- Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Communist Party of India (Maoist) Leader Muppala Lakshmana Rao Founded 21 September 2004 Ideology Maoism
Political position Far-left Website People's March Politics of India
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) is a Maoist political party in India which aims to overthrow the government of India through violent means. It was founded on 21 September 2004, through the merger of the People's War, and the Maoist Communist Centre (MCC). The merger was announced to the public on October 14 the same year. In the merger a provisional central committee was constituted, with the erstwhile People's War Group leader Muppala Lakshmana Rao, alias "Ganapathi", as General Secretary.
They claim to be fighting for the rights of the tribes in the forest belt around central India. That region contains deposits of minerals which are of interest to mining companies like Tata and Essar, and there have been numerous human rights violations of the tribal people at the hands of government agencies. 
Naxals have been charged by the government with running an extortion economy in the guise of a popular revolution, extorting vast amounts of money from local branches of mining companies and other businesses. They have been involved in several cases of blowing up schools and railway tracks, and accused of keeping the areas under their control away from modernity and development, so they can impose their will on the uneducated rural populace.
In 2006, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh referred to the Naxalites as "the single biggest internal security challenge ever faced by our country." The Indian government, led by the United Progressive Alliance, banned the CPI (Maoist) under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) as a terrorist organisation  on 22 June 2009. As of June 2010, the Indian government has identified 83 districts in nine states as "Naxal-hit".
- 1 Ideology
- 2 Location
- 3 Organization
- 4 Strategy
- 5 Funding
- 6 Legal status
- 7 Controversies
- 8 International connections
- 9 Timeline of violent activities
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Communism in India
M. N. Roy
A. K. Gopalan
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P. C. Joshi
E. M. S. Namboodiripad
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Bhupesh Gupta V. S. Achuthanandan
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World Communist Movement
Communism Portal Part of the Politics series on Maoism Communism Portal
According to the South Asia Terrorism Portal, the two factions of the Party adhered to differing strands of communism prior to their 2004 merger, although "both organizations shared their belief in the 'annihilation of class enemies' and in extreme violence as a means to secure organizational goals." The People's War Group (PWG) maintained a Marxist-Leninist stance while the MCC took a Maoist stance. After the merger, the PWG secretary of Andhra Pradesh announced that the newly formed CPI-Maoist would follow Marxism-Leninism-Maoism as its "ideological basis guiding its thinking in all spheres of its activities." Included in this ideology is a commitment to "protracted armed struggle" to undermine and to seize power from the state.
The ideology of the merged group is contained in a "Party Programme." In the document, the Maoists denounce globalization as a war on the people by market fundamentalists and the caste system as a form of social oppression.
The Communist Party of India (Maoist) claim that they are conducting a "people's war", a strategic approach developed by Mao Zedong during the guerrilla warfare phase of the Communist Party of China. Their eventual objective is to install a "people’s government" via a New Democratic Revolution.
The party also views Islamist militancy as a struggle towards national liberation against imperialism, rather than as a clash of civilizations, and condones it as having parallel goals to the group's own. In the words of deputy leader Koteshwar Rao, or Kishanji: "The Islamic upsurge should not be opposed, as it is basically anti-US and anti-imperialist in nature. We, therefore, want it to grow." Although it is an extreme left wing political organisation it considers the democratic left parties in India as "class enemies" and has killed some of their supporters in the western part of West Bengal.
Currently the Party has a presence in remote regions of Jharkhand and Andhra Pradesh, as well as in Bihar and the tribal-dominated areas in the borderlands of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Orissa. The CPI (Maoist) aims to consolidate its power in this area and establish a Compact Revolutionary Zone from which to advance the people's war in other parts of India. A 2005 Frontline cover story called the Bhamragad Taluka, where the Madia Gond Adivasis live, the heart of the Naxalite-affected region in Maharashtra.
The current general secretary of the party is Muppala Lakshmana Rao, who uses the alias "Ganapati". The highest decision making body of the party is the Politburo, comprising thirteen or fourteen) members, six of whom were killed or arrested between 2007-10. Amongst those arrested, Kobad Ghandy is the senior-most member. Other arrested Politburo members include Pramod Mishra, Ashutosh Tudu, and Amitabha Bagchi. Cherukuri Rajkumar, alias "Azad", the spokesperson for the party, who was gunned down in Andhra Pradesh, was another Politburo member.
Prashant Bose, alias "Kishan-da", Mallojula Koteswara Rao, alias "Kishenji", and Katakam Sudarshan, alias Anand, are the three most prominent members of the Politburo. Kishenji and Anand currently head the Eastern Regional Bureau and the Central Regional Bureau of the party respectively. The Central Committee of the party, which takes command from the Politburo and passes on the information to its members, has 32 members. The party hierarchy consists of the Regional Bureaus, which look after two or three states each, the State Committees, the Zonal Committees, the District Committees, and the "dalams" (armed squads).
