Ictaluridae


Ictaluridae

Taxobox
name = Ictaluridae


image_width = 250px
image_caption = Blue catfish, "Ictalurus furcatus"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Actinopterygii
ordo = Siluriformes
superfamilia = Ictaluroidea
familia = Ictaluridae
familia_authority = Gill, 1861
subdivision_ranks = Genera
subdivision = "Ameiurus", bullheads
"Astephus" †
"Ictalurus"
"Noturus", madtoms
"Prietella"
"Pylodictis"
"Satan"
"Trogloglanis"

The Ictaluridae, sometimes called Ictalurids, are a family of catfish native to North America, where they are important food fish and sometimes as a sport fish. They include fish commonly known as bullheads, madtoms, channel catfish, and blue catfish.

Taxonomy

Ictaluridae is strongly supported as a monophyletic group. Ictaluridae is closely related to the Asian family Cranoglanididae. These two families are sister taxa in the superfamily Ictaluroidea.cite journal|journal=Mol Phylogenet Evol.|year=2006|volume=41|issue=3|pages=636–62|title=A phylogenetic analysis of the major groups of catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes) using rag1 and rag2 nuclear gene sequences|last=Sullivan|first=JP|coauthors=Lundberg JG; Hardman M|doi=10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.044]

Though the family includes three genera of blind, subterranean, and troglobitic catfishes, "Trogloglanis", "Satan", and "Prietella", none of these three genera are closely related. Instead, "Satan" is closely related to "Pylodictis", "Prietella" to "Noturus", and "Trogloglanis" possibly to "Ictalurus", although it may not be closely related to any of the other ictalurids.cite journal|title=Morphological Adaptations of the Texas Blind Catfishes "Trogloglanis pattersoni" and "Satan eurystomus" (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) to Their Underground Environment|first=Thomas G.|last=Langecker|coauthors=Longley, Glenn|journal=Copeia|year=1993|pages=976–986|doi=10.2307/1447075|volume=1993] "Ameiurus" is sister to a clade formed by "Satan", "Pylodictis", "Noturus", and "Prietella".cite journal|title=New Species of Troglobitic Catfish of the Genus "Prietella" (Siluriformes: Ictaluridae) from Northeastern México|first=Stephen J.|last=Walsh|coauthors=Gilbert, Carter R.|journal=Copeia|year=1995|issue=4|pages=850–861|doi=10.2307/1447033|volume=1995]

Distribution and habitat

Ictalurids originate from North America from southern Canada to Guatemala.cite book|title=Fishes of the World|last=Nelson|first=Joseph S.|publisher=John Wiley & Sons, Inc|year=2006|isbn=0-471-25031-7] Both bullheads and madtoms tend to be found in small streams and ponds, but are also known in larger bodies of water. Channel catfish, bullheads and madtoms are "bottom feeders" with widely varied diets that include scavenging.

Description

Ictalurid species have four pairs of barbels (commonly referred to as "whiskers" as applied to catfish). The skin is naked. The dorsal fin and pectoral fins are usually with a spine. The dorsal fin is usually with six soft rays. The palate is toothless except in the fossil genus "Astephus". The genera "Trogoglanis", "Satan", and "Prietella" include four species of blind catfishes. They have the ability to inflict painful stings with poison embedded in fins.

One of the largest species is the blue catfish, "Ictalurus furcatus", specimens of which have been found to weigh over 50 kg (110 lb). The maximum length is 1.6 m in the blue catfish and the flathead catfish. The bullheads, on the other hand, are small catfish which at maturity often weigh less than half a kilogram (1 lb), while the madtoms (genus "Noturus") are in general much smaller.

Relationship to humans

The North American catfish has acquired an association with American Southern folklore which exceeds its place as a mere food fish. The image of cane pole fishing for catfish at a proverbial lazy stream has become a stand-by of southern Americana. Even today the catfish fishing culture features use of arcane "stink baits" and elaborate night-fishing techniques, giving catfish fishing a uniqueness in approach and emphasis as contrasted with the technology-oriented realms of fishing such as bass fishing.

In some areas, the bullhead is seen as a desirable fishing quarry, for its fighting qualities exceed its size. In other areas, it is seen as a nuisance fish due to its efficient bait-stealing qualities.

References

External links

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