The Gräfenberg spot, or G-spot, is a female erogenous zone which when stimulated leads to high levels of sexual arousal and powerful orgasms.cite book |last=Ladas |first=AK |coauthors=Whipple, B; Perry, JD |title=The G spot and other discoveries about human sexuality |origyear=1982 |publisher=Holt, Rinehart, and Winston |location=New York]

Origin and popularity of the term

The term "G-spot" was coined by Addiego et al. in 1981. It is named after the German gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg who first hypothesized its existence in 1944. The G-spot's existence was not disclosed until 1982 Fact|date=August 2008, with the publication of "The G Spot and Other Recent Discoveries About Human Sexuality" by Ladas et al. Shortly after publication of Ladas's book, many gynaecologists publicly criticized its scholarship and accuracy. [ cite journal |author =Unknown |year =1983 |month =September |title =In Search of the Perfect G |journal =Time |url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,951842-1,00.html]

Location of the spot

The purported location of the G-spot has changed over time. Two primary methods have been used to attempt to locate it:
*The first is based on self-reported levels of arousal during stimulation and
*the second based on the claim that stimulation of the G-spot leads to female ejaculation.

One of the studies using self-reported levels of arousal was a case study with a single woman who claimed the experience of a “deeper” orgasm when her G-spot was stimulated. In the published study it was reported that stimulation of the anterior vaginal wall made the area grow by fifty percent. cite journal |author =Addiego, F; Belzer, EG; Comolli, J; Moger, W; Perry, JD; Whipple, B. |year =1981|title =Female ejaculation: a case study. |journal =Journal of Sex Research |volume =17 |issue =1|pages =13–21] Another study examined eleven women in an attempt to locate the spot under laboratory conditions. Researchers attempted to find the G-spot by “palpating the entire vagina in a clockwise fashion.” Using this technique the researchers reported discovering that four of the women had highly sensitive areas on the anterior vaginal wall. [cite journal |author =Goldberg, DC; Whipple, B; Fishkin, RE; Waxman H; Fink PJ; Wiesberg M. |year =1983 |title =The Grafenberg Spot and female ejaculation: a review of initial hypotheses. |journal =J Sex Marital Ther. |volume =9 |pages =27–37]

Public belief

Despite professional and scientific criticism and scepticism, the G-spot, as a concept, has been widely accepted by the public. One study reports that 84 percent of women believe that there is a “highly sensitive area” in the vagina. Most popular sexology books treat the G-spot as real. cite journal |author =Darling, CA; Davidson, JK; Conway-Welch, C.|year =1990 |title =Female ejaculation: perceived origins, the Grafenberg spot/area, and sexual responsiveness. |journal = Arch Sex Behav |volume =19 |pages =29–47 |doi =10.1007/BF01541824]

cientific evidence

Subsequent empirical investigations of the G-spot have yielded variable results. Tests that examined the vaginal wall innervation show there is no one area with a greater density of nerve endings. A recent study of 110 biopsy specimens drawn from 21 women concluded with the absence of a vaginal locus with greater nerve density. [cite journal |author = Pauls, R; Mutema, G; Segal, J; Silva, WA; Kleeman, S; Dryfhout, Ma V; Karram, M.|year =2006 |month =November |title =A prospective study examining the anatomic distribution of nerve density in the human vagina. |journal = J Sex Med |volume =3 |issue =6 |pages =979–87 | pmid = 17100930 |doi = 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2006.00325.x] G-spot proponents are criticized for giving too much credence to anecdotal evidence from women. It should be noted, however, that neuron density is not the sole precipitating factor in determining sensory sensitivity of an area. Other factors contribute to such connectivity, such as the branching patterns of neuron terminals and cross or collateral innervation of neurons, so it is feasible to have an area of increased sensory sensitivity without a detectable increase in neuron number.

