Aratus


Aratus

:"This article is about the didactic poet. There was also an Aratus of Sicyon and an Aratus, son of Asclepius":"For the crab genus, see "Aratus (crab).

Aratus (Greek Ἄρατος ὁ Σολεύς) (ca. 315 BC/310 BC – 240 BC) was a Greek didactic poet, known for his technical poetry.

Biography

He was born in Soli in Cilicia and was a contemporary of Callimachus and Theocritus. He is known to have studied with Menecrates in Ephesus and Philitas in Cos. As a disciple of the Peripatetic philosopher Praxiphanes, in Athens, he met the Stoic philosopher Zeno, as well as Callimachus of Cyrene and Menedemus, the founder of the Eretrian School.

About 276 he was invited to the court of the Macedonian king Antigonus II Gonatas, whose victory over the Gauls in 277 BC Aratus set to verse. Here he wrote his most famous poem, "Phaenomena" ("Appearances"). He then spent some time at the court of Antiochus I Soter of Syria, but subsequently returned to Pella in Macedon (now located in the periphery of Central Macedonia, Greece), where he died about 240 BCE.

Writings

Aratus' major extant work is his hexameter poem "Phaenomena" ("Appearances"), the first half of which is a verse setting of a lost work of the same name by Eudoxus of Cnidus. It describes the constellations and other celestial phenomena. The second half of "Phaenomena", "on weather signs", is chiefly about weather lore. Frequently referred to as the "Diosemeia", and sometimes circulated separately under that title, it draws chiefly from a work on weather signs attributed to Theophrastus. The work as a whole has all the characteristics of the Alexandrian school of poetry. Although Aratus was ignorant of astronomy, his poem attracted the favorable notice of 18 distinguished specialists, such as Hipparchus, who wrote a commentary upon it.

Aratus also wrote a number of other poems, many of an astronomical or technical nature.

Later influence

Aratus enjoyed immense prestige among Hellenistic poets, including Theocritus, Callimachus and Leonidas of Tarentum. This assessment was picked up by Latin poets, including Ovid and Virgil. Latin versions were made by none other than Cicero (fragmentary), Ovid (only two short fragments remain), the member of the imperial Julio-Claudian dynasty Germanicus (mostly extant), and the less-famous Avienus (extant). Quintilian was less enthusiastic. Aratus was also cited by Luke the Evangelist in the second half of Acts, 17.28, where he relates Saint Paul's address on the Areopagus. Paul, speaking of God, quotes the fifth line of Aratus's "Phaenomena" (Epimenides seems to be the source of the first part of [http://bible.gospelcom.net/bible?passage=ACTS%2B17%3A28%2C0&&version=HCSB Acts 17.28] , although this is less clear):

:Let us begin with Zeus, whom we mortals never leave unspoken.:For every street, every market-place is full of Zeus.:Even the sea and the harbour are full of this deity.:Everywhere everyone is indebted to Zeus. :"For we are indeed his offspring..." ("Phaenomena 1-5").

Authors of twenty-seven commentaries are known; ones by Theon of Alexandria, Achilles Tatius and Hipparchus of Nicaea survive. An Arabic translation was commissioned in the ninth century by the Caliph Al-Ma'mun. He is cited by Vitruvius, Stephanus of Byzantium and Stobaeus. Several accounts of his life are extant, by anonymous Greek writers.

The Aratus crater on the Moon was named in his honour.

