- USS Guardfish (SS-217)
USS|Guardfish|SS-217, a "Gato"-class
submarine, was the first ship of the United States Navyto be named for the guardfish, a voracious green and silvery fish with elongated pike-like body and long narrow jaws.
"Guardfish" was laid down by the
Electric Boat Companyat Groton, Connecticut. She was launched there on 20 January 1942 (sponsored by Mrs. Edward J. Marquart), and commissioned at New London, Conn., 8 May 1942, Lt. Comdr. Thomas B. Klakringin command.
First and second war patrols, August – November 1942
After conducting shakedown out of New London, "Guardfish" departed that base 28 June 1942 for
Pearl Harborvia the Panama Canal, and arrived there 25 July to prepare for her first cruise. Her first war patrol was in the hitherto unpatrolled waters off northeast Honshū. "Guardfish" departed Pearl Harbor 6 August 1942, sank a trawler 22 August, and two days later sank 3,114 ton cargo ship "Seikai Maru" off KinkasanHarbor. Evading escort vessels, she proceeded up the coast and found a convoy 2 September. "Guardfish" attacked the next day, sinking 5,253 ton "Kaimei Maru" and 1,118nbsp;ton cargo ship "Tenyu Maru". "Chita Maru", a 2,376 ton freighter, retreated into the harbor and anchored, but a remarkable long-range shot from "Guardfish" left her resting in the mud. "Guardfish" returned from her spectacularly successful first patrol to Midway for refit 15 September 1942. "Guardfish" departed Midway on her second war patrol 30 September and headed for the East China Sea. Surviving a violent attack by patrolling aircraft 19 October, "Guardfish" closed a seven-ship convoy 21 October, sinking a 4,000-ton freighter and 6,362 ton "Nichiho Maru" north of Formosa as the convoy scattered. After evading pursuing aircraft and surface ships, "Guardfish" returned to Pearl Harbor 28 November 1942. For her outstanding success on these first two war patrols, "Guardfish" received a Presidential Unit Citation.
Third, fourth, and fifth war patrols, January – August 1943
Moving her base of operations to the
Trukarea, "Guardfish" departed Pearl Harbor 2 January 1943 to patrol off the Japanese stronghold. She sank a Japanese patrol craft 12 January west of Kavieng, and a 1,300 ton cargo ship the next day. Attacked by destroyer"Hakaze" 23 January, "Guardfish" sent her to the bottom with a well-placed torpedo. Moving south toward Rabaul, slip attacked a largo convoy near Simpson Harbor, but was driven off by concentrated shore fire and escort attacks. "Guardfish" ended her third patrol by arriving at Brisbane, Australia, 15 February 1943. Her fourth war patrol was conducted in the Bismarcks, Solomons, and New Guineaarea, and "Guardfish" recorded no kills during this cruise, 9 March to 30 April 1943. Departing Brisbane for the same waters 25 May 1943, "Guardfish" sank 201 ton freighter "Suzuya Maru" and damaged another before being forced to dive by aircraft 13 June. She picked up a surveying party on the west coast of Bougainville 14 July and returned to Brisbane for refit 2 August 1943.
Sixth and seventh war patrols, August 1943 – February 1944
"Guardfish" departed Brisbane for her sixth war patrol 24 August 1943, landing a reconnoitering party on Bougainville and then moving into cruising waters. She sank 5,460 ton "Kasha Maru" 8 October and subsequently spent two days as lifeguard ship during the air strikes on Rabaul. "Guardfish" embarked another reconnoitering party 19 October at
Tulagi, landed them on Bougainville, and took vital soundings in Empress Augusta Baybefore re-embarking the Marine party 28 October. These important missions were carried out a scant two days before the American landings at Bougainville. "Guardfish" reached Brisbane, closing out her sixth patrol, 3 November 1943. On 3 December 1943 "Guardfish" was damaged in a collision with an unknown tanker.cite book | url = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/| title = The official chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II | chapter = Chapter V: 1943 | chapterurl = http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/USN-Chron/USN-Chron-1943.html | first = Robert | last = Cressman | location = Annapolis, Maryland | publisher = Naval Institute Press | year = 2000 | isbn = 9781557501493 | oclc = 41977179 | accessdate = 2007-12-04 ]
Turning to the shipping lanes between Truk and
Guadalcanal, "Guardfish" began her seventh war patrol 27 December 1943, sinking 10,024 ton oiler "Kenyo Maru" 14 January 1944. She then closed Truk and sank destroyer "Umikaze" 1 February during an attack on a convoy. After serving briefly as lifeguard ship off Truk she arrived at Pearl Harbor 18 February and from there returned to San Francisco for repairs nine days later.