The military wings of the founding organisations, the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army (the military wing of the MCCI) and the People's Guerrilla Army (the military wing of the PW), also underwent a merger. The name of the unified military organisation is the People's Liberation Guerrilla Army. P.V. Ramana, of the Observer Research Foundation in Delhi, estimates the Naxilities' current strength at 9,000-10,000 armed fighters, with access to about 6,500 firearms. Other estimates by Indian intelligence officials and Maoist leaders suggest that the rebel ranks in India number between 10,000 and 20,000, with at least 50,000 active supporters.
In their efforts to intimidate and consolidate control, the Naxalites tax local villagers, extort businesses, abduct and kill "class enemies" such as government officials and police officers, and regulate the flow of aid and goods. To help fill their ranks, the Maoists force each family under their domain to supply one family member, and threaten those who resist with violence.
The organisation has been holding "Public Courts", which have been described as kangaroo courts, against their opponents. These "courts" function in the areas under de-facto Maoist control. The Maoists have also taken care to demolish government institutions under their de facto jurisdiction.
The Party retains the tactics of its predecessor, the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) People's War, of rejecting parliamentary democracy and capturing political power through protracted armed struggle based on guerrilla warfare. This strategy entails building up bases in rural and remote areas and transforming them first into guerrilla zones, and then into "liberated zones", in addition to encircling cities.
The military hardware used by Maoists, as indicated through a number of seizures, include RDX cable wires, gelatine sticks, detonators, country-made weapons, INSAS rifles, AK-47s, SLRs, and improvised explosive devices. According to MHA reports, as of October 2008, the CRPF has seized over 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb) of explosives in Bihar and 893 kilograms (1,970 lb) in Jharkhand. Security forces also recovered codex wire in Jharkhand; this is a highly potent explosive with a blast-range of up to 720 metres (2,360 ft), which has so far been used only by modern national armies.
Poppy cultivation is another major source of funding for Maoists in the Ghagra area of Gumla district in Jharkhand and in parts of Gumla, Kishanganj and Purnia districts in Bihar. Security forces claim that opium fields are hidden among maize crops. Reports from Debagarh district in Orissa indicate that the Naxals also support hemp cultivation to help fund their activities.
Organizations listed as terrorist groups by India Northeastern India National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
Naga National Council-Federal (NNCF)
National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang
United Liberation Front of Asom
People's Liberation Army
Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
Zomi Revolutionary Front
Al Barq (ABQ)
Al Fateh Force (AFF)
Al Jihad Force (AJF)/Al Jihad
Al Mujahid Force (AMF)
Al Umar Mujahideen (AUR/Al Umar)
Awami Action Committee (AAC)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen Almi (JUMA)
Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party (JKDFP)
Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF)
Jammu and Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami (JKJEI)
Kul Jammat Hurriyat Conference (KJHC)
Muslim Janbaaz Force (MJF/Jaanbaz Force)
Muslim Mujahideen (MM)
United Jihad Council
Students Islamic Movement of India Tehreek-e-Jihad (TEJ)
Pasban-e-Islami (PEI/Hizbul Momineen HMM)
North India Babbar Khalsa
Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan
Communist Party of India (Maoist)
International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
Kamagata Maru Dal of Khalistan]
Khalistan Liberation Force
Khalistan Commando Force
Khalistan Liberation Army
Khalistan Liberation Front
Khalistan Liberation Organisation
Khalistan National Army
Khalistan Guerilla Force
Khalistan Security Force
Khalistan Zindabad Force
Central India People's war group
The party is regarded as a "left-wing extremist entity" and a terrorist outfit by the Indian government. Several of their members have been arrested under the now-defunct Prevention of Terrorist Activities Act. The group is officially banned by the state governments of Orissa, Chattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh, among others. The party has protested these bans. On 22 June 2009, the central home ministry, keeping in mind the growing unlawful activities by the group, banned it under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA). Earlier, the union home minister, P. Chidambaram had asked the West Bengal Chief Minister, Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, to ban the Maoists following the Lalgarh Violence.
Following the ban, the Maoists are liable for arrest under the UAPA. After the ban, they are barred from holding rallies, public meetings and demonstrations, and their offices, if any, will be sealed and their bank accounts frozen.