The few studies attempting to locate the G-spot more precisely have yielded positive evidence, yet only from small participant samples, and have been criticized for the use of questionable investigation methods. cite journal |author =Hines, T |year =2001 |month =August |title =The G-Spot: A modern gynecologic myth |journal =Am J Obstet Gynecol |volume =185 |issue =2 |pages =359–62 | pmid = 11518892 |doi =10.1067/mob.2001.115995] A recent ultrasonography study reported that women who claimed to experience vaginal orgasm were statistically more likely to have thicker tissue in the anterior vaginal wall. Doctors at the University of L'Aquila in Italy, where the study was conducted, say the findings make it possible for women to have a rapid test to confirm whether or not they have a G spot. [cite news |first=Ian |last=Sample |title=The elusive G spot really does exist, say researchers |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2008/feb/21/medicalresearch.sciencenews |publisher =The Guardian |date= 2008-02-21|accessdate=2008-09-03 |language=English] cite journal |author=Gravina GL, Brandetti F, Martini P, "et al" |title=Measurement of the Thickness of the Urethrovaginal Space in Women with or without Vaginal Orgasm |journal=J Sex Med |volume= 5|issue= |pages=610|year=2008 |pmid=18221286 |doi=10.1111/j.1743-6109.2007.00739.x]

The Skene's Glands

Other researchers have attempted to locate the G-spot by building on the claim that G-spot stimulation leads to female ejaculation. Tepper hypothesized that non-urine female ejaculate originated from the female paraurethral glands, or Skene's gland. [cite journal |author =Tepper, Sl; Jagirdar, J; Heath, D; Geller, SA. |year =1984 |title =Homology between the female paraurethral (Skene's) glands and the prostate. |journal =Arch Pathol Lab Med. |volume =108 |pages =423–425] In their study they examined tissue from 18 patients and demonstrated that 15 showed prostate-specific antigens. More recent studies have backed up this finding, leading some to call the Skene's glands "the female prostate". [cite journal |author =Zaviacic, M; Ablin, RJ. |year =2000 |title =The female prostate and prostate-specific antigen. Immunohistochemical localization, implications for this prostate marker in women, and reasons for using the term “prostate in the human female. |journal =Histol Histopathol |volume =15 |pages =131–142] This finding has been used to claim that the G-spot is actually a system of glands and ducts that surround the urethra. This system is located within the anterior (front) wall of the vagina, about one centimeter from the surface and one third to one-half the way in from the vaginal opening. [cite book |last=Crooks |first=R |coauthors=Baur, K |title=Our Sexuality |origyear=1999 |publisher= Brooks/Cole |location=California]

In July 2002, Emmanuele Jannini of the University of L'Aquila, Italy discovered PDE5 activity in the area of the G-spot and speculated that the absence of G-spot orgasms is connected to the lack of Skene's glands in some women. In such women, concentrations of PDE5 were much lower. [ [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn2495 Bigger is better when it comes to the G spot - 03 July 2002 - New Scientist ] ] However, most researchers feel that the connection between the Skene's Gland and the G-spot is weak. cite journal |author=Santos, F Taboga, S. |year=2003 |title="Female prostate: a review about biological repercussions of this gland in humans and rodents. |journal=Animal Reproduction. |volume=3 |issue=1 |pages= 3–18] The Skene's Gland does not seem to have receptors for touch stimulation and no direct evidence for its involvement has been forthcoming. cite journal |author =Alzate H Hoch Z |year =1986 |title =The "G spot" and "female ejaculation": a current appraisal. |journal =J Sex Marital Ther. |volume =12 |issue =3 |pages =211–20]

The location, and even existence, of the G spot has been hotly contested in medical circles. While doctors know that female sexual anatomy varies substantially, until now there has been no solid evidence to link those differences to a woman's sexual responses. "For the first time, it is possible to determine by a simple, rapid and inexpensive method if a woman has a G spot or not," Dr Emmanuele Jannini told New Scientist magazine. The G spot is only thought to affect a woman's ability to have vaginal orgasms, so if women do not have one "they can still have a normal orgasm through stimulation of the clitoris," Jannini said.

Relation with the "urethral sponge"

Some claim that the urethral sponge is the same as the G-spot. [ [http://womenshealth.about.com/cs/sexuality/a/clitoraltruthin.htm The Clitoral Truth An Interview With Author Rebecca Chalker ] ]

See also

*Human sexuality
*Human female sexuality


External links

* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/relationships/sex_and_sexual_health/enjsex_gspot.shtml BBC - Relationships - Sex and sexual health - The G-spot]
* [http://sexuality.about.com/od/gspotfemaleejaculation/a/whatisgspot.htm About.com: Sexuality, "What is the G Spot?", Cory Silverberg]
* [http://sexuality.about.com/od/anatomyresponse/ht/findyourgspot.htm About.com - How to Locate Your G Spot]
* [http://www.the-clitoris.com/f_html/ejacula.htm The-Clitoris.com - Female Ejaculation, the Female Prostate, and The G-Spot]

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