- WABC (AM)
Infobox Radio station
name = WABC
New York City
area = New York City area
branding = "NewsTalkRadio 77 WABC"
slogan = "Breaking News, Stimulating Talk."
October 1, 1921
frequency = 770 kHz HD Radio
format = News/Talk
power = 50,000
class = A (
facility_id = 70658
callsign_meaning = W American Broadcasting Company
former_callsigns = WJZ (1922–1953)
licensee = Radio License Holding X, LLC
webcast = [http://gateway.andohs.net/player/?sid=826&nid=2920 Listen Live]
website = [http://www.wabcradio.com/ www.wabcradio.com]
affiliations = ABC News
The Weather Channel
coordinates = coord|40|52|50.00|N| 74|04|11.00|W|region:US_type:city
WABC (770 kHz), known as "NewsTalkRadio 77," is a radio station in
New York City. Owned by the Citadel Broadcasting Corporation, the station broadcasts on a clear channeland is the flagship stationof the ABC Radio Network. ABC Radio still owns stock its former stations including WABC, but non voting. WABC shares studio facilities with sister station WPLJ(95.5 FM) and former sister stations WEPN(1050 AM), and WQEW(1560 AM) in midtown Manhattan, and its transmitteris located in Lodi, New Jersey.
Since 1982 WABC has programmed a
talk radioformat, and has been one of the most successful talk stations locally and in the United States. WABC is, or has been, the flagship station for nationally known talk-radio hosts Rush Limbaugh, Sean Hannity, Mark Levin, Laura Ingraham, John Batchelorand Don Imus. The station also carries reports from ABC News. Before 1982, WABC broadcast a Top 40music format, was the dominant music station in the New York City area, and served as a template for many other Top 40 stations in different cities. WABC and WPLJ were included in the sale of several ABC radio stations and the ABC Radio Network by the Walt Disney Companyto Citadel, announced in February 2006 and finalized on June 12, 2007.
WABC made its first broadcast on
October 1, 1921as WJZ, owned by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation and was based in Newark, New Jersey. The call letters stood for their original home state, New Jer(Z) sey. It was originally housed in a shack on the roof of the Westinghouse meter factory on Orange and Plane streets in Newark, accessible only by ladder. The station later expanded into the one available space downstairs.Fact|date=February 2008
WJZ started off on 360 meters (833 AM) and as one of the first stations to broadcast in the New York City area, was reluctant to share the frequency with other stations. WJZ later recommended that other frequencies be made available for broadcasting, and by 1923, WJZ had moved over to 660 AM. In that same year, WJZ shifted ownership from Westinghouse to
RCAand changed its city of license from Newark to New York City. New studios were in the 6th floor of the Aeolian Building.
WJZ's first major program occurred on
October 5, 1921when it broadcast the 1921 World Series, but there was no play-by-play direct from the baseballstadium. Announcer Tommy Cowan in Newark simply relayed the description phoned from the ballpark by a newspaper reporter.Fact|date=February 2008 On March 15, 1922, WJZ broadcast a studio performance of Mozart's Impresario, probably radio's first full-length opera. In October 1922, WJZ aired its second World Series, this time feeding it to WGYin Schenectady, New York.
Program logs from
May 15to December 31 1923reveal that WJZ aired 3426 programs, including 723 talks, 67 church services, 205 bedtime stories and 21 sports events. Most of the broadcasts were musical and ranged from Carnegie Halland Aeolian Hall recitals to harmonica and banjo solos.
At the end of 1925, WJZ opened its new 50,000 watt transmitter from
Bound Brook, New Jersey. However, it overwhelmed everything else on the air, and engineers visited homes in central New Jersey to deal with the complaints.Fact|date=February 2008 As a result, WJZ didn't operate regularly at 50,000 watts until 1935.
NBC Blue flagship years
In July 1926, WEAF also became an
RCAstation and on November 15, 1926, both WJZ and WEAF were under the umbrella of the newly formed National Broadcasting Company.
January 1, 1927, the NBC Blue Networkdebuted, with WJZ as the originating station. In October 1927, WJZ moved into NBC studios still under construction at 711 Fifth Avenue. A month later, WEAF joined WJZ - and both were together under one roof. On March 24, 1932, WJZ became the first radio station to broadcast a program from aboard a moving train; the station aired a variety show produced aboard a Baltimore and Ohio Railroad passenger traintravelling through Maryland. [Rivanna Chapter National Railway Historical Society, " [http://avenue.org/nrhs/histmar.htm This Month in Railroad History: March] ". Retrieved March 24 2006.] In November 1933, WJZ, WEAF and all of the NBC and RCA corporate headquarters moved to 30 Rockefeller Plaza.