The Party are regarded as a serious security threat and the Indian government is taking countermeasures, pulling the affected states together to coordinate their response. It says it will combine improved policing with socio-economic measures to defuse grievances that fuel the Maoist cause. In 2005, Chattisgarh State sponsored an anti-Maoist movement called the Salwa Judum. The group, which the BBC alleges is "government backed",  an allegation rejected by the government as biased and Indophobic, has come under criticism from pro-Maoist activist groups for "perpetrating atrocities and abuse against women", using child soldiers, and the looting of property and destruction of homes. These allegations were addressed and rejected by a fact-finding commission of the National Human Rights Commission of India, appointed by the Supreme Court of India, who determined that the Salwa Judum was a spontaneous reaction by tribes against Maoist atrocities perpetrated against them. The camps are guarded by police officers, paramilitary forces and Salwa Judum activists empowered with the official title "special police officer."
Killing of a Hindu monk in Orissa in 2008
In transcripts made available to PTI on October 5, 2008, the prominent Maoist leader Sabyasachi Panda, alias "Sunil", mentioned that there was pressure from both Christians and Dalits to eliminate VHP leader Laxmanananda Saraswati, noting that most of the cadre members and supporters in Orissa belonged to the Christian community and not tribes, unlike in other states where the tribes form the biggest support base of the Maoists. He admitted that the Maoists had, for the first time, intervened in a religious dispute, by killing Saraswati.
The CPI (Maoist) maintains dialogue with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) who control most of Nepal in the Coordination Committee of Maoist Parties and Organizations of South Asia (CCOMPOSA), according to several intelligence sources and think tanks. These links are, however, denied by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
While under detention in June 2009, a suspected Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) operative indicated that the LeT and the CPI (Maoist) had attempted to coordinate activities in Jharkhand state. Latest reports[when?] indicate that the Maoist Communist Party of the Philippines, Southeast Asia’s longest-lived communist insurgent group, has been reported to have engaged in training activities for guerrilla warfare with Indian Maoists.
The Indian Maoists deny operational links with foreign groups, such as the Nepalese Maoists, but do claim comradeship. Some members of the Indian government accept this, while others argue that operational links do exist, with training coming from Sri-Lankan Maoists and small arms from China. China denies, and is embarrassed by, any suggestion that it supports foreign Maoist rebels, citing improvements in relations between India and China, including movement towards resolving their border disputes. Maoists in Nepal, India, and the Philippines are less reticent about their shared goals.
Timeline of violent activities
- February: the CPI (Maoist) kills seven policemen and a civilian, and injures many more during a mass attack on a school building in Venkatammanahalli village, Pavgada, Tumkur, Karnataka.
- August: Maoists conduct kidnappings in the Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh. This follows violent incidents in the same region in 2004, when 50 policemen and about 300 villagers were killed in the Dantewada district and over 50,000 villagers were forced into relief camps to escape the Maoists.
- August 17: the government of Andhra Pradesh outlaws the Communist Party of India (Maoist) and various mass organizations close to it, and begins to arrest suspected members and sympathizers days afterwards. Those arrested include former emissaries at the 2004 peace talks.
- November 13: CPI (Maoist) fighters attack Jehanabad in Bihar, freeing 250 captured comrades and taking twenty imprisoned right wing paramilitaries captive, executing their leader. They also detonate several bombs in the town. A prison guard is also reported killed.
- February 28: Maoists attack anti-Maoist protesters in Erraboru village in Chhattisgarh using landmines, killing 25 people.
- July 16: Maoists attack a relief camp in the Dantewada district, killing 29, and kidnapping several villagers.
- October 18: women belonging to Maoist guerrilla forces blast four government buildings in the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh. The day before, over a dozen armed cadres of the group, with support from male colleagues, blocked traffic on the Antagarh-Koylibera Road in the Kanker district, near the city of Raipur. They also detonated explosives inside four buildings, including two schools, in Kanker. This incident occurred two days after a major leader of the party's operations in Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, Kone Kedandam, surrendered to authorities in the town of Srikakulam.
- December 2: At least fourteen Indian policemen are killed by Maoists in a landmine ambush near the town of Bokaro, 80 miles (130 km) from Ranchi, the capital of the State of Jharkhand.
- March 4: Maoists shoot dead Sunil Mahato, a member of the parliament of the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) party from Jharkhand state.
- March 5: Maoists shoot dead a member of the local Mandal Praja Parishad (MPP)) in Andhra Pradesh, while he was inspecting a road construction project in Mahabubnagar district.
- March 6: the CPI (Maoist) claim responsibility for the Mahato assassination, although JMM members of the Jharkhand state cabinet, including the Chief Minister, subsequently announce that a state police investigation is under way into the authenticity of this claim. Police reportedly believe that political rivals of Mahato, including organized criminal groups, may have been behind the assassination.
