Phillip Allen Sharp


Phillip Allen Sharp

Infobox Scientist
name=Phillip Allen Sharp



caption = Phillip Sharp with George W. Bush, at the National Medal of Science awards in 2006.
birth_date = birth date and age|1944|6|6
birth_place = Falmouth, Kentucky
death_date =
death_place =
nationality = American
field= Biologist
alma_mater = Union College
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
work_institution = Caltech
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
MIT
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students = Andrew Fire
prizes = Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1993), National Medal of Science (2004)
societies =
spouse = Ann Holcombe
children =
website =
footnotes =

Phillip Allen Sharp (born June 6, 1944) is an American geneticist and molecular biologist who co-discovered gene splicing. He shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Richard J. Roberts for "the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence".

Sharp was born in Falmouth, Kentucky. He studied at Union College and majored in chemistry and mathematics. He completed his Ph.D. in chemistry at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1969. After completing his Ph.D., he worked at the California Institute of Technology until 1971, where he studied plasmids and, later, gene expression in human cells at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory under James Dewey Watson.

In 1974, he was offered a position at MIT by biologist Salvador Luria. He was director of MIT's Center for Cancer Research (now the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research) from 1985 to 1991; head of the Biology department from 1991 to 1999; and director of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research from 2000 to 2004. He is currently a professor of Biology and has been an Institute Professor since 1999; he is also a member of the Koch Institute. Sharp co-founded Biogen (now part of Biogen Idec), Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, and Magen Biosciences, and serves on the boards of all three companies. [Biogen Idec, Inc. (2008). “Proxy statement for annual meeting of stockholders to be held on June 19, 2008 at 9:00 A.M., local time″, 7.] He is an editorial advisor to Xconomy, and is a member of the Board of Scientific Governors at The Scripps Research Institute.

In 1988 he was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University together with Thomas R. Cech.

Sharp married Ann Holcombe in 1964. They have three daughters.

elected publications

* cite journal
author=Cheng C., Yaffe M.B., Sharp P.A.
title=A Positive Feedback Loop Couples Ras Activation and CD44 Alternative Splicing
journal=Genes Dev.
date=1 Jul 2006
volume=20
issue=13
pages=1715–20
pmid=16818603
url=http://www.genesdev.org/cgi/content/full/20/13/1715|doi=10.1101/gad.1430906

* cite journal
author=Petersen C.P., Bordeleau M.E., Pelletier J., Sharp P.A.
title=Short RNAs Repress Translation after Initiation in Mammalian Cells
journal=Mol Cell.
date=17 Feb 2006
volume=21
issue=4
pages=533–42
pmid=16483934|doi=10.1016/j.molcel.2006.01.031

* cite journal
author=Cheng C., Sharp P.A.
title=Regulation of CD44 Alternative Splicing by SRm160 and its Potential Role in Tumor Cell Invasion
journal=Mol Cell Biol.
date=Jan 2006
volume=26
issue=1
pages=362–70
pmid=16354706
url=http://mcb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/26/1/362?view=long&pmid=16354706|doi=10.1128/MCB.26.1.362-370.2006

* cite journal
author=Tantin D., Schild-Poulter C., Wang V., Hache R.J., Sharp P.A.
title=The Octamer Binding Transcription Factor Oct-1 is a Stress Sensor
journal=Cancer Res.
date=1 Dec 2005
volume=65
issue=23
pages=10750–8
pmid=16322220|doi=10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2399

* cite journal
author=Grishok A., Sharp P.A.
title=Negative Regulation of Nuclear Divisions in Caenorhabditis Elegans by Retinoblastoma and RNA Interference-related Genes
journal=Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
date=29 Nov 2005
volume=102
issue=48
pages=17360–5
pmid=16287966
url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=16287966|doi=10.1073/pnas.0508989102

* cite journal
author= Sharp P.A.
title=1918 Flu and Responsible Science
journal=Science
date=7 Oct 2005
volume=310
issue=5745
pages=17
pmid=16210500|doi= 10.1126/science.310.5745.17

* cite journal
author=Miskevich F., Doench J.G., Townsend M.T., Sharp P.A., Constantine-Paton M.
title=RNA Interference of Xenopus NMDAR NR1 "in vitro" and "in vivo"
journal=J Neurosci Methods
date=15 Apr 2006
volume=152
issue=1-2
pages=65–73
pmid=16182372|doi=10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.08.010

* cite journal
author=Hong J.H., Hwang E.S., McManus M.T., Amsterdam A., Tian Y., Kalmukova R., Mueller E., Benjamin T., Spiegelman B.M., Sharp P.A., Hopkins N., Yaffe M.B.
title=TAZ, a Transcriptional Modulator of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation
journal=Science
date=12 Aug 2005
volume=309
issue=5737
pages=1074–8
pmid=16099986|doi=10.1126/science.1110955

