- HIV/AIDS in the United States
The history of HIV/AIDS in the United States began in about 1969, when HIV likely entered the
United Statesthrough a single infected immigrant from Haiti. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7068574.stm Key HIV strain 'came from Haiti'] ] [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-aids30oct30,0,1617683.story?coll=la The virus from Africa reached the U.S. by way of Haiti, a genetic study shows] ] [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/10/071029-aids-haiti.html AIDS Virus Traveled to Haiti, Then U.S., Study Says] ] In the early 1980s, doctors in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Franciscobegan seeing young men with Kaposi's Sarcoma, a cancerusually associated with elderly men of Mediterranean ethnicity.Fact|date=July 2008
As the knowledge that men who had sex with men were dying of an otherwise rare cancer began to spread throughout the medical communities, the syndrome began to be called by the colloquialism "gay cancer." As medical scientists discovered that the syndrome included other manifestations, such as pneumocystis pneumonia, (PCP), a rare form of
fungal pneumonia, its name was changed to "GRID," or "Gay Related Immune Deficiency". [Altman, Lawrence K. 1982 Clue Found on Homosexuals' Precancer Syndrome. In New York Times, Vol. NYT820610. New York, NY.] This had an effect of boosting homophobiaand adding stigma to homosexuality in the general public, particularly since it seemed that unprotected anal sexwas the prevalent way of spreading the disease.
Within the medical community, it quickly became apparent that the disease was not specific to men who have sex with men (as
blood transfusionpatients, heroinusers, heterosexual and bisexual women, and newborn babies became added to the list of afflicted), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) renamed the syndrome AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) in 1982. Hemophiliacs, who require injections of blood clotting factor as a course of treatment, during the 1980s also contracted HIV in large numbers worldwide through the spread of contaminated blood products.
Regarding the social effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been since the 1980s a "profound re-
medicalizationof sexuality". [cite book |author=Aggleton, Peter; Parker, Richard Bordeaux; Barbosa, Regina Maria |title=Framing the sexual subject: the politics of gender, sexuality, and power |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |year=2000 |pages= |isbn=0-520-21838-8 |oclc= |doi= p.3] [Carole S. Vance "Anthropology Rediscovers Sexuality: A Theoretical Comment." Social Science and Medicine 33 (8) 875-884 1991 ]
One of the best-known works on the history of HIV is 1987's book "
And the Band Played On", by Randy Shilts. Shilts contends that Ronald Reagan's administration dragged its feet in dealing with the crisis due to homophobia, while the gay community viewed early reports and public health measures with corresponding distrust, thus allowing the disease to spread and hundreds of thousands of people to needlessly die. This resulted in the formation of ACT-UP, the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Powerby Larry Kramer.
This work popularized the misconception that the disease was introduced by a gay
flight attendantnamed Gaëtan Dugas, referred to as " Patient Zero". However, subsequent research has revealed that there were cases of AIDS much earlier than initially known. HIV-infected blood samples have been found from as early as 1959 in Africa "(see HIVmain entry)", and HIV has been shown to have caused the death of a sexually active St. Louis boy in 1969 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=11367253] .
Shilts also details the fact that despite recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control, the
Red Crossand other non-profit blood banking organizations refused to ban bisexual and gay men from donating blood in an effort to keep the blood bank industry from suffering shortages, particularly in cities having large homosexual communities. As a result, tens of thousands of hemophiliacs and transfusion recipients were infected and died.
It has been theorized that a series of
inoculations against hepatitisthat were performed in the gay community of San Franciscowere tainted with HIV. Although there was a high correlation between recipients of that vaccinationand initial cases of AIDS, this theory has never been proven. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis Care bloodborne diseases with very similar modes of transmission [http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/bbp/] , and those at risk for one are at risk for the others.