- March 15: 300 to 350 CPI (Maoist) cadres attack a police base camp in the rebel stronghold of Dantewada, in Chhattisgarh state. Fifty-four persons, including fifteen personnel of the Chhattishgarh Armed Forces, are killed. The remaining victims are tribal youths belonging to the Salwa Judum, designated as Special Police Officers (SPOs), and roped in to combat the Maoists. Eleven others are injured. The attack, which lasted nearly two-and-a-half hours, is spearheaded by the "State Military Commission (Maoist)", consisting of about a hundred armed Naxalites.
- November: reports emerge that the anti-SEZ movement in Nandigram in West Bengal has been infiltrated by Naxalites since February; the reports quote unnamed intelligence sources. Police also find weapons belonging to Maoists near Nandigram.
- The Hindu newspaper reports that a Maoist, named Pratik Shah, killed a man and publicly cannibalized him in Malkangiri district of Orissa to terrorize villagers. The alleged incident occurred in Bandiguda on August 14, 2007.
- June 29: CPI forces attack a boat on the Chitrakonda reservoir in Orissa carrying members of an anti-Naxalite police force. The boat sinks, killing 33 policemen, while 28 survive.
- July 16: A landmine hits a police van in Malkangiri district, killing 21 policemen.
- February 23: Maoists kill a contractor and set ablaze a police post at Govindpalli of Malkangiri.
- April 13: Ten paramilitary troops are killed in eastern Orissa.
- October 6: Police inspector Francis Induwar is beheaded by Maoists in Jharkhand. This action has been compared to the tactics of the Islamist Taliban of Pakistan-Afghanistan
- October 8: About 150 Maoists ambush a police patrol and kill seventeen policemen in Gadchiroli, Maharashtra
- February 16: Silda camp attack
- February 18: Twelve villagers are killed and nine injured in indiscriminate firing by Maoists in Jamui district of Bihar. The dead include three women and one child. Twenty five village houses are also burned down.
- February 20: Maoists kill a village guard by slitting his throat.
- April 6: At least 82 CRPF and district force personnel are killed when a large group of Naxals ambush them in the Mukrana forests of Chhattisgarh's Dantewada district.
- May 17: Maoist rebels blow up bus in the Dantewada district, killing 35.
- May 27: At least 145 people are killed after a train derails in an apparent Maoist attack in West Bengal.
- June 29: At least 26 CRPF personnel are killed when Maoists attack a road opening party in Narayanpur district.
- December 25: Attack in eastern India, killing nine people.
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- ^ "A cannibal act to strike terror". The Hindu (Chennai (Madras): The Hindu). 2008-01-15. http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/15/stories/2008011559051600.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-30. "Bhubaneswar: In a bid to terrorise villagers last August, a Maoist killed a man suspecting him to be a police informer and ate his flesh in full view of the public in Malkangiri district of Orissa. Superintendent of Police Satish Kumar Gajbhiye said the incident, which took place at Bandiguda, on August 14, 2007, came to light only on Sunday, during a community policing programme. “The villagers told me that Bhagat, commander of the Paplur Dalam, killed Mukunda Madhi in public view and ate his flesh to terrorise others,” he told PTI on the phone. Mukunda’s hapless family was among the onlookers, none of whom opened his mouth for fear of his life, Mr. Gajbhiye said. — PTI"
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- ^ Maoist kills contractor, sets fire in police post at Govindpalli of Malkangiri, Orissa Diary, February 23, 2009
- ^ Contractor Prasanna Kumar Swain hacked to death, The Hindu, February 23, 2009
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- ^ Maoist ape Taliban tactics- TIMESNOW.tv - Latest Breaking News, Big News Stories, News Videos
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- ^ "35 killed after Maoist rebels blow up bus in India". Telegraph U.K. (London). 2010-05-17. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/7733949/35-killed-after-Maoist-rebels-blow-up-bus-in-India.html. Retrieved 2010-05-19.
- ^ The Hindu : News / National : 79 killed as goods train rams Maoist-derailed coaches
- ^ "'Maoist sabotage' kills 65 on train in eastern India". BBC News. 2010-05-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/world/south_asia/10178967.stm.
- ^ Sharma, Supriya (2010-06-29). "27 CRPF personnel killed in Maoists attack in Chhattisgarh". Times of India (Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd.). http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/26-CRPF-personnel-killed-in-Maoists-attack-in-Chhattisgarh/articleshow/6106846.cms. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- International Campaign Against War on the People in India
- Maoist Rebels Widen Deadly Reach Across India by Jim Yardley, The New York Times, October 31, 2009
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