Eighth and ninth war patrols, June – October 1944
"Guardfish" again put to sea from San Francisco and arrived at Pearl Harbor 1 June. She then joined submarines USS|Thresher|SS-200|2, USS|Piranha|SS-389|2, and USS|Apogon|SS-308|2 to form the famous coordinated attack group known as the "Mickey Finns", commanded by Captain
W. V. O'Reganin "Guardfish". The submarines patrolled the shipping lanes around Formosa with spectacular success, "Guardfish" sinking 5,863 ton auxiliary"Mantai Maru", 2,838 ton cargo ship "Hizan Maru", and 5,215 ton cargo ship "Jinsan Maru" southwest of Formosa 17 July. After damaging another freighter 18 July, "Guardfish" sank 5,872 ton "Teiryu Maru" the next day, barely escaping the attacks of her escort vessels. She arrived at Midway for refit 31 July 1944, and for her outstanding performance on the eighth patrol was awarded a second Presidential Unit Citation. Putting to sea as a member of another wolf pack 23 August 1944, "Guardfish" and the other submarines, "Thresher" and USS|Sunfish|SS-281|2, had a 40-minute surface gun battle with sampans 2 September. On 25 September "Guardfish" attacked and sank 873 ton cargo ship "Miyakawa Maru #2" in the Sea of Japan, her cruising ground for this patrol. "Guardfish" returned to Pearl Harbor 24 October 1944.
Tenth, eleventh, and twelfth war patrols, November 1944 – June 1945
"Guardfish" departed 26 November for her 10th war patrol to cruise in the "Convoy College" area of the
South China Sea, with yet another wolf pack. She recorded no sinkings during this cruise, but nearing Guamin the early morning darkness of 24 January she mistook the American salvage ship USS|Extractor|ARS-15|3, for a Japanese I class submarineand torpedoed her. "Guardfish" succeeded in rescuing all but 6 of her crew of 79 from the sea, and terminated her patrol at Guam 26 January 1945. "Guardfish"'s 11th war patrol was spent watching for enemy fleet units attempting to escape from the Inland Sea of Japan by way of the Kii Suidobetween Shikokuand Honshū. Departing Saipanon this duty 27 February, she found no ships but rescued two downed aviators 19 March before returning to Midway 11 April 1945.
"Guardfish" departed Midway 8 May 1945 on her 12th and last war patrol, and was assigned lifeguard station for the ever-increasing air attacks on the Japanese mainland. She sank a small trawler with gunfire 16 June, and arrived back at Pearl Harbor 26 June 1945.
The veteran submarine served with the training command after her return to
Hawaii, helping to train surface ships in the newest antisubmarine warfare tactics until 25 August 1945. She then sailed for the United States, transiting the Panama Canal 12 September and arriving at New Orleans 16 September. "Guardfish" arrived at New London 6 November and decommissioned there 25 May 1946. "Guardfish" remained inactive until 18 June 1948, when she was placed "in service" for duty as a Naval Reserve Training Ship at New London. Declared surplus to Navy needs, she was stricken from the Naval Vessel Register1 June 1960. Appropriately, this ship, one of the most successful of World War IIsubmarines, performed her last service as a target ship for a new submarine torpedo. USS|Apogon|SS-308|2 and USS|Blenny|SS-324|2 sank her with the newly developed torpedoes off New London 10 October 1961.
"Guardfish" earned 11
battle stars for her World War II service. Her first, second, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, and eleventh war patrols (all except for the fourth and tenth) were designated successful.
* [http://hazegray.org/danfs/submar/ss217.txt hazegray.org: USS "Guardfish"]
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