Activists and critics of current AIDS policies allege that another preventable impediment to the attack on the disease was the
academic elitismof "celebrity" scientists. Robert Gallo, an American scientist who was one of many to attempt to figure out if there was some kind of new virusin the people who were affected by the disease, became embroiled in a legal battle with French scientist Luc Montagnier. Gallo, too, appeared hung up on the possible connection between the virus causing AIDS and HTLV, a retrovirusthat he had worked with previously. Critics claim that because some scientists (and biological research companies) wanted glory and fame (and lucrative patent rights), research progress was delayed and more people needlessly died. Eventually, after meeting, the French scientists and Gallo agreed to "share" the discovery of HIV.
Publicity campaigns were started in attempts to counter the often vitriolic and homophobic perception of AIDS as a "gay plague." In particular this included the
Ryan Whitecase, red ribbon campaigns, celebrity dinners, the 1993 film version of "And the Band Played On", sex education programs in schools, and television advertisements. Announcements by various celebrities that they had contracted HIV (including actor Rock Hudson, basketball star Magic Johnson, and tennis player Arthur Ashe) were significant in making the general public aware of the dangers of the disease to people of all sexual orientations.
Great progress was made in the U.S. following the introduction of three-drug anti-HIV treatments ("cocktails") that included
protease inhibitors. David Ho, a pioneer of this approach, was honored as " Time Magazine" Man of the Year for 1996. Deaths were rapidly reduced by more than half, with a small but welcome reduction in the yearly rate of new HIV infections. Since this time, AIDS deaths have continued to decline, but much more slowly, and not as completely in black Americans as in other population segments [Phill Wilson, Kai Wright, Michael T. Isbell: [http://www.blackaids.org/image_uploads/article_575/08_left_behind.pdf "Left Behind: Black America: a Neglected Priority in the Global AIDS Epidemic"] , Black AIDS Institute, August 2008] [ [http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/press_archive04/pr005-0130.shtml "DEATHS IN NEW YORK CITY REACHED HISTORIC LOW IN 2002"] , Press Release, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, Friday, January 30, 2004 ] . The situation remains fragile - for example, Britain recently suffered a resurgence in HIV infections despite similar measures.
The second prong of the American approach to containment has been to maintain strict entry controls to the country for people with HIV or AIDS. Under legislation enacted by the
United States Congressin 1993, patients found importing anti-HIV medication into the country were arrested and placed on flights back to their country of origin.
Some HIV-positive travellers took to sending anti-HIV medication through the post to friends or contacts in advocacy groups in advance. This meant that the traveller would not be discovered with any medication. However, the security clampdown following
9/11meant this was no longer an option.
The only legal alternative to this was to apply for a special visa beforehand, which entailed interview at an American Embassy, confiscation of the passport during the lengthy application process, and then, if permission were granted, a permanent attachment being made to the applicant's passport.
This process was condemned as intrusive and invasive by a number of advocacy groups, on the grounds that any time the passport was later used for travel elsewhere or for identification purposes, the holder's HIV status would become known. It was also felt that this rule was unfair because it applied even if the traveller was covered for HIV-related conditions under their own travel
In early December 2006, President
George W. Bushindicated that he would issue an executive order allowing HIV-positive people to enter the United Stateson standard visas. It is unclear whether applicants will still have to declare their HIV status. [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20061215151913/http://news.yahoo.com/s/po/20061206/co_po/bushtoeasebanonhivpositivepeopleenteringus Bush to ease ban on HIV-positive people entering U.S.] ; Yahoo news; 2006-12-05; Retrieved on 2008-02-03] However, as of February 2008, the ban is still in effect. In August 2007, Congressperson Barbara Lee of California introduced House Resolution 3337, the HIV Nondiscrimination in Travel and Immigration Act of 2007. This bill would allow travelers and immigrants entry to the United States without having to disclose their HIV status. As of February 2008 it is still pending. [ [http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-3337 House Resolution 3337] ; Retrieved on 2008-02-03]
The CDC "estimates" the cumulative number of deaths of persons with AIDS in the U.S. through 2006 to be 545,805, including 5,369 children under the age of 13. For the U.S. and its dependencies (including Puerto Rico), it is 565,927. Cumulative "reported" AIDS cases are 992,865, and persons living with AIDS is 509,681. Persons living with HIV in reporting cities with confidential name based reporting (a fraction of the USA only) was 38,133 in 2005. [ [http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/surveillance/basic.htm Basic Statistics | Statistics and Surveillance | Topics | CDC HIV/AIDS ] ]
UNAIDSestimates that there are a total of about 1,200,000 people in the U.S. living with HIV as of 2005. [ [http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2008/jc1532_epibriefs_namerica_europe_en.pdf North America AIDS epidemic update] UNAIDSRetrieved on May 3, 2008]
In California alone, 182,221 cumulative people (including children) have "reported" to contract the HIV virus by year Sep 2008. Of those, 86,363 have died, with 31,300 in
Los Angeles Countyand 18,920 in San Francisco County. [http://ww2.cdph.ca.gov/data/statistics/Pages/OAHIVAIDSStatistics2008.aspx] . From the beginning of 2007 to Sep 2007, 2,830 people have been diagnosed with AIDS and 1141 people died from the disease in California, despite antiretroviraltherapy. This recent data contradicts the popular myth on the street that AIDS is not deadly in advanced nations anymore. California updates statistics every month.