* cite journal
author=Houbaviy H.B., Dennis L., Jaenisch R., Sharp P.A.
title=Characterization of a Highly Variable Eutherian microRNA Gene
journal=RNA
date=Aug 2005
volume=11
issue=8
pages=1245–57
pmid=15987809
url=http://www.rnajournal.org/cgi/content/full/11/8/1245|doi=10.1261/rna.2890305

* cite journal
author=Sharp P.A.
title=The Discovery of Split Genes and RNA Splicing
journal=Trends Biochem Sci.
date=Jun 2005
volume=30
issue=6
pages=279–81
pmid=15950867|doi=10.1016/j.tibs.2005.04.002

* cite journal
author=Johnson D.M., Yamaji S., Tennant J., Srai S.K., Sharp P.A.
title=Regulation of Divalent Metal Transporter Expression in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells Following Exposure to Non-haem Iron
journal=FEBS Lett.
date=28 Mar 2005
volume=579
issue=9
pages=1923–9
pmid=15792797|doi=10.1016/j.febslet.2005.02.035

* cite journal
author=Neilson J.R., Sharp P.A.
title=Herpesviruses Throw a Curve Ball: New Insights into microRNA Biogenesis and Evolution
journal=Nat Methods
date=Apr 2005
volume=2
issue=4
pages=252–4
pmid=15782215|doi=10.1038/nmeth0405-252

* cite journal
author=Grishok A., Sinskey J.L., Sharp P.A.
title=Transcriptional Silencing of a Transgene by RNAi in the Soma of C. elegans
journal=Genes Dev.
date=15 Mar 2005
volume=19
issue=6
pages=683–96
pmid=15741313
url=http://www.genesdev.org/cgi/content/full/19/6/683|doi=10.1101/gad.1247705

* cite journal
author=Sharp P.A.
title=Phillip Sharp Discusses RNAi, Nobel Prizes and Entrepreneurial Science
journal=Drug Discov Today
date=1 Jan 2005
volume=10
issue=1
pages=7–10
pmid=15676292
doi=10.1016/S1359-6446(04)03329-X

* cite journal
author=Lee K.B., Sharp P.A.
title=Transcription-dependent Polyubiquitination of RNA Polymerase II Requires Lysine 63 of Ubiquitin
journal=Biochemistry
date=7 Dec 2004
volume=43
issue=48
pages=15223–9
pmid=15568815
doi=10.1021/bi048719x

* cite journal
author=Mansfield J.H., Harfe B.D., Nissen R., Obenauer J., Srineel J., Chaudhuri A., Farzan-Kashani R., Zuker M., Pasquinelli A.E., Ruvkun G., Sharp P.A., Tabin C.J., McManus M.T.
title=MicroRNA-responsive 'Sensor' Transgenes Uncover Hox-like and Other Developmentally Regulated Patterns of Vertebrate MicroRNA Expression
journal=Nat Genet.
date=Oct 2004
volume=36
issue=10
pages=1079–83
pmid=15361871
doi=10.1038/ng1421

* cite journal
author=Fairbrother W.G., Holste D., Burge C.B., Sharp P.A.
title=Single Nucleotide Polymorphism-based Validation of Exonic Splicing Enhancers
journal=PLoS Biol.
date=Sep 2004
volume=2
issue=9
pages=E268
pmid=15340491
doi= 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020268

* cite journal
author=Novina C.D., Sharp P.A.
title=The RNAi Revolution
journal=Nature
date=Jul 8 2004
volume=430
issue=6996
pages=161–4
pmid=15241403|doi=10.1038/430161a

* cite journal
author=Ventura A., Meissner A., Dillon C.P., McManus M., Sharp P.A., Van Parijs L., Jaenisch R., Jacks T.
title=Cre-lox-regulated Conditional RNA Interference from Transgenes
journal=Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
date=Jul 13 2004
volume=101
issue=28
pages=10380–5
pmid=15240889
url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/101/28/10380|doi=10.1073/pnas.0403954101

ee also

* MIT Biology Department

Reference and external links

* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1993/sharp-autobio.html Autobiography] at the Nobel site
* [http://web.mit.edu/biology/www/facultyareas/facresearch/sharp.html Sharp's Research at MIT]
* [http://web.mit.edu/sharplab/ The Phil Sharp Lab]
* [http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/horwitz/ The Official Site of Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize]

Persondata
NAME= Sharp, Phillip Allen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=American biologis
DATE OF BIRTH= 6 June 1944
PLACE OF BIRTH= Falmouth, Kentucky
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=


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