Over the years, WJZ and the Blue Network presented many of America's most popular programs, such as "Lowell Thomas and the News", "
Amos 'n' Andy", " Little Orphan Annie", " America's Town Meeting of the Air", and " Death Valley Days". Each midday, " The National Farm and Home Hour" brought news and entertainment to rurallisteners. Ted Malone read poetry and Milton Cross conveyed children "Coast To Coast On A Bus," as well as bringing opera lovers the Saturday matinées from the Metropolitan Opera.
Occasionally, a show would premiere on NBC Blue, which had a weaker lineup of stations nationwide, and be shifted to the Red Network if it grew in popularity. "
Fibber McGee and Molly" is one example.
Birth of ABC
In 1942, the
FCCruled that no broadcaster could own more than one station in a market. A year later, on October 12, 1943, WJZ and the NBC Blue Network were sold to Edward J. Noble, then the owner of WMCA. Technically, this spun-off network was simply called "The Blue Network" for little over a year.
June 15, 1945, "The Blue Network" was officially rechristened the American Broadcasting Company, when negotiations were completed with George B. Storer, who had owned the defunct American Broadcasting System and still owned the name.
In November 1948, WJZ and the ABC network finally got a home of their own when studios were moved to a renovated building at 7 West 66th Street. On
March 1, 1953, WJZ changed its call letters to WABC, after the FCC approved ABC's merger with United Paramount Theatres, Paramount Pictures' movie theaterchain which, like the Blue Network, was divested under government order.
The WABC calls were once used previously on
CBS Radio's New York City outlet, before adopting their current WCBS identity in 1946. Westinghouse, however, didn't let the WJZ call go forgotten. After acquiring WAAM-TV in Baltimore, Marylandin 1957, Westinghouse applied to change the calls to WJZ-TVin honor of its pioneer radio station.Fact|date=February 2008 The FCC granted the unusual request (perhaps because Westinghouse was highly regarded as a licensee by both the industry and the FCC at that time), and the Baltimore TV station retains the call letters to this day.
WABC's first era (1953–1960)
Although WABC continued to air ABC programming during this time, WABC began using deejays playing recorded music. Some programs featured "middle of the road" mainstream pop and showtunes, while other portions of the schedule included long-form newscasts and dramatic programs, similar to the other network-owned stations in New York like WCBS and
(This would continue until 1960, as the Musicradio 77 era formally began, but WABC was still required to carry ABC Radio's non-music and entertainment shows, including the long-running "Don McNeill's Breakfast Club" during the 10:00 a.m. hour, and a long-form news block in the afternoon-drive period. While this was not an issue prior to 1960, such committments created a programming clash with the Top 40 format up until the network was dissected into four sub-networks in 1968.)
A hint of what was to come came in 1958–1959, when for a time legendary rock and blues disk jockey
Alan Freedhosted a daily evening show on WABC which was formatically (sic) and musically like the early rock shows he had gained fame with on WINS. Freed's time at WABC ended when he was caught up in the investigation of the " payola" scandals of the era.
At different times in the pre-top-40 era famed comedian Ernie Kovacs and dean of early disc jockeys Martin Block were heard on the station.
The Musicradio 77 era (1960–1982)
Harold L. Neal, Jr. was named General Manager of WABC. Neal had been at WXYZ in Detroit.He was charged with making WABC successful in terms of both audience and profits. WABC committed to a virtually full-time schedule of
top-40songs played by upbeat personalities during the first week of December, 1960. WABC's early days as a Top 40station were humble ones. Top 40 WINS was the #1 music station and WMCAwas also a formidable competitor, while WABC barely ranked in the Top Ten. Fortunately for WABC, the other Top 40 outlets could not be heard well in certain New York and New Jersey suburbs, since WINS, WMGM, and WMCA were all directional stations. WABC, with its 50,000-watt non-directional signal, had the advantage of being heard in places west, south, and northwest – a huge chunk of the suburban population – and this is where the station began to draw ratings.