References

* Two important recent editions of Aratus' work:
** Douglas Kidd, "Phaenomena", edited with introduction, translation and commentary, Cambridge, 1997.
** Jean Martin, "Aratos. Phénomènes", edited with translation and notes, 2 vols., Collection Budé, 1998.
* [http://spindleworks.com/library/rfaber/aratus.htm The Apostle and the Poet: Paul and Aratus] (Dr. Riemer Faber)
* [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1999/1999-09-01.html Review of above] by Mark Possanza, "BMCR" (September 1999).
* [http://www.gltc.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?m=57&c=122 Hellenistic Bibliography, Aratus and Aratea] compiled by Martijn Cuypers
* [http://www.cisi.unito.it/arachne/num2/hunter.html "Written in the Stars:Poetry and Philosophy in the Phaenomena of Aratus"] by Richard L. Hunter, "Arachnion" 2.
* [http://www.stoa.org/sol-bin/search.pl?db=REAL&search_method=QUERY&login=guest&enlogin=guest&user_list=LIST&page_num=1&searchstr=alpha%2C3745+&field=adlerhw_gr&num_per_page=100 Suda On-Line: Aratus] , with a list of works ascribed to Aratus; the "Suda" is a Byzantine encyclopedia.
* [http://www.tmth.edu.gr/en/aet/1/11.html Ancient Greek Scientists]
* [http://www.geocities.com/astrologysources/classicalgreece/phaenomena/ A prose translation of "Phaenomena" Book I]

External links

* [http://www.theoi.com/Text/AratusPhaenomena.html Online text: Aratus, Phaenomena translated by G. R. Mair, 1921]
* [http://www.fh-augsburg.de/~harsch/graeca/Chronologia/S_ante03/Aratos/ara_ph01.html Online text: Aratus, Phaenomena, Greek text]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Aratus [1] — Aratus, geb. 270 v. Chr., einer der letzten Griechen, befreite im 20. Jahre seine Vaterstadt Sycion von einem Tyrannen und brachte sie in den achäischen Bund. Er eroberte Korinth, führte es nebst Megara, Megalopolis, Hermione, Phlius in den… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Aratus — Arātus aus Sikyon in Achaia, griech. Staatsmann, geb. um 271 v. Chr., befreite seine Vaterstadt von dem Tyrannen Nikokles, bewirkte 251 ihren Beitritt zum Achäischen Bunde, dessen tatsächlicher Leiter er bald wurde. Durch einen Konflikt mit… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Aratus [2] — Aratus, aus Soli in Cilicien, um 270 v. Chr., schrieb das astron. Lehrgedicht »Phainomena«, das unter andern auch Cicero übersetzte; deutsch von Voß …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • ARATUS — I. ARATUS Cnidius, Historiam Aegypti scripsit. II. ARATUS Poeta Solensis, tempore Ptolemaei Philadelphi, in aula Antigoni Gonatae, fil. Demetrii Poliorcetae plerumque versatus. Scripsit, quae exstant φαινόμενα et Διοσήμεια, in quibus situm, motum …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Aratus — Aratos von Soloi Aratos von Soloi (* ca. 310 v. Chr.; † 245 v. Chr.) war ein griechischer Autor. Er wurde in Soloi in Kilikien geboren und stammte aus einer vornehmen Familie. Seine Studien führten ihn nach Athen. Dort befasste er sich mit… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Aratus — Aratos Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Aratos ou Aratus est le nom porté par plusieurs personnages de la Grèce antique : Aratos de Sicyone, général de la ligue Achéenne (IIIe siècle …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Aratus, S. (1) — 1S. Aratus, (18. Jan.), ein Martyrer in Aegypten. S. S. Paulus …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Aratus, S. (2) — 2S. Aratus, (9. Febr.), ein Martyrer in Aegypten. S. S. Julius …   Vollständiges Heiligen-Lexikon

  • Aratus — ▪ Greek poet flourished c. 315–c. 245 BC, Macedonia       Greek poet of Soli in Cilicia, best remembered for his poem on astronomy, Phaenomena.       He resided at the courts of Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, and Antiochus I of Syria.… …   Universalium

  • Aratus of Sicyon — Aratus (271 BC 213 BC) was a statesman of the ancient Greek city state of Sicyon in the 3rd century BC. He deposed the Sicyon tyrant Nicocles in 251 BC. Aratus was an advocate of Greek unity and brought Sicyon into the Achaean League, which he… …   Wikipedia