By 2005 year end, 172,051 AIDS cases have been diagnosed in
New York State, with 138,251 of those in New York Cityalone. [http://www.health.state.ny.us/diseases/aids/statistics/semiannual/2005/surveillance_semiannual_report_2005_june.pdf] New York City is the HIV/AIDS epicenter of the U.S., with almost 100,000 people known to be living with the virus. New York City has the highest AIDS case rate in the country, with more AIDS cases than Los Angeles, San Francisco, Miami and Washington DC combined. [http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/html/ah/ah.shtml] , though Washington DC has a higher infection rate.
People with HIV "on the whole" are now living longer, healthier lives, and as a result the HIV-positive population is aging, but certain individuals still continue to succumb to the disease today despite the most advanced therapies. Today in New York City, more than 30 percent of people with the virus are over the age of 50, and 70 percent are over the age of 40. [http://www.nyc.gov/html/doh/downloads/pdf/dires/dires-2005-report-semi2.pdf]
Of all AIDS cases in 2003 in the United States:
* 48% were tracked back to male-to-male contact
* 27% were tracked back to male-to-female contact and intravenous drug use,
* 7% were tracked back to male-to-male contact and intravenous drug use,
* 16% tracked back to male-to-female contact, and
* 2% were tracked back to other causes, including
hemophiliaand other bloodrecipients, perinatal, and risk not reported or not identified. [http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm#exposure]
AIDS continues to be a problem with illegal
sex workers and injecting drug users. The main route of transmission for women is through heterosexual sex, and the main risk factor for them is non-protection and the undisclosed risky behaviour of their sexual partners. Experts attribute this to "AIDS fatigue" among younger people who have no memory of the worst phase of the epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s, as well as " condom fatigue" among those who have grown tired of and disillusioned with the unrelenting safer sexmessage. This trend is of major concern to public health workers.
AIDS is one of the top three causes of death for
African Americanmen aged 25–54 and for African American women aged 35–44 years in the United States of America. In the United States, African Americans make up about 47% of the total HIV-positive population and more than half of new HIV cases, despite making up only 12% of the population. African American women are 19 times more likely to contract HIV than white women. [http://www.thebody.com/kaiser/2005/jun20_05/aids_epidemic.html?m103h]
*Laura Bogart and Sheryl Thorburn, "Are HIV/AIDS Conspiracy Beliefs a Barrier to HIV Prevention Among African Americans?", "Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes", 38(2):213-218, February 1, 2005.
* Robert Searles Walker, AIDS: TODAY, TOMORROW - An Introduction to the HIV Epidemic in America (Humanities Press, NJ 1994) ISBN 0-391-03859-1.
* Patricia Siplon, "AIDS and the Policy Struggles in the United States'. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2002.
For Further Reading
*cite book | last = Cante | first = Richard C. | title = Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US Culture | publisher = Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0 7546 7230 1 | month = March | year = 2008 | location = London
* [http://www.aids.gov AIDS.gov - The U.S. Federal Domestic HIV/AIDS Resource]
Adult Industry Medical Health Care Foundation
People With AIDSSelf-Empowerment Movement
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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