Sam Holman was the first WABC program director of this era. Under Holman, WABC achieved #1 ratings in late 1962, when WINS and WMCA experimented with "softer" music.Fact|date=February 2008 During 1963, both WINS and WMCA went back to pop Top 40 and WABC slipped a bit. By the summer of 1963, WMCA led the pack, with WABC at #2 and WINS slipping to third place.Fact|date=February 2008 It has been said, but is difficult to verify, that WMCA dominated in the city proper, while WABC owned the suburbs. This would be consistent with WMCA's 5,000-watt directional signal, although WMCA had the benefit of a lower frequency than WABC.
Hal Neal hired
Rick Sklarthe program director. He would go on to become a member of the Radio Hall of Fameand be credited as one of the pioneering architects of the Top 40 format.
Under Sklar, the station went to the shortest playlist of any contemporary music station in history; the number one song was heard almost every hour. In his book "Rockin' America", Sklar said he was sensitive to
payolaconcerns and advanced airplay.
Through the years, WABC was known by various slogans, "Channel 77 WABC", then "77 WABC", and later "Musicradio WABC".Fact|date=February 2008
disc jockeysincluded Herb Oscar Anderson, Charlie Greer, Scott Muni, Chuck Dunaway, and Bob Lewis, but the best known WABC DJs are the ones that followed them in the mid-1960s and beyond: Harry Harrison, Ron Lundy, Jim Nettleton, Jim Perry, Dan Ingram, Radio Hall of Famemember "Cousin Brucie" Bruce Morrow, Chuck Leonard, Bob Cruz, Frank Kingston Smith, Roby Yonge, George Michael, and Johnny Donovan. Also heard on WABC was sportscaster Howard Cosell.
Especially in the afternoons and evenings, WABC was the station that
teenagerscould be heard listening to on transistor radiosall over the New York metropolitan area. Fact|date=February 2007 Due to its strong signal, the station could be heard over 100 miles away -- as far as the Catskill Mountains, Pocono Mountainsand outlying areas of Philadelphia. WABC could be heard in the New London/Waterford area of Connecticut, but there was always a slight squeal in the signal due to the nearly 125 mile distance.Fact|date=February 2008 It could also be heard well after sunsetin Ontario, Canada(from Toronto, north to Georgian Bayon Lake Huron) well into the night and early morning hours on home and car radios.Fact|date=February 2008 Bruce Morrow later spoke about how he felt an almost psychic bond to his young listeners.Fact|date=February 2008
A famous tape, or
aircheck, of WABC from 1964 features some of the DJs speaking from a window of the Beatles' hotel room during the Fab Four's visit to New York City, while Dan Ingram, back in the studio, played WABC jinglesto thousands of teenagers in the streets below, who enthusiastically sang along with them. Ingram later noted that this was actually illegal under FCCrules, but said that they didn't know it at the time. In the wake of the success of "W-A-Beatle-C" (as it was briefly called around the time of the Beatles' U.S. visit), competitor WINS finally dropped out of the Top 40 battle in 1965, adopting an all-news format. As a tribute to WABC, the television network also called itself "A-Beatles-C" whenever it promoted airings of Beatles-related films.
Just before the famous New York City power outage in 1965, Dan Ingram noted that the power was fluctuating and began having fun with the slowed-down music. After playing "Everyone's Gone To The Moon" by Johnathan King, he quipped it was played "in the key of R." After the 6 PM newscast, WABC left the air as the outage settled in for real. [http://musicradio.computer.net/images/ing11-9-65blackout.ram]
In the 1970s, WABC was either #1 or #2 consistently, often trading places with WOR. Once in a while, a station attracting an older audience (like WOR or WPAT) would move into the top spot, but these stations were not truly WABC's competitors.Fact|date=February 2008 Chief competitor
WMCAstopped playing top 40 music in 1970,Fact|date=February 2008 WWDJlasted from 1971 to 1974, and WOR-FM(later99X) came and went from 1968 to 1978. Other FM competitors like oldies station WCBS-FM, soul station WBLS, and album-oriented rockstations like WPLJand WNEW-FMall did well in the ratings, but none rivalled WABC's success. AM competitor WNBC also never came close to WABC's audience during this period.Fact|date=February 2008 Even though WNBC tried sounding younger, older, and somewhere in-between, WABC remained dominant.
