fizzles out, leaves Taiwan wet". Taipei Times. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/front/archives/2005/07/20/2003264219. Retrieved April 11, 2010. 
  22. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle, John Wallace, Huang Chunliang, and Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: November 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2005/summ0411.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  23. ^ "Agricultural losses from Typhoon Parma total NT$29.5 million". Taiwan News. 2009-10-06. http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1075407&lang=eng_news&cate_img=35.jpg&cate_rss=news_Business. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  24. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle, John Wallace, Huang Chunliang, and Simon Clarke (17 May 2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. http://australiasevereweather.com/cyclones/2005/summ0410.htm. Retrieved 13 January 2007. 

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