Travel medicine


Travel medicine

Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers.

Globalization and travel

Globalization facilitates the spread of disease and increases the number of travelers who will be exposed to a different health environment. Major content areas of travel medicine include the global epidemiology of health risks to the traveler, vaccinology, malaria prevention, and pre-travel counseling designed to maintain the health of the approximately 600 million international travelers. It has been estimated that about 80 million travelers go annually from developed to developing countries. [ [http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec19341/index.htm Supercourse on Travel Medicine] ]

Mortality and morbidity

Mortality studies indicate that the cardiovascular disease accounts for most deaths during travel (50-70%), while injury and accident follow (~25%). Infectious disease accounts for about 2.8-4% of deaths during/from travel. Morbidity studies suggest that about half of the people from a developed country that stay one month in a developing country will get sick. [ [http://www.pitt.edu/~super1/lecture/lec19341/index.htm Supercourse on Travel Medicine] ] Traveler's diarrhea is the most common problem encountered.

Disciplines

The field of travel medicine encompasses a wide variety of disciplines including epidemiology, infectious disease, public health, tropical medicine, high altitude physiology, travel related obstetrics, psychiatry, occupational medicine, military and migration medicine, and environmental health.

Special itineraries and activities include cruise ship travel, diving, mass gatherings (e.g. the Hajj), and wilderness/remote regions travel.

Basically, the travel medicine can divide into 4 main topics: the prevention (vaccination and travel advice), the assistance medicine (dealing with repatriation and medical treatment of travelers), the wilderness medicine (e.g. high-altitude medicine, cruise ship medicine, expedition medicine, etc.) and the insurance medicine.

Focus

Travel medicine includes pre-travel consultation and evaluation, contingency planning during travel, and post-travel follow-up and care. Information is provided by the WHO that addresses health issues for travelers for each country as well as the specific health risks of air travel itself. [ [http://www.who.int/ith/en/ WHO Travel Information] ] Also, the CDC publishes valuable and up-to-date information. (see external links). Key areas to consider are vaccination and the six I’s:
# Insects: repellents, nets, medication
# Ingestions: safety of water, food
# Indiscretion: HIV, sexually transmitted disease
# Injuries: accident avoidance, personal safety
# Immersion: schistosomiasis
# Insurance: coverage and services during travel, access to care

pecific disease problems

Yellow fever is endemic to certain areas in Africa and South America. The CDC site delineates the risk areas and provides information about vaccination and preventive steps. [ [http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=yellowfever.htm CDC re: Yellow Fever] ]

Meningococcal meningitis is endemic in the tropical meningococcal belt of Africa. Vaccination is required for pilgrims going to Mecca. Detailed information is available on the CDC site. [ [http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=menin.htm&cssNav=browsecyb CDC re: Meningococcal Meningitis] ]

Malaria prevention is done by preventing or reducing exposure to mosquitos (screened rooms, air-conditioning, nets) use of repellents (usually DEET). In addition chemoprophylaxis is started before the travel, during the time of potential exposure, and for 4 weeks (chloroquine, doxycycline, or mefloquine) or 7 days (atovaquone/proguanil or primaquine) after leaving the risk area. See detailed CDC site. [ [http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/travel/yb/utils/ybGet.asp?section=dis&obj=index.htm&cssNav=browsecyb CDC re:Malaria] ]

Medication Kit

The traveler should have a medication kit to provide for necessary and useful medication. Based on circumstances it should include also malaria prophylaxis, condoms, and medication to combat traveler's diarrhea. In addition, a basic first aid kit can be of use.

Studies have shown there are four main medical problems that travellers develop - diarrhoea or gut problems, respiratory problems, wounds and pain. The medical kit should at least address these common things.

Research has also shown that the best treatment for travellers diarrhoea is to take an antibiotic (e.g. ciprofloxacin) plus a stopper ( e.g. loperamide). Due to bacterial resistance, different parts of the world require different antibiotics. It is best to consult a travel doctor to sort out the best medical kit for the exact destination and medical history of the person travelling.

ee also

* Tropical medicine
* Tropical disease
* Montezuma's revenge
* Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine
* Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
* Carte Jaune

References

External links

* [http://www.who.int/countries/en/ Countries] - World Health Organization - includes information on outbreaks and health information
* [http://www.Tropeninstitut.de/ Institute for tropical medicine Dr. Gontard] - provides information about health risks which might arise during stays in foreign countries and points out preventive measures
* [http://www.cdc.gov/travel/ Travelers' Health] - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - includes information on outbreaks, specific diseases, recommended vaccinations
* [http://medlineplus.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/travelershealth.html Traveler's Health] - MedlinePlus
* [http://www.safewateronline.com/ Safe Water for International Travelers] includes a Worldwide Rating of Drinking Water Safety and waterborne diseases prevention.
*Global Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology Network - a travel medicine resource known as GIDEON.
* [http://www.travelvaccinelongisland.com/ Long Island Travel Medicine] includes a vaccine preparedness list for travel to areas in the Middle East and Africa.
* [http://www.passporthealthusa.com/ Passport Health] is the largest provider of travel medical services in the United States with 165 convenient locations nationwide.

Organizations

* [https://www.istm.org/ The International Society of Travel Medicine]
** [https://www.istm.org/trav_med_exam/body.aspx Travel Medicine Body of Knowledge]
* [http://www.astmh.org/ The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Travel medicine — 1. A branch of medicine that specializes in diseases and conditions that are acquired during travel. Travelers to different countries should be aware of the potential for acquiring diseases and injury which are not common in their own country.… …   Medical dictionary

  • Travel literature — Travel writing and its most common sub genres First edition of …   Wikipedia

  • Travel insurance — is insurance that is intended to cover medical expenses, financial default of travel suppliers, and other losses incurred while traveling, either within one s own country, or internationally. Temporary travel insurance can usually be arranged at… …   Wikipedia

  • medicine — 1. A drug. 2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science concerned with disease in all its relations. 3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually… …   Medical dictionary

  • Medicine — This article is about the science and art of healing. For pharmaceutical drugs, see Medication. For other uses, see Medicine (disambiguation). Statue of Asclepius, the Greek god of medicine, holding the symbolic Rod of Asclepius with its coiled… …   Wikipedia

  • Travel website — A travel website is a website on the world wide web, that is dedicated to travel. The site may be focused on travel reviews, the booking of travel, or a combination of both. Approximately seventy million consumers researched travel plans online… …   Wikipedia

  • Travel journal — A travel journal, also called road journal or travelogue, is a record made by a voyager. Generally in diary form, a travel journal contains descriptions of the traveler s experiences, is normally written during the course of the journey, intended …   Wikipedia

  • Medicine Rocks State Park — IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape) Medicine Rocks State Park …   Wikipedia

  • Medicine Park, Oklahoma —   Town   Location of Medicine Park, Oklahoma …   Wikipedia

  • Medicine Bow Peak — Southern extent of Medicine Bow Peak rising above Lake Marie. Elevation …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.