WABC's ratings strength came from its cumulative audience, what the radio industry calls "cume".Fact|date=February 2008 Most listeners didn't stay with WABC for long periods of time, as the station had some of the shortest "time spent listening" (or TSL) spans in the history of music radio -- an average listener spent about 10 minutes listening to WABC. It was the price paid for a short playlist and a lot of commercials between songs (the large amount of
commercialsbeing due to WABC's large audience), but what WABC lacked in TSL it more than made up for with its sheer number of listeners.
Fed up with the short playlist, Cousin Brucie left in 1974 for rival WNBC. Rick Sklar left in 1976 to become vice president of programming for
ABC Radio, and assistant program director Glenn Morgan became WABC's program director.
The station's influence could be found in odd places:
Philip Glass' 1976 opera, " Einstein on the Beach", has as part of the background a recitation of WABC's DJ schedule in the 1960s.
Disco and the end of "Musicradio" WABC
The end of the 1970s found FM radio beginning to overtake AM music stations in most markets.Fact|date=February 2008 In July 1978,
WKTU, an FM station, abruptly dropped its adult contemporaryformat in favor of a disco-based top 40 format known as "Disco 92". By December of that year, WABC was unseated, as WKTU became the #1 station in New York City.Fact|date=February 2008 The first "disco" ratings saw WKTU with 11 percent of the listening audience -- a huge number anywhere, let alone in a market the size of New York City -- and WABC dropping from 4.1 million listeners to 3 million, losing 25 percent of its audience practically overnight.Fact|date=February 2008
After this initial ratings tumble, WABC panicked and began airing extended disco mixes back-to-back. Some of the disco songs ran in excess of six, seven or eight minutes. What regular listeners heard was a major change in sound. The familiar format had disappeared - hit music, jingles, commercials - and as a result, WABC began to lose its identity. In the late spring of 1979, "Billboard" magazine reported that Rick Sklar had demoted program director Glenn Morgan to "moving carts" instead of making programming decisions. WABC's numbers dropped for four consecutive ratings periods.
August 2, 1979, the Donna Summerdisco hit "MacArthur Park" was playing during Dan Ingram's afternoon drive program. During the song, Howard Cosellinterrupted to break the news to the world that New York Yankeescatcher and team captain Thurman Munsonhad died in a plane crash.Fact|date=February 2008
In September 1979,
Al Brady Lawtook over the station, and according to an account by DJ George Michael, Rick Sklarwas removed from his oversight of WABC and was moved "upstairs." Law cut back the current songs slightly (though still playing the top song over a dozen times a day) and added more 1970s rock, some album cuts, and a few big 1960s hits. He also changed the presentation of the station. The goal was to increase the station's poor time-spent-listening, and for this, he desired a new direction.Fact|date=February 2008
Harry Harrison, Chuck Leonard, and George Michael were gone that November. Dan Ingram moved to mornings, Bob Cruz moved to afternoons, and Sturgis Griffinjoined for overnights, while Howard Hoffmandid evenings. Hoffman was one of the first of the 1980s style of contemporary hit radio (CHR) DJs -- heavy on brief phone bits from listeners and a sarcastic sense of humor, sounding "hip", as the future Z100 DJs would a few years later -- but his ratings were merely okay, and he didn't stay long.Fact|date=February 2008
The time-spent-listening did improve, but WABC was still losing audience and they were under extreme pressure to regain lost ground. The station started to become more information-oriented, adding morning traffic reports by
Shadow Traffic's Jack Packard (aka Bernie Wagenblast) on December 3, 1979. Al Brady Law left the station in the summer of 1980 as WABC added the New York Yankeesbaseball games that all-news WINS was unable to air due to their coverage of the 1980 Democratic and Republican conventions. It was the first sign of the beginning of the end for the music format of WABC.
In the summer of 1980, Jay Clark took over WABC. By the fall, the station played current music that was more Adult Contemporary (AC) in sound, trying to appeal to a slightly older audience, as most younger listeners had moved to the FM dial. WABC still played rock and soul crossovers in moderation, but began to move away from album cuts and more toward 1960s and 1970s oldies. They also dropped the "Musicradio WABC" slogan and became "77 WABC, New York's Radio Station", the apparent implication being that the station was more than "just" music.
By early 1981, WABC's cumulative audience was down to 2.5 million -- rival WNBC, a perennial also-ran, was by this time beating them with 2.9 million. Fewer people were tuning in to WABC, listeners who had switched to FM were not coming back, and, while still moderately successful, the ship was sinking. Like Al Brady Law, Jay Clark tried to improve the time-spent-listening. Howard Hoffman and Bob Cruz departed, Dan Ingram went back to his familiar afternoon slot, and the team of
Ross Brittainand Brian Wilson from Atlanta moved into morning drive.
That spring, WABC became the full-time flagship radio outlet for Yankees baseball games, a distinction the station carried through the end of the 2001 season. This would be the longest continuous relationship the team would have with any flagship station (to date).Fact|date=February 2008 Jay Clark reasoned that Yankee baseball would bring back some listeners to the station and that they would recycle back into the music format, but not even the "Bronx Bombers" could save music on WABC.
At the time the Yankees became a regular WABC feature, the station also began airing a weeknight sports-talk show with
Art Rust, Jr.WABC's ratings by this point were mediocre at best -- and they were still going down.
In the fall of 1981, WABC dropped the remaining heavy-rock cuts and non-crossover urban hits. They began playing more oldies, as well as songs from the adult contemporary chart, and added an "advice" talk show with Doctor Judy Kuriansky. By this point, WABC was almost unrecognizable as a Top 40 station, the ratings were languishing, and rumors were rampant that the station would be changing it's format.
In February 1982, WABC officially confirmed it would be going to an all-talk format that May. The airstaff began saying goodbye with a comment here and there from February into May. Finally, on
April 30, it was announced that the switch to all-talk would occur on May 10at noon. From May 7to May 9, the station airstaff said their goodbyes one last time. May 10 1982, the day WABC stopped playing music, is sometimes called " The Day The Music Died". WABC ended its 22-year run as a music station with a 9 a.m.-noon farewell show hosted by longtime WABC disc jockeys Dan Ingramand Ron Lundy. The last song played on WABC before the format change was "Imagine" by John Lennon, followed by the familiar WABC "Chime Time" jingle, then a moment of silence before the debut of the new talk format.
The NewsTalkRadio 77 era (1982-current)
Early years and success
Initially after the format change, the station ran a lot of satellite talk from corporate ABC's "Talk Radio" network. Ross and Wilson stayed on and continued to play 4 songs per hour (mostly '60s and '70s hits) throughout 1982. In 1983, they stopped playing music as well. Ross and Wilson split up in 1983 when Ross went over to
WHTZ. While the station's final ratings as a music station were mediocre, their talk ratings initially were even lower.
Still, the station stuck with the new format. They added more issues-oriented talk shows, with an increasing number of conservative talk show hosts (a couple of liberals also hosted shows). The ratings grew and by the late 1980s, they were a very successful talk station. The program director behind this was
John Mainelli, later being replaced by Phil Boyce.
From 1984 to 1996 WABC broadcast the popular Bob Grant, a controversial, early "right-wing" talk radio host. After years of what many considered inflammatory remarks, he was fired in 1996 for a controversial comment regarding the death of
United States Secretary of CommerceRon Brown. After a number of years at competitor station WOR, Grant returned as a host as of July 2007. Alan Colmeswas among the first hosts picked for the new format, and appeared in various timeslots.
Within it's first years, the revamped WABC brought in
Rush Limbaugh, who would go on to be the anchor program of the local station for two decades, and soon after the giant of talk syndication, the model for countless other conservative radio shows to follow.
As of March 3, 2008, the WABC broadcast day begins at 5:00 a.m. (Eastern time) with the "Rooster Hour", hosted by
Curtis Sliwa, founder of the Guardian Angels. The "Imus in the Morning" program follows at 6:00. Don Imusjoined WABC on December 3, 2007, eight months after being dismissed from WFANand CBS Radioover controversial statements made during a broadcast in April 2007. [McShane, Larry. [http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=3807733 Shock Jock Don Imus to Return to Radio] . Associated Press. 1 November 2007.] Charles McCordserves as sidekick and newscaster for the program, which is also simulcast on the RFD-TVcable television network.
Curtis Sliwa returns to host in late mornings, and is followed by Rush Limbaugh from Noon to 3 p.m..
Sean Hannityis the afternoon drive host. Mark Levin, Bob Grant, and Laura Ingrahamtake over in the evenings. Late-night hours are covered by George Noory's " Coast to Coast AM" program. WABC also carries Paul Harvey's newscasts during "Imus in the Morning" ("Paul Harvey News and Comment") and in-between Sliwa and Limbaugh ("The Rest of the Story"). Mark Simonecurrently hosts two Saturday shows -- a morning talk show from 6 to 10 a.m., and the music-intensive "Saturday Night Oldies" specialty show, from 6 to 10 p.m. During the weekend, the station plays more lifestyle talk.
Flagship-wise, Limbaugh's show was produced at WABC from 1988 until the early 2000s, when he started doing the program from
Premiere Radio Networksand a studio in his home in South Florida. (Substitute hosts for Limbaugh still use the WABC studios, and Limbaugh will still on occasion host from WABC.) "Imus in the Morning" and Hannity originate from WABC, while Levin originates from Washington, D.C.sister station WMAL. All three of these shows are syndicated on ABC Radio.
Virtually all of WABC's weekday lineup -- specifically Sliwa, Limbaugh, Hannity, Levin, Grant, and Ingraham -- consists of hosts with very similar viewpoints. Program director Phil Boyce has stated that these programming decisions are ratings-driven, while critics of WABC state that the station's programming reflects a conscious conservative political advocacy. The station's slogan is "News, opinion, passion".
In 2004, the station earned the distinction of being a news/talk radio station even longer than it had been a Top 40 station, by marking 22 years in its present format.
Some of the station's former locally-based hosts include
John R. Gambling, Ron Kuby, Jay Diamond, Ed Koch, Lynn Samuels, Joy Behar, Mario Cuomo, Steve Malzberg, Richard Bey, Jerry Agar, and John Batchelor, who returned to WABC as host of a weekly Sunday night show in October 2007. Several nationally-syndicated talkers, including Art Bell, Mike Gallagher, Lionel, Laura Schlessinger, Michael Savage, and Matt Drudge, have also been heard over WABC's airwaves.
In 2004, the station earned the distinction of being a news/talk radio station even longer than it had been a Top 40 station, by marking 22 years in its present format.
Although the station had good ratings, it underperformed in terms of total revenue, an example being WABC billing $24 million in 2005, not even close to industry giant KFI in
Los Angelesat $60 million. In Winter 2006, KFI became the most listened-to talk station in the country.
February 6, 2006, the Walt Disney Company announced that it would sell WABC and other radio properties not affiliated with either Radio Disneyor ESPN Radio, along with ABC Radio's News & Talk and FM networks, to Citadel Broadcasting Corporationfor $2.7 billion. The transaction became final on June 12, 2007.
Currently, WABC carries
New York Jetsfootball, simulcasting the games along with former sister station WEPN. This arrangement was made when both stations were still co-owned, largely because WABC has a stronger signal than WEPN. WABC also airs selected New York Rangersand New York Knicksgames that cannot be aired on WEPN due to scheduling conflicts.
In December 2001, broadcast rights to the New York Yankees were lost after 20 years to WCBS.
New Jersey Devilshockey broadcasts, which had been on WABC for 16 years, also switched to CBS's cluster, joining WFAN for the 2005–2006 season. The loss of evening sports programming forced WABC to attempt to solidify its evening talk lineup.
Early in its Top 40 incarnation, WABC served as the original radio flagship of the
New York Mets, for the 1962 and 1963 seasons. A notable aspect of WABC's Mets coverage was Howard Cosell and former Brooklyn Dodgers pitcher Ralph Brancahandling the pre- and post-game shows.
* [http://groups.yahoo.com/group/WABC77AMGold/ WABC Fans]
* [http://www.wabcradio.com/ WABC's Website]
* [http://www.musicradio77.com/ Musicradio 77 WABC (1960 to 1982) tribute site]
* [http://www.nyradionews.com/wabc/ WABC News Historical Profile & Interviews (1978)]
* [http://www.musicradio77.com/wabcboard/wwwboard//wabcboard1.html Saturday Night Oldies Message Board]
*http://www.WABCTribute.com - WABC Tribute Slideshow Movie
* [http://www.pophistorynow.com/samples.htm The 1960s Week-By-Week featuring in-depth news of the WMCA-WINS-WABC top-40 wars including ratings]
* [http://www.radio-history.com/nj2/piratejim/nycamhistory2.html Radio-History.com information on WJZ-